Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 June 2021 | 13(7): 18827–18845

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6635.13.7.18827-18845

#6635 | Received 29 August 2020 | Final received 03 January 2021 | Finally accepted 31 May 2021

 

 

Butterfly diversity of Putalibazar Municipality, Syangja District, Gandaki Province, Nepal

 

Kismat Neupane 1  & Mahamad Sayab Miya 2

 

1 Tribhuvan University, Nepal Adarsha Campus, Waling, Syangja, 33801, Nepal.

2 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Hariyo kharka, Pokhara 15, Kaski, 33700, Nepal.

1 neupanekismat7714@gmail.com, 2 sayabmiya13@gmail.com (corresponding author)

 

 

 

Editor: B.A. Daniel, Zoo Outreach Organisation, Coimbatore, India.        Date of publication: 26 June 2021 (online & print)

 

Citation: Neupane, K. & M.S. Miya (2021). Butterfly diversity of Putalibazar Municipality, Syangja District, Gandaki Province, Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa 13(7): 18827–18845. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6635.13.7.18827-18845

 

Copyright: © Neupane & Miya 2021. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: None.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Kismat Neupane is BBS student in Nepal Adarsha Campus and currently exploring butterflies on other parts of Syangja District. Mahamad Sayab Miya is BSc forestry student and currently working as President of Self Help Environment Awareness Camp, Pokhara.

 

Author contributions: KN: conceptualization, research design, field work, data collection, species identification, draft review and revision.  MSM: research design, field work, data collection, species identification, data analysis and interpretation, manuscript drafting, editing, critical review and revisions.

 

Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Bandana Subedi, Sajan K.C., and Shristee Panthee for helping on the identification of butterfly species; Amit Adhikari, Bijaya Dhami, and Sachin Timilsina for helping at different stages of the study.

 

 

 

Abstract: A study was carried out to find the butterfly species diversity and abundance in Putalibazar Municipality, Syangja, Gandaki, Nepal, from June 2019 to July 2020. Pollard walk method was used for data collection in three different habitat types: forest, agricultural land, and settlement area. The study was performed in all seasons: pre-monsoon, monsoon, post monsoon and winter. A total of 180 butterfly species from 108 genera and six families were recorded. The overall Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H) was 4.48. The highest diversity was represented by the Nymphalidae with 67 species (H= 3.79). Butterfly diversity and species abundance was highest in the forest area (147 species, 1199 individuals; H= 4.47). The highest species richness (109 species) was observed in the monsoon season.

 

Keywords: Abundance, dominance, Pollard walk method, richness.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Butterflies play crucial roles in pollination and food chains, and they serve as bio-indicators in terrestrial ecosystems (Tiple 2007) of vegetative structure, habitat quality (Sawchik et al. 2005) and climate change (Permesan et al. 1999). India is home to over 1,500 species of butterfly (Tiple 2011), and Nepal of more than 660 species (Smith 2011). The main sources of butterfly research in different parts of Nepal are Smith (1994, 2006, 2011), Khanal (2006, 2008), Bhusal & Khanal (2008), and Acharya & Vijyan (2015). No previous studies have been carried out on butterflies in the Syangja District, hence this study examined species diversity and abundance in Putalibazar municipality, Gandaki, Nepal.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Study area

The study was carried out in Putalibazar municipality (28.100°N and 83.871°E) from June 2019 to July 2020 covering an area of 146.21km2. It is surrounded by Kaski District and Tanahu District in the east, Adhikhola rural-municipality, Arjun chaupari rural-municipality, and Bhirkot municipality in the west, Kaski District and Phedikhola rural-municipality in the north, and Biruwa rural-municipality and Bhirkot municipality in the south. The study was carried out in an altitude range of 760 to 835 m, in three habitat types; forest, agriculture land and settlement area. The forest is dominated by Schima wallichii and Castonopsis indica. Major agriculture crops planted in the study area are maize, rice, millet, and the settlement is near the forest area and agriculture land. The study area map is shown in Figure 1.

