Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 18 May 2020 | 12(7): 15711–15766

 

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5758.12.7.15711-15766

#5758 | Received 06 February 2020 | Final received 18 April 2020 | Finally accepted 29 April 2020

 

 

 

Spider (Arachnida: Araneae) fauna of the scrub jungle in the Madras Christian College campus, Chennai, India

 

John T.D. Caleb

 

Department of Zoology, Madras Christian College (affiliated to the University of Madras), Tambaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600059, India.

caleb87woodgate@gmail.com

 

 

Abstract: A total of 108 species of spider species belonging to 84 genera and 25 families were identified from the scrub jungle of the Madras Christian College campus.  Pagida salticiformis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1883) is recorded for the first time from India.  Langona tigrina (Simon, 1885) is rediscovered 135 years since its first description and the unknown male is described and illustrated.  A new combination, Langona davidi (Caleb, Mungkung & Mathai, 2015) comb. nov. is proposed for the species previously placed in Phlegra.  Three new synonymys have been recognized: Clubiona foliata Keswani & Vankhede, 2014 and Clubiona pashabhaii Patel & Patel, 1973 are junior synonyms of Clubiona filicata O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1874 and Myrmarachne megachelae Kumar & Mohanasundaram, 1998 is a junior synonym of Myrmaplata plataleoides (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869).  Distribution records of several species have been updated and as many as 31 species are recorded for the first time from Tamil Nadu State.  The family Salticidae is the most diverse with 28 species belonging to 22 genera followed by Araneidae with 19 species in 11 genera.  Guild structure analysis revealed seven feeding guilds of which, stalkers and orb-web weavers are the dominant feeding guilds followed by ground runners, ambushers, and scattered line weavers, respectively.

 

Keywords: Diversity, guild structure, new combination, new record, new synonym, taxonomy, tropical dry evergreen forest.

 

Abbreviations: AER—anterior eye row length; ALE—anterior lateral eye; AME—anterior median eye; EFL—eye field length; MCC—Madras Christian College, Tambaram, Chennai; NCBS—National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bengaluru; NHMW—Natural History Museum, Vienna (curator Christoph Hörweg); PER—posterior eye row length; PLE—posterior lateral eye; PME—posterior median eye; RTA—retrolateral tibial apophysis; SRC-ZSI—Southern Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Chennai; VTA—ventral tibial apophysis; WILD—Wildlife Information Liaison Development, Coimbatore.

 

 

 

Editor: Anonymity requested.   Date of publication: 18 May 2020 (online & print)

 

Citation: Caleb, J.T.D. (2020). Spider (Arachnida: Araneae) fauna of the scrub jungle in the Madras Christian College campus, Chennai, India.  Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(7): 15711–15766. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5758.12.7.15711-15766

 

Copyright: © Caleb 2020. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Self funded.

 

Competing interests: The author declares no competing interests.

 

Author details: Dr. John T.D. Caleb is an arachnologist whose research mainly focuses on the spider diversity, taxonomy and DNA barcoding.  He has described 35 new spider species across India and has about 50 research papers on an extensive range of taxonomic research on Indian spiders.  His passion towards the systematics and biogeography of salticids got him the “Herbert Levi Fund for Arachnological Research” (HLMFAR) in 2017 by the American Arachnological Society (AAS) for studying the Salticids of India.  He is presently working as a Research Associate in the Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata.

 

Acknowledgements: I would like to express my thanks to Dr. Manu Thomas Mathai, Associate Professor and Head, Dept. of Zoology, MCC, for his encouragement and support during the work.  Thanks to Dr. R.W. Alexander Jesudasan, Principal, MCC, for providing facilities to carry out the research work which is a part of my Ph.D. Thesis.  Dr. Narasimhan, Associate Professor, Dept. of Plant Biology & Plant Biotechnology, MCC, is thanked for his encouragement, and imparting his knowledge on plant diversity in the Madras Christian College campus.  I express my sincere and profound gratitude to Prof. Dr. Jerzy Prószyński (Poland) for his meticulous guidance, encouragement and invaluable inputs regarding salticid taxonomy.  His database, “Global species database of Salticidae” served as an excellent platform for quick learning and easy comparison.  I express my gratitude to Late Dr. Ganesh Vankhede, and his students Drs. Atul Bodkhe, Seema Keswani, Rajoria, Priyanka Hadole of the Indian Society of Arachnology, Amravati, for their hospitality during my visit and allowing me to use the facilities at the Arachnology Museum and access their literature collection.  My sincere gratitude goes to Dr. Krushnamegh Kunte, National Center for Biological Sciences, Bengaluru, for the microscope facility and helping in depositing some of the type specimens.  Thanks to Dr. B.A. Daniel, WILD/Zoo outreach organization for his words of inspiration and kind hospitality during my visit to their organization.  I also record my thanks to Late Dr. Gajbe U.A., Ex-Scientist, ZSI for his generous advice on taxonomic identification.  Many thanks to M. Freudenshuss, for providing photographs of the type specimen of S. lesserti and to Christoph Hörweg (Austria) for sharing details of the specimen deposited in NHMW, Vienna, Austria.  Thanks to Drs. Robert Raven and Manju Siliwal for their support in identifying myaglomorphs and sharing literature.  I would like to thank Drs. Peter Jäger, Christa L. Deeleman-Reinhold, Barbara Baehr, Tamas Szüts, Wanda Wesołowska, Rudy Jocque, Dinendra Raychaudhuri, Souvik Sen, Samson Davis, Matthew M.J., Sunil Jose, Karthikeyani R., and Sanjay Molur for sharing rare literature.  Thanks to Kannadasan Narasimmarajan for discussion on vegetation structure and sharing relevant literature. I am much obliged to Job Daniel J.R. for his kind assisting during field collection.  I thank Zeeshan Mirza for preparing the map and Amos Shem Samuel for his kind help in proofreading the manuscript.  My heartfelt gratitude go to my parents, brother, wife and daughter for their constant support (both moral and financial) and encouragement during the course of this work.  I am grateful to the anonymous reviewes for their comments which greatly improved the manuscript.

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

With over 48,000 described species (World Spider Catalog 2020) and over 1,20,000 expected species (Agnarsson et al. 2013) spiders are one of the most diverse invertebrates that can be found in almost all terrestrial habitats except Antartica (Turnbull 1973).  Their diversity in India is represented by 1,830 species in 470 genera and 60 families (Caleb & Sankaran 2020; World Spider Catalog 2020).

The spider fauna of the tropical dry evergreen forests (TDEF) from Chennai and its surrounding regions is known only by a few early works of Pocock (1900, 1901), Sherriffs (1919, 1927), Gravely (1921–1935), and Phanuel (1963).  There was, however, a great lapse thereon for about more than half a century until further studies took place.  Recent studies added considerably to the knowledge of the group with numerous new discoveries including the description of new species, new records and rediscovery of species (Caleb & Mathai 2013, 2014a,b, 2015, 2016a; Caleb et al. 2015, 2020), indicating that there is more to explore from these regions.  The present work aims to provide an overview of spider diversity known from the scrub jungle enclosed within the Madras Christian College campus, Tambaram, India.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Study area

Spider specimens were collected from within the Madras Christian College (MCC) campus from 2010 to 2015.  MCC is one of Asia’s oldest educational institutions in Chennai established in 1837. It is presently situated on a 365acre (1.48km2) campus, at Tambaram (12.923–12.920 °N & 80.120–80.123 °E), on the southwestern extremity of Chennai City (Images 1A–B).  The campus has various habitat structures including open grasslands, thick forest patches, scrub jungle patches, and water bodies (Images 2A–H).  It has a rich, diverse and ever-changing scrub, because of the broad, dense corridor in the south leading to the Vandalur Reserve Forest.  The vegetation type is a true scrub jungle (sub-type 7/DS1) ‘tropical dry evergreen scrub’ which is a remnant of the tropical dry evergreen forest along the Coromandel Coast (Champion & Seth 1968) with dissymmetric climate (Meher-Homji 1974, 2007).  The campus has a remarkable species diversity of both flora and fauna (Sanjeeva Raj 2011).  Flora of over 400 species of plants from 95 families both native and exotic has been recorded.  They occur as discontinuous or dense scrub-woodlands and thickets (Lal & Livingstone 1978; Amirthalingam 2005).

 

Collection, preservation, and identification

Live specimens were photographed in the field and then collected.  They were then taken to the lab and photographed using a Nikon D60 DSLR 18–55 mm, for macro capability the regular lens was removed, reversed and mounted on the body with the help of a ring attachment.  Collected specimens were preserved in 70% alcohol.  Specimens were later examined in detail using a NIKON SMZ1000 stereoscopic microscope.  Male palps were detached, examined and kept in a separate vial along with the original specimen and female genitalia were excised using fine surgical scalpel.  The epigyne was then cleared in 10% KOH aqueous solution. Leg measurements are given as total length (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus).  All measurements are in millimetres (mm).