 

Butterfly survey

Pollard walk method was used for the butterfly survey (Pollard 1977). Transects of 300–500 m, two in each habitat type were set up. Butterflies were observed within a 5-m width; 2.5 m to each side of the transect. Butterflies were recorded in all the four seasons: pre-Monsoon (March–May), monsoon (June–September), post-monsoon (October–November), and winter (December–February). Field visits were made twice a month, from 0900 h to 1600 h. Sunny days were preferred to ensure maximum detection of butterflies during the survey. Direct field observations followed by photography were used to record species. Field guides by Smith (2011) and Smith et al. (2016) were used to identify butterflies in the field. Photographs were taken by Smartphone (Samsung Galaxy J7 Nxt and Samsung Galaxy J7 Prime 2). Species that were difficult to identify in the field were later identified through internet references (https://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/), (https://www.projectnoah.org/), and consulting with experts. Butterflies are classified based on (Kehimkar 2016). Local status of the butterfly is determined based on (Tiple et al. 2005) as: very common (>100 sightings), common (50–100 sightings), fairly common (15–50 sightings), rare (2–15 sightings), and very rare (<2 sightings). National status (Nepal) is based on Smith (2011) and Smith et al. (2016).

 

Data analysis

Species richness of butterflies was determined based on the total number of species recorded. Diversity was calculated using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and species evenness was calculated using Shannon equitability:

 

Shannon-Wiener             n

diversity index (H) = – ∑      Pi * lnPi

                                           i=1

                                           H

Shannon equitability (E)= –––––, here, Hmax= ln(S)

                                        Hmax

Where, Pi= Proportion of individuals belonging to the ith species, n= total number of individuals, S= number of species. Data were analyzed with MS excel software.

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

A total of 180 butterfly species under 108 genera and six families were recorded during the survey (Table 1, Images 1–179). The overall Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 4.48. Species richness, abundance, evenness and diversity indices are given in Table 2 and Table 3.

A total of 147 species of butterflies were found in the forest, 100 in agricultural land, and 39 in the settlement area; 25 species were found in all three habitat types, and 77 species were found only in the forest. Species composition in different habitat types is shown in Table 1 and Figure 2. Of the six recorded butterfly families, Nymphalidae represented the maximum species richness with 67 species, followed by Lycaenidae (42 species), Hesperiidae (26 species), Pieridae (23 species), Papilionidae (16 species), and Riodinidae (6 species). The family-wise composition of butterfly species and genera is given in (Figure 3). The highest species richness was observed in monsoon season comprising 109 species, followed by pre-monsoon (76 species), post-monsoon (63 species), and winter (22 species). Season-wise species richness is mentioned in Figure 4.

The diversity of butterfly species is higher (H= 4.48) in this small study area. Among 660 species of butterflies in Nepal (Smith 2011), butterfly species recorded in the study area which is about 27% of the total butterfly species in Nepal. Among the recorded species during the survey, a total of 13 species (7%) (Tree Yellow Gandaca harina, Blue Imperial Ticherra acte, Chocolate Royal Remelena jangala, Green Oakblue Arhopala eumolphus, Indian Purple Sapphire Heliophorus indicus, Tailed Judy Abisara neophron, Autumn Leaf Doleschallia bisaltide, Blackvein Sergeant Athyma ranga, Danaid Eggfly Hypolimnas misippus, Gaudy Baron Euthalia lubentina, Leopard Lacewing Cethosia cyane, Common Awl Hasora badra, and Pygmy Scrub Hopper Aeromachus pygmaeus are rare for Nepal (Smith 2011; Smith et al. 2016). Also, 62 species (34 %) are common, 57 species (32 %) are very common, 33 species (18 %) are fairly common, three species (3 %) are locally common for Nepal, and 12 species (6 %) are not evaluated (Smith 2011; Smith et al. 2016) (Table 1; Figure 5). On behalf of the local status of recorded butterflies, 12 species (7 %) were found to be very rare, followed by rare 96 species (53 %), fairly common 65 species (36 %), common 3 species (2 %), and very common four species (2 %) in the study area (Table 1; Figure 6).

Nymphalidae represented the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H= 3.79, 67 species) which means high species diversity, followed by Hesperiidae (H= 2.93), Lycaenidae (H= 2.77), Papilionidae (H= 2.48), Pieridae (H= 2.37), and Riodinidae (H= 1.32). The highest species abundance was shown by Pieridae (587 individulals), followed by Satyridae (466 individuals), Nymphalidae (911 individuals), Lycaenidae (405 individuals), Papilionidae (237 individuals), Hesperiidae (157 individuals), and Riodinidae (25 individuals). Single individuals of  Common Birdwing Troides Helena, Himalayan Spot Puffin Appias lalage lalage, Blue Emperial Ticherra acte, Chocolate Royal Remelena jangala, Common Acacia Blue Surendra quercetrum, Autumn Leaf Doleschallia bisaltide, Danaid Eggfly Hypolimnas misippus, Chocolate Demon Ancistroides nigrita, Common Red-eye Matapa aria, Himalayan Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus munda, Sikkim Palm Red-eye Erionota torus, and Tawny Rajah Charaxes bernardus were recorded in forest habitat.