Identification was made by the help of taxonomic keys and diagnostic illustrations provided by Pocock (1900, 1901), Gravely (1921a,b, 1924, 1931), Tikader (1980a,b, 1982), Tikader & Malhotra (1980), Tikader & Biswas (1981), Sethi & Tikader (1988), Proszynski (1992, 2016) and other relevant literatures.  The specimens studied are deposited at the Department of Zoology, Madras Christian College, Tambaram, Chennai, Wildlife Information Liaison Development, Coimbatore, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bengaluru, and Southern Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Chennai.  The terminology follows the World Spider Catalog (2020).  Taxonomic references pertaining only to Indian records have been mentioned for each species.  For detailed taxonomic records refer the World Spider Catalog (2020).

 

 

SURVEY OF SPECIES

 

Family Araneidae Clerck

Genus Anepsion Strand

Anepsion maritatum O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1877 (Image 24A)

Cyrtarachne keralensis Jose, 2011: 322, figs. 1a–g.

Anepsion maritatum Malamel et al., 2015: 478, figs. 1A–O, 2A-I.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA430, 1 male, 08.ii.2013; MCC-ARA478, 1 female, 21.ii.2013; MCC-ARA764, 1 female, 06.i.2014, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Japan, and China to Indonesia (Sulawesi).

Distribution in India: Kerala and Tamil Nadu (new record).

 

Genus Araneus Clerck

Araneus bilunifer Pocock, 1900 (Image 24B)

Araneus bilunifer Pocock, 1900: 227, fig. 74.

Araneus bilunifer Patel, 1975: 162, figs. 3a–c.

Araneus bilunifer Tikader & Bal, 1981: 43, figs. 91–94.

Araneus bilunifer Tikader, 1982: 221, figs. 428–431.

Specimens examined: None (known only from previous descriptions and photographic records).

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.

 

Araneus viridisomus Gravely, 1921 (Images 3A,B, 24C)

Araneus viridisoma Gravely, 1921a: 415, fig. 3c.

Araneus viridisomus Caleb & Mathai, 2014b: 3, figs. 1–9.

Araneus viridisomus Patil & Uniyal, 2016: 172, figs. –111

Specimen examined: NCBS-QA456, 1 female, 13.iii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.; NCBS-QA457, 1 female, 03.xii.2013, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Odisha, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Argiope Audouin

Argiope aemula (Walckenaer, 1841) (Image 24D)

Argiope aemula Tikader, 1970: 29.

Argiope aemula Gajbe, 2007: 512. figs. 269–272.

Argiope aemula Sen et al., 2015: 111, figs. 642–646, pl. 21.

Argiope aemula Roy, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 8, figs. 18–22, 169.
  Specimens examined: MCC-ARA101, 1 female, 06.iii.2012; MCC-ARA44, 1 female, 09.i.2011; MCC-ARA329, 1 female, 23.xi.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India to Philippines, Indonesia (Sulawesi), and Vanuatu.

Distribution in India: Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

 

Argiope anasuja Thorell, 1887 (Image 24E)

Argiope anasuja Gravely, 1921a: 412, fig. 3a.

Argiope anasuja Tikader, 1982: 127, figs. 239–242.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA130, 1 female, 26.iii.2012; MCC-ARA304, 1 female, 08.xi.2012; MCC-ARA727, 1 female, 14.xii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Seychelles, Maldives, Iran, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, and Australia (Cocos Is.).

Distribution in India: Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

 

Argiope pulchella Thorell, 1881 (Images 24F, 32A)

Argiope pulchella Gravely, 1921a: 412, fig. 3b.

Argiope pulchella Tikader, 1970: 27, fig. 17a.

Argiope pulchella Sen et al., 2015: 110, figs. 637–641, pl. 21.

Argiope pulchella Roy, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 8, figs. 23–27, 170.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA88, 1 female, 14.ii.2012; MCC-ARA265, 1 female, 26.x.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India to China and Indonesia.

Distribution in India: Andaman Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Kerala, Lakshadweep Islands, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

 

Genus Cyclosa Menge

Cyclosa confraga (Thorell, 1892) (Image 24G)

Cyclosa confraga Tikader, 1982: 193, figs. 372–376.

Cyclosa confraga Gajbe, 2007: 519, figs. 287–291.

Cyclosa confraga Keswani, 2013: 64, figs. 2A–F.

Cyclosa confraga Sen et al., 2015: 116, figs. 709–714, pl. 22.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA273, 1 female, 02.xi.2012; MCC-ARA535–ARA536 1 female & 1 male, 25.iii.2013; MCC-ARA766, 1 male, 06.i.2014, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Bangladesh to Malaysia.

Distribution in India: Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Assam, Sikkim, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu (new record).

 

Cyclosa hexatuberculata Tikader, 1982 (Images 24H, 32B)

Cyclosa hexatuberculata Tikader, 1982: 197, figs. 382–387.

Cyclosa hexatuberculata Sen et al., 2015: 115, figs. 688–694, pl. 22.

Cyclosa hexatuberculata Roy, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 20, figs. 102–107, 186.

Cyclosa hexatuberculata Dixit & Ade, 2017: 948, pl. 3A–I, 7A–I.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA102, 1 female, 06.iii.2012; MCC-ARA258, 1 female, 18.x.2012; MCC-ARA276, 1 female, 02.xi.2012; MCC-ARA765, 1 female, 06.i.2014, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India and Pakistan

Distribution in India: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu (new record), and West Bengal.

 

Cyclosa neilensis Tikader, 1977 (Image 24I)

Cyclosa neilensis Tikader, 1977: 179, figs. 11A–D.

Cyclosa neilensis Tikader, 1982: 199, figs. 388–393.

Cyclosa neilensis Sen et al., 2015: 115, figs. 681–687, pl. 22.

Cyclosa neilensis Roy, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 20, figs. 108–114, 187.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA272, 1 female, 02.xi.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Andaman Islands, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu (new record), and West Bengal.

 

Genus Cyrtophora Simon

Cyrtophora cicatrosa (Stoliczka, 1869) (Images 24J, 32D)

Epeira cicatrosa Stoliczka, 1869: 242, pl. 20, fig. 5

Araneus cicatrosa Pocock, 1900: 226.

Cyrtophora cicatrosa Tikader, 1982: 179, figs. 341–345.

Cyrtophora cicatrosa Gajbe, 2007: 516, figs. 278–282.

Cyrtophora cicatrosa Sen et al., 2015: 118, figs. 728–736, pl. 23.

Cyrtophora cicatrosa Roy, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 14, figs. 58–62, 178.

Cyrtophora cicatrosa Tyagi et al., 2019: Supplement, figs. S2.8, S3.23–24.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA94, 1 female, 28.ii.2012; MCC-ARA133, 1 female, 26.iii.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D

Global distribution: Pakistan to Australia (Northern Territory)

Distribution in India: Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.

 

Genus Eriovixia Archer

Eriovixia excelsa (Simon, 1889) (Images 3C, 24K, 32E)

Neoscona excelsus Tikader & Bal, 1981: 25, figs. 50–54.

Araneus  excelsus  Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 20, figs. 16– 18.

Neoscona excelsus Tikader, 1982: 261, figs. 520–524.

Eriovixia excelsa Sen et al., 2015: 120, figs. 754–758, pl. 23.

Eriovixia excelsa Roy, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 10, figs. 43–47, 174.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA231, 1 female, 12.x.2012; MCC-ARA260, 1 female, 18.x.2012; MCC-ARA267, 1 male, 26.x.2012; MCC-ARA279, 1 male, 05.xi.2012; MCC-ARA305, 1 male, 08.xi.2012; MCC-ARA797, 1 female, 25.iv.2014, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Pakistan, China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Indonesia

Distribution in India: Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kerala, Bihar, Eastern Himalaya, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

 

Eriovixia laglaizei (Simon, 1877) (Images 24L, M)

Neoscona laglaizei Tikader & Bal, 1981: 27, figs. 55–58.

Neoscona laglaizei Tikader, 1982: 263, figs. 525–528.

Eriovixia laglaizei Sen et al., 2015: 120, figs. 748–753, pl. 23.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA92, 1 female, 24.ii.2012; MCC-ARA425, 1 male, 29.i.2013; MCC-ARA521, 1 male, 21.iii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Bangladesh, China to Philippines, and New Guinea.

Distribution in India: Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Gasteracantha Sundevall

Gasteracantha geminata (Fabricius, 1798) (Images 3D, 24N)

Gasteracantha geminata Pocock, 1900: 233, figs. 79.

Gasteracantha geminata Tikader, 1982: 53, figs. 107–110.