The Shannon-Wiener diversity index for forest was 4.47, which represented the high species diversity, may be due to high plant diversity (Bair & Launar 1997; Paddhye et al. 2006). The highest species richness was observed in monsoon season, which might be due to high rainfall and humidity that results in high plant diversity (Bhusal & Khanal 2008; Acharya & Vijayan 2015).

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

The present study provided a species diversity assessment of butterflies in the study area. Regular monitoring and study would be needed to update the butterfly species checklist in this area. No butterfly conservation activities were performed in the study area. Hence, effective conservation policies and activities should be employed by local government to preserve this high butterfly diversity.

 

 

Table 1. List of butterflies recorded from Putalibazar Municipality, Syangja.

 

 

Scientific names

Common names

Habitat types

Local status

Status

(Nepal)

Papilionidae (16) 

1.

Graphium agamemnon Linnaeus, 1758

Tailed Jay

A & S

R

C

2.

Graphium cloanthus (Westwood, 1841)

Glassy Bluebottle

F

R

FC

3.

Graphium doson Felder & Felder, 1864

Common Jay

A & F

FC

FC

4.

Graphium sarpedon (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Bluebottle

A & S

FC

C

5.

Papilio arcturus (Westwood, 1842)

Blue Peacock

A & S

R

C

6.

Papilio bianor Cramer, 1777

Common Peacock

F & S

R

C

7.

Papilio clytia dissimilis Linnaeus, 1758

Common Mime

F

R

FC

8.

Papilio demoleus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Lime Swallowtail

A, F & S

FC

VC

9.

Papilio helenus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Red Helen

F

R

C

10.

Papilio machaon (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Yellow Swallowtail

A

R

C

11.

Papilio memnon Linnaeus, 1758

Great Mormon

A & F

FC

C

12.

Papilio nephelus Boisduval, 1836

Yellow Helen

F

R

FC

13.

Papilio paris Linnaeus, 1758

Paris Peacock

A & F

FC

C

14.

Papilio polytes Linnaeus, 1758

Common Mormon

A, F & S

FC

VC

15.

Papilio protenor Cramer, 1775

Spangle

A & F

FC

C

16.

Triodes aeacus (Felder & Felder, 1860)

Common Birdwing

F

R

NE

Pieridae (23)

17.

Appias lalage lalage (Doubleday, 1842)

Himalayan Spot Puffin

F

VR

NE

18.

Appias lyncida (Cramer, 1779)

Chocolate Albatross

A & S

FC

FC

19.

Catopsilia pomona crocale Fabricius, 1775

Common Emigrant

A, F & S

FC

VC

20.

Catopsilia pomona pomona (Fabricius, 1775)

Lemon Emigrant

A, F & S

FC

VC

21.

Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus, 1758

Mottled Emigrant

A & F

FC

VC

22.

Cepora nadina (Lucas, 1852)

Lesser Gull

A & F

R

FC

23.

Cepora nerissa Fabricius, 1775

Common Gull

A & F

FC

C

24.

Colias fieldii (Menetries, 1855)

Dark Clouded Yellow

A & S

R

C

25.

Delias acalis (Godart, 1819)

Red-breast Jezebel

A & F

R

FC

26.

Delias descombesi (Boisduval, 1836)

Red-spot Jezebel

F

R

LC

27.

Delias eucharis (Drury, 1773)

Common Jezebel

F & S

R

FC

28.

Delias hyparete (Linnaeus, 1758)

Painted Jezebel

A & S

R

VC

29.

Delias posithoe (Linnaeus, 1767)

Red-base Jezebel

A & F

R

VC

30.

Eurema blanda (Boisduval, 1836)

Three-spot Grass Yellow

A, F & S

C

VC

31.

Eurema brigitta (Stoll, 1780)

Small Grass Yellow

A, F & S

C

C

32.

Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Grass Yellow

A, F & S

VC

VC

33.

Eurema laeta (Boisduval, 1836)

Spotless Grass Yellow

A & S

FC

C

34.