Gasteracantha geminata Sankaran, Jobi & Sebastian, 2015: 147, figs. 1A–F, 2A–F.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA86, 1 female, 14.ii.2012; MCC-ARA107, 1 female, 06.iii.2012; MCC-ARA169, 1 female, 30.vii.2012; MCC-ARA312, 1 female, 14.xi.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India and Sri Lanka.

Distribution in India: Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Larinia Simon

Larinia chloris (Audouin, 1826) (Image 24O)

Larinia chloris Tikader, 1982: 206, figs. 404–407.

Larinia chloris Gajbe, 2007: 521, figs. 296–298.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA269, 1 male, 26.x.2012; MCC-ARA538, 1 female, 25.iii.2013; MCC-ARA793, 1 female, 22.iv.2014, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Northern and eastern Africa to Israel, Turkey, Iran, India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh.

Distribution in India: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu (new record).

 

Genus Neoscona Simon

Neoscona molemensis Tikader & Bal, 1981 (Images 3E–F, 25A)

Neoscona molemensis Tikader & Bal, 1981: 22, figs. 40–44.

Neoscona molemensis Tikader, 1982: 257, figs. 510–514.

Neoscona molemensis Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 627, figs. 396a–e.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA464–ARA465, 2 females, 14.ii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Bangladesh, India to Philippines, and Indonesia

Distribution in India: Goa, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu (new record).

 

Neoscona mukerjei Tikader, 1980 (Image 25B)

Neoscona mukerjei Tikader, 1980b: 247, figs. 1–23.

Neoscona mukerji Gajbe, 2007: 528, figs. 312–316.

Neoscona mukerjei Sen et al., 2015: 125, figs. 805–810, pl. 24.

Neoscona mukharji Ade & Dixit, 2016: 730, figs. 4a–i.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA332, 1 female, 03.xii.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh

Distribution in India: Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Tamil Nadu (new record), and West Bengal.

 

Neoscona vigilans (Blackwall, 1865) (Images 3G–I, 25C)

Araneus rumpfi Pocock, 1900: 228.

Neoscona rumpfi Tikader & Bal, 1981: 18, figs. 31–35.

Neoscona rumpfi Gajbe, 2007: 529, figs. 317–321.

Neoscona rumpfi Sen et al., 2015: 126, figs. 811–816, pl. 24.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA198, 1 female, 10.x.2012; MCC-ARA235, 1 female, 16.x.2012; MCC-ARA290, 1 female, 06.xi.2012; MCC-ARA325–ARA326, 1 female & 1 male, 23.xi.2012; MCC-ARA459, 1 female, 13.ii.2013; MCC-ARA482, 1 female, 21.ii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Africa and Asia (without Russia).

Distribution in India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

 

Genus Parawixia F.O.P. Cambridge

Parawixia dehaani (Doleschall, 1859) (Images 3J–L, 25D, 32F)

Araneus dehaani Pocock, 1900: 225, fig. 72.

Parawixia dehaanii Tikader, 1982: 212, figs. 414–418.

Parawixia dehaani Sen et al., 2015: 119, figs. 743–747, pl. 23.

Parawixia dehaani Roy, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 22, figs. 127–131, 190.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA96, 1 female, 28.ii.2012; MCC-ARA98, 1 female, 29.ii.2012; MCC-ARA129, 1 female, 26.iii.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India to Philippines, Indonesia, and New Guinea. 

Distribution in India: Karnataka, Kerala, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu (new record) and West Bengal.

 

Genus Poltys C.L. Koch

Poltys nagpurensis Tikader, 1982 (Images 3M–Q, 25E)

Poltys nagpurensis Tikader, 1982: 169, figs. 321–325.

Poltys illepidus Keswani, 2015: 8, figs. 1–4.

Poltys illepidus Rajoria, 2015: 6, figs. 1–7.

Poltys nagpurensis Zamani et al., 2019: 4, figs. 1a–f, 2a–g, 3a–h.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA503, 1 female, 06.iii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Iran and India.

Distribution in India: Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (new record).

 

Family Cheiracanthiidae Wagner

Genus Cheiracanthium C.L. Koch

Cheiracanthium sp. (Image 25F)

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA28, 1 female, 20.vii.2010; MCC-ARA108, 1 female, 15.iii.2012; MCC-ARA259, 1 male 18.x.2012; MCC-ARA306–ARA307, 1 female & 1 male, 08.xi.2012; MCC-ARA467, 1 female, 14.ii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Family Clubionidae Wagner

Genus Clubiona Latreille

Clubiona filicata O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1874 (Images 4A–F, 25G)

Clubiona filicata O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1874: 413, pl. 52, fig. 35.

Clubiona filicata Gravely, 1931: 261, fig. 16D.

Clubiona pashabhaii Patel & Patel, 1973: 2, figs. 1a–c. Syn. nov.

Clubiona filicata Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 69, figs. 120–121.

Clubiona filicata Majumder & Tikader, 1991: 23, figs. 30–35.

Clubiona filicata Dankittipakul et al., 2012: 59, figs. 25–31.

Clubiona foliata Keswani & Vankhede, 2014: 36, figs. 1–13. Syn. nov.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA318, 1 female, 15.xi.2012; MCC-ARA537, 1 female, 25.iii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, and China.

Distribution in India: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu (new record), and West Bengal.

Remarks: Clubiona foliata Keswani & Vankhede, 2014 was described based on a holotype female, an allotype male and six paratypes from Vidarbha, Maharashtra, India.  The type material could not be studied; however, the illustrations are of good quality and sufficient for comparison.  The epigyne matches unambiguously with that of C. filicata (cf. figs 1–6 in Keswani & Vankhede (2014) with figs 29–31 in Dankittipakul et al. (2012) and Images 4A–F herein) and no significant differences could be found in the male palp except that it is in an expanded state and has rotated clockwise (cf. figs 12–13 in Keswani & Vankhede (2014) with figs 25–28 in Dankittipakul et al. (2012).

Another species, Clubiona pashabhaii Patel & Patel, 1973 was described based on a holotype female and a paratype female from Vallabh Vidhyanagar, Gujarat.  The original illustrations of the species show the abdominal pattern and characteristic epigynal morphology which match with that of C. filicata (cf. figs 1a,b in Patel & Patel (1973) with figs 29–31 in Dankittipakul et al. (2012) and Images 4D, E herein).

C. filicata was originally described from Bombay (Mumbai) (O.P.-Cambridge, 1874) and was later recorded from other locations from southeastern Asia.  Based on the observations mentioned above and considering their proximity to the type locality of C. filicata, both C. foliata Keswani & Vankhede, 2014 and C. pashabhaii Patel & Patel, 1973 are to be considered junior synonyms of C. filicata.

 

Family Corinnidae Karsch

Genus Aetius O. Pickard-Cambridge

Aetius decollatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 (Images 5A–F, 25H)

Aetius decollatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897: 1077, pl. 52, fig. 1.

Aetius decollatus Reimoser, 1934: 491.

Aetius decollatus Majumder & Tikader, 1991: 161, figs. 338–342.

Aetius decollatus Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001: 336, figs. 496–501.

Aetius decollatus Sudhin et al., 2016: 490, figs. 1–8.
Aetius decollatus Caleb & Mathai, 2016b: 36, figs. 1–20.

Specimens examined: SRC-ZSI I/SP 21, 1 male, 11.x.2012; SRC-ZSI I/SP 22, 1 female, 18.iii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India and Sri Lanka.

Distribution in India: Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

           

Genus Cambalida Simon

Cambalida flavipes (Gravely, 1931) (Images 6A–F, 25I)

Castianeira flavipes Gravely, 1931: 275, figs. 20D–E.

Castianeira flavipes Tikader, 1981: 260, figs. 5–8.

Castianeira flavipes Majumder & Tikader, 1991: 135, figs. 276–281.

Castianeira flavipes Sen et al., 2015: 71, figs. 386–393, pl. 18.

Cambalida flavipes Murthappa et al., 2016: 533.

Cambalida flavipes Dhali, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 53, figs. 201–208, pl. 20.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA39, 1 female, 30.vii.2010; MCC-ARA280, 1 female, 05.xi.2012; MCC-ARA324, 1 female, 23.xi.2012; MCC-ARA424, 1 female, 29.i.2013; MCC-ARA714, 1 female, 03.xii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Karnataka, Odisha, and Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Coenoptychus Simon

Coenoptychus pulcher Simon, 1885 (Images 5G–L, 25J)

Coenoptychus pulcher Simon, 1885a: 37.

Coenoptychus pulcher Gravely, 1931: 276, figs. 20G.

Coenoptychus pulcher Majumder & Tikader, 1991: 145, figs. 306–310.

Coenoptychus pulcher Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001: 329, figs. 486–488.