Gandaca harina (Horsfield, 1829)

Tree Yellow

F

R

R

35.

Genopteryx rhamni (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Brimstone

F

R

C

36.

Hebomoia glaucippe (Linnaeus, 1758)

Great Orange Tip

A & F

FC

FC

37.

Ixias pyrene (Linnaeus, 1764)

Yellow Orange Tip

A & F

FC

C

38.

Pieris canidia (Linnaeus,1768)

Indian Cabbage White

A, F & S

VC

VC

39.

Pontia daplidice (Linnaeus, 1758)

Bath White

A & F

FC

C

Lycaenidae (42)

40.

Acytolepis puspa (Horsfield, 1828)

Common Hedge Blue

A

R

VC

41.

Arhopala centaurus (Fabricius, 1775)

Centaur Oakblue

F

FC

VC

42.

Arhopala eumolphus Cramer, 1780

Green Oakblue

F

R

R

43.

Arhopala oenea (Hewitson, 1869)

Hewitson’s Dull Oakblue

F

R

FC

44.

Arhopala paramuta (D. Niceville, 1884)

Hooked Oakblue

F

R

VC

45.

Castalius rosimon Fabricius, 1775

Common Pierrot

A & F

FC

VC

46.

Catapaecilma major (Druce, 1895)

Common Tinsel

F

R

FC

47.

Catochrysops strabo (Fabricius, 1793)

Forget-me-not Blue

A

FC

VC

48.

Celastrina lavenduralis (Moore, 1877)

Plain Hedge Blue

A

R

NE

49.

Chliaria othona (Hewitson, 1865)

Orchid Tit

F

R

C

50.

Curetis acuta Moore, 1877

Angled Sunbeam

F

R

NE

51.

Curetis bulis (Westwood, 1851)

Bright Sunbeam

F

R

C

52.

Euchrysops cnejus (Fabricius, 1798)

Gram Blue

A

FC

C

53.

Everes lacturnus (Godart, 1824)

Indian Cupid

A & F

FC

VC

54.

Heliophorus epicles (Godart, 1824)

Purple Sapphire

A & F

FC

VC

55.

Heliophorus indicus (Fruhstorfer, 1908)

Indian Purple Sapphire

F

R

R

56.

Heliophorus sena (Kollar, 1844)

Sorrel Sapphire

F

R

LC

57.

Iraota timoleon (Stoll, 1790)

Silverstreak Blue

F

R

FC

58.

Jamides bochus (Stoll, 1782)

Dark Cerulean

A

R

C

59.

Jamides celeno (Cramer, 1775)

Common Cerulean

A, F & S

FC

VC

60.

Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus, 1767)

Pea Blue

A & S

FC

VC

61.

Lestranicus transpectus (Moore, 1879)

White-banded Hedge Blue

A

R

C

62.

Loxura atymnus Stoll, 1780

Yamfly

A

R

FC

63.

Megisba malaya (Horsfield, 1828)

Malayan

A

R

FC

64.

Poritia hewitsoni (Moore, 1866)

Common Gem

F

R

NE

65.

Prosotas dubiosa (Semper, 1879)

Tailless Line Blue

F

R

C

66.

Prosotas nora (Felder, 1860)

Common Line blue

F

FC

VC

67.

Pseudozizeeria maha (Kollar, 1844)

Pale Grass Blue

A, F & S

VC

VC

68.

Rapala manea (Hewitson, 1863)

Slate Flash

F

R

VC

69.

Rapala nissa (Kollar, 1844)

Common Flash

F

FC

VC

70.

Rapala pheretima (Hewitson, 1863)

Copper Flash

F

R

C

71.

Rapala rectivitta (Moore, 1879)

Shot Flash

F

R

FC

72.

Remelena jangala (Horsfield, 1829)

Chocolate Royal

F

VR

R

73.

Spindasis lohita (Horsfield, 1829)

Long-banded Silverline

F

R

C

74.

Spindasis syama Horsfield, 1829

Club Silverlines

F

R

C

75.

Surendra quercetorum (Moore, 1858)

Common Acacia Blue

F

VR

C

76.

Taraka hamada (Druce, 1875)

Forest Pierrot

F

R

NE

77.

Ticherra acte (Moore, 1858)

Blue Imperial

F

VR

R

78.

Udara dilectus (Moore, 1879)

Pale Hedge Blue

A & F

FC

VC

79.