Coenoptychus pulcher Paul et al., 2018: 165, figs. 1A–D, 2A–H, 3A–F, 4A–C, F–K.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA470, 1 female, 14.ii.2013; MCC-ARA505, 1 female, 11.iii.2013; MCC-ARA606–ARA607, 1 female & 1 male, 18.vii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India and Sri Lanka.

Distribution in India: Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

           

Genus Corinnomma Karsch

Corinnomma severum (Thorell, 1877) (Images 6G–J, 25K)

Castaneira himalayensis Gravely, 1931: 275, fig. 20C.

Corinnomma harmandi Gravely, 1931: 276, fig. 20F.

Castianeira himalayensis Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 72, figs. 127–128.

Castianeira himalayensis Tikader, 1981: 265, figs. 14–16.

Castianeira himalayensis Majumder & Tikader, 1991: 137, figs. 282–286.

Castianeira himalayensis Sen et al., 2015: 71, figs. 394–398, pl. 18.

Castianeira himalayensis Dhali, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 55, figs. 219–223, pl. 20.

Corinnomma severum Sankaran, Caleb & Sebastian, 2019: 334, figs. 2A–C,E.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA685, 1 female, 05.xi.2013; MCC-ARA308, 1 female, 08.xi.2012; MCC-ARA85, 1 female, 02.ii.2012; MCC-ARA113, 1 female, 21.iii.2012; MCC-ARA740, 1 male, 16.xii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India to China, Philippines, and Indonesia (Sumatra, Sulawesi).

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu (new record) and West Bengal.

 

Family Deinopidae C.L. Koch

Genus Asianopis Lin & Li

Asianopis liukensis (Yin, Griswold & Yan, 2002) (Images 25L,M, 32H)

Deinopis scrubjunglei Caleb & Mathai, 2014a: 2, figs. 1–20.

Asianopis liukensis Lin et al., 2020: 74, figs 2B, E, F, I, 4–8, 19, 21A, 22A, G, 23.

Specimen examined: Types of D. scrubjunglei: SRC-ZSI I/SP 19, Holotype male, MCC, 5.xii.2013, coll. John Caleb T.D.; SRC-ZSI I/SP 20, paratype female, 22.iv.2014, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D. and Karthy.

Global distribution: India and China.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

           

Family Eresidae C.L. Koch

Genus Stegodyphus Simon

Stegodyphus sarasinorum Karsch, 1891 (Images 25N, 33A)

Stegodyphus sarasinorum Pocock, 1900: 209, fig. 65.

Stegodyphus sarasinorum Bradoo, 1975: 239, figs. 9, 11.

Stegodyphus sarasinorum Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 15, figs. 5–7.

Stegodyphus sarasinorum Kraus & Kraus, 1989: 204, figs. 21–27, 103, 110, 117, 120, 125, 139–141.

Stegodyphus sarasinorum Gajbe, 2007: 428, figs. 16–19.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA319, 1 female, 15.xi.2012; MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Myanmar.

Distribution in India: Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and northwestern Himalaya.

 

Stegodyphus tibialis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869) (Images 7A–G, 25O)

Stegodyphus socialis Pocock, 1900: 209.

Stegodyphus tibialis Phanuel, 1963: 305, figs. 1–9.

Stegodyphus tibialis Kraus & Kraus, 1989: 226, figs. 199, 208, 218–223.

Stegodyphus tibialis Gunti, Srinivasulu & Devender, 2016: 1, fig. 1.

Stegodyphus tibialis El-Hennawy, 2016: 33, figs. 1–10.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA283, 1 female, 05.xi.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Myanmar, Thailand, and China.

Distribution in India: Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.

 

Family Gnaphosidae Pocock

Genus Poecilochroa Westring

Poecilochroa tridotus Caleb & Mathai, 2013 (Image 26A)

Poecilochroa tridotus Caleb & Mathai, 2013: 2, figs. 1a–f.

Specimens examined: SRC-ZSI I/SP 17, holotype female, MCC, 18.iii.2013, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Zelotes Gistel

Zelotes tambaramensis Caleb & Mathai, 2013 (Images 26B)

Zelotes tambaramensis Caleb & Mathai, 2013: 5, figs. 2a–f.

Specimens examined: SRC-ZSI I/SP 18, holotype female, MCC, 11.iii.2013, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Family Hersiliidae Thorell

Genus Hersilia Audouin

Hersilia savignyi Lucas, 1836 (Images 8A–E, 26C)

Hersilia calcuttensis Stoliczka, 1869: 216, pl. 20, fig. 9.