Zeltus amasa (Hewitson, 1865)

Fluffy Tit

F

R

FC

80.

Zizeeria karsandra (Moore, 1865)

Dark Grass Blue

A & F

FC

NE

81.

Zizina otis (Fabricius, 1787)

Lesser Grass Blue

A & F

FC

C

Riodinidae (6)

82.

Abisara bifasciata Moore, 1877

Plum Judy

F

R

FC

83.

Abisara fylla (Westwood, 1851)

Dark Judy

A

R

VC

84.

Abisara neophron (Hewitson, 1861)

Tailed Judy

F

R

R

85.

Dodona egeon (Westwood, 1851)

Orange Punch

F

R

C

86.

Dodona eugenes Bates, 1868

Tailed Punch

F

R

C

87.

Zemeros flegyas Cramer, 1780

Punchinello

A & F

FC

VC

Nymphalidae (67)

88.

Abrota ganga Moore, 1858

Sergeant Major

F

R

FC

89.

Acraea terpsicore Linnaeus, 1758

Tawny Coster

F

R

FC

90.

Aglais cashmirensis (Kollar, 1844)

Indian Tortoiseshell

A, F & S

FC

VC

91.

Argynnis childreni (Gray, 1831)

Large Silverstripe

F

R

C

92.

Argynnis hyperbius (Linnaeus, 1763)

Indian Fritillary

A

R

VC

93.

Athyma nefte Cramer, 1780

Color Sergeant

F

R

C

94.

Athyma perius Linnaeus, 1758

Common Sergeant

A & F

FC

VC

95.

Athyma ranga Moore, 1858

Blackvein Sergeant

F

R

R

96.

Athyma selenophora (Kollar, 1844)

Staff Sergeant

A & F

FC

C

97.

Cethosia biblis (Drury, 1773)

Red Lacewing

F

R

FC

98.

Cethosia cyane (Drury, 1773)

Leopard Lacewing

F

R

R

99.

Charaxes bernardus (Fabricius, 1793)

Tawny Rajah

F

VR

LC

100.

Chersonesia risa (Doubleday, 1848)

Common Maplet

A & F

FC

FC

101.

Cupha erymanthis Drury, 1773

Rustic

F

R

C

102.

Cyrestis thyodamas Boisduval, 1836

Common Map

A & F

FC

VC

103.

Danaus chrysippus Linnaeus, 1758

Plain Tiger

A, F & S

FC

VC

104.

Danaus genutia (Cramer, 1779)

Common Tiger

A, F & S

FC

VC

105.

Discophora sondaica Boisduval, 1836

Common Duffer

F

R

FC

106.

Doleschallia bisaltide Cramer, 1777

Autumn Leaf

F

VR

R

107.

Elymnias malelas (Hewitson, 1863)

Spotted Palmfly

A, F & S

R

C

108.

Euploea core (Cramer, 1780)

Common Indian Crow

A, F & S

FC

VC

109.

Euploea mulciber (Cramer, 1777)

Striped Blue Crow

A & F

FC

VC

110.

Euthalia aconthea (Cramer, 1777)

Common Baron

A & F

FC

C

111.

Euthalia lubentina (Cramer, 1777)

Gaudy Baron

F

R

R

112.

Hestinalis nama (Doubleday, 1844)

Circe

A & F

R

C

113.

Hypolimnas bolina Linnaeus, 1758

Great Eggfly

A & F

R

C

114.

Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus, 1764)

Danaid Eggfly

F

VR

R

115.

Junonia almana Linnaeus, 1758

Peacock Pansy

A & S

FC

VC

116.

Junonia altites (Linnaeus, 1763)

Grey Pansy

A, F & S

FC

C

117.

Junonia iphita (Cramer, 1779) 

Chocolate Pansy

A & F

FC

VC

118.

Junonia lemonias Linnaeus, 1758

Lemon Pansy

A, F & S

FC

VC

119.

Junonia orithya (Linnaeus, 1758)

Blue Pansy

A & F

R

VC

120.

Kallima inachus (Doyere, 1840)

Orange Oakleaf

F

FC

C

121.

Kaniska canace (Linnaeus, 1763)

Blue Admiral

F

R

C

122.

Lethe europa Fabricius, 1787

Bamboo Treebrown

A & F

FC

C

123.

Lethe confusa Aurivillius, 1897

Banded Treebrown

A & F

FC

VC

124.

Lethe mekera (Moore, 1858)

Common Red Forester

F

FC

NE

125.

Melanitis leda (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Evening Brown

A, F & S

FC

VC

126.

Melanitis phedima (Cramer, 1780)

Dark Evening Brown

A, F & S

FC

C

127.

Mycalesis francisca Stoll, 1780

Lilacine Bushbrown

F

FC

C

128.

Mycalesis malsara (Moore, 1858)

White-line Bushbrown

A & F

R

C

129.

Mycalesis perseus Fabricius, 1775

Common Bushbrown

A, F & S

FC

VC

130.

Mycalesis visala Moore, 1858

Long-brand Bushbrown

A & F

FC

C

131.

Nemetis chandica Moore, 1858

Angled Red Forester

F

FC

FC

132.

Neptis cartica Moore, 1872

Plain Sailer

F

R

C

133.

Neptis hylas Linnaeus, 1758

Common Sailer

A, F & S

FC

VC

134.

Neptis soma Moore, 1858

Creamy Sailer

F

R

C

135.

Orsotriaena medus (Fabricius, 1775)

Jungle Brown

A & F

FC

VC

136.

Pantoporia hordonia (Stoll, 1790)

Common Lascar

A & F

FC

VC

137.

Parantica aglea (Stoll, 1782)

Glassy Tiger

A, F & S

FC

VC

138.

Phalanta phalanta Drury, 1773

Common Leopard

A & S

R

C

139.

Polyura athamas Drury, 1773

Common Nawab

F

R

VC

140.

Sephisa Chandra (Moore, 1858)

Eastern Courtier

F

R

FC

141.

Stibochiona nicea (Gray, 1846)

Popinjay

F

R

FC

142.

Symbrenthia hypselis (Godart, 1824)

Spotted Jester

A

R

C

143.

Symbrenthia lilaea (Hewitson, 1864)

Common Jester

A & F

FC

VC

144.

Symbrenthia niphanda Moore, 1872

Blue-tail Jester

F

R

FC

145.

Tanaecia julii Lesson, 1837

Common Earl

F

FC

C

146.

Tanaecia lepidea (Butler, 1868)

Grey Count

A & F

FC

VC

147.

Tirumala limniace (Cramer, 1775)

Blue Glassy Tiger

A & F

R

C

148.

Tirumala septentrionis (Butler, 1874)

Dark Blue Tiger

A

R

C

149.

Vagrans egista (Cramer, 1780) 

Vagrant

F

R

C

150.

Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus, 1758)

Painted Lady

A

R

VC

151.

Vanessa indica (Herbst, 1794)

Indian Red Admiral

A, F & S

FC

VC

152.

Ypthima baldus Fabricius, 1775

Common Five-ring

A, F & S

VC

VC

153.

Ypthima huebneri Kirby, 1871

Common Four-ring

A, F & S

C

VC

154.

Ypthima newara Moore, 1875

Newari Three-ring

A & F

FC

C

Hesperiidae (26)

155.

Aeromachus pygmaeus (Fabricius, 1775)

Pygmy Scrub Hopper

F

R

R

156.

Ancistroides nigrita (Latreille, 1824)

Chocolate Demon

A

VR

NE

157.

Borbo bevani (Moore, 1878)

Bevan’s Swift

A & S

R

VC

158.

Borbo cinnara (Wallace, 1866)

Rice Swift

A

R

C

159.

Burara harisa (Moore, 1866)

Orange Awlet

S

R

NE

160.

Burara jaina (Moore, 1866)

Orange Awl

F & S

R

NE

161.

Caltoris tulsi D. Niceville, 1884

Purple Swift

F

R

FC

162.

Celaenorrhinus munda (Moore, 1884)

Himalayan Spotted Flat

F

VR

FC

163.

Erionota torus Evans, 1941

Sikkim Palm Red-eye

F

VR

FC

164.

Halpe homolea (Hewitson, 1868)

Common Ace

F

R

FC

165.

Hasora badra (Moore, 1858)

Common Awl

F

R

R

166.

Iambrix salsala (Moore, 1866)

Chestnut Bob

A & F

R

C

167.

Matapa aria (Moore, 1865)

Common Red-eye

A

VR

FC

168.

Notocrypta curvifascia (C. & R. Felder, 1862)

Restricted Demon

A & F

R

VC

169.

Parnara guttata (Bremer & Grey, 1852)

Straight Swift

A & F

R