Hersilia savignyi Simon, 1885a: 19, pl. 10, figs. 18–19.

Hersilia savignyi Pocock, 1900: 241, fig. 82.

Hersilia savignyi Gravely, 1922: 1050, pl. 5, fig. 13.

Hersilia savignyi Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 47, figs. 74–76.

Hersilia savignyi Baehr & Baehr, 1993: 29, figs. 5, 22a–f.

Hersilia savignyi Gajbe, 2007: 434, figs. 26–30.

Hersilia aadi Pravalikha, Srinivasulu & Srinivasulu, 2014: 5554, images 1a–j, 2, 3a–f, figs. 1a–c.

Hersilia savignyi Caleb et al., 2017: 396, figs. 1–3.

Hersilia savignyi Tyagi et al., 2019: Supplement, figs. S2.23, S3.25.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA199, 1 male, 10.x.2012; MCC-ARA277–ARA278, 1 female & 1 male, 02.xi.2012; MCC-ARA659, 1 female, 18.x.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Sri Lanka and India to Philippines.

Distribution in India: Assam, Bihar, Odisha, Kerala, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.

 

Hersilia tibialis Baehr & Baehr, 1993 (Images 8F–H, 26D)

Hersilia pectinata Sinha, 1951b: 123, fig. 2.

Hersilia tibialis Baehr & Baehr, 1993: 51, figs. 7, 34a–f.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA42, 1 female, 30.x.2010; MCC-ARA200, 1 female, 10.x.2012; MCC-ARA274–ARA275, 2 females, 02.xi.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India and Sri Lanka.

Distribution in India: Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

 

Family Idiopidae Simon

Genus Idiops Perty

Idiops constructor (Pocock, 1900) (Images 9A–G, 26E, F)

Acanthodon constructor Pocock, 1900: 163.

Titanidiops constructor Simon, 1903: 890.

Idiops constructor Schwendinger, 1991: 240, figs. 14, 16, 19.

Specimens examined: WILD-13-ARA-1235, 1 male, 13.v.2010, MCC, coll. Sam Thomas; WILD-13-ARA-1234, 1 female, 29.i.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.
      Distribution in India:
Tamil Nadu.

 

Family Liocranidae Simon

Genus Oedignatha Thorell

Oedignatha scrobiculata Thorell, 1881 (Images 10A–F, 26G)

Oedignatha scrobiculata Gravely, 1931: 268, figs. 18C–D.

Castianeira bengalensis Biswas, 1984: 120, figs. 4–6.

Castianeira bengalensis Majumder & Tikader, 1991: 141, figs. 297–301.

Oedignatha scrobiculata Majumder & Tikader, 1991: 116, figs. 240–245.

Oedignatha scrobiculata Sankaran, Caleb & Sebastian, 2019: 338, figs. 5A–E,H.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA517, 1 female, 18.iii.2013; MCC-ARA574, 1 male, 10.vi.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Seychelles, Reunion, India, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, and Taiwan. Introduced to Germany.

Distribution in India: Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

 

Family Lycosidae Sundevall

Genus Draposa Kronestedt

Draposa atropalpis (Gravely, 1924) (Image 26H)

Pardosa atropalpis Gravely, 1924: 610, fig. 5B.

Pardosa atropalpis Tikader & Malhotra, 1980: 325, figs. 153–156.

Draposa atropalpis Kronestedt, 2010: 34, figs. 1–2, 8–9, 12–14, 19–20, 23, 29.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA194, 1 male, 09.x.2012; MCC-ARA690, 1 female, 23.xi.2013; MCC-ARA542–ARA543, 1 male & 1 female, 25.iii.2013; MCC-ARA712–ARA713, 1 male & 1 female, 03.xii.2013; MCC-ARA504, 1 female, 6.iii.2013; MCC-ARA575, 1 female, 10.vi.2013; MCC-ARA588, 1 male, 21.vi.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D & Soreiphy Mungkung.

Global distribution: India and Sri Lanka.

Distribution in India: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.

 

Genus Hippasa Simon

Hippasa greenalliae (Blackwall, 1867) (Images 11A-G, 26I, 33B)

Lycosa greenalliae Blackwall, 1867: 387.

Hippasa greenalliae Simon, 1885a: 31, pl. 10, fig. 6.

Hippasa pantherina Pocock, 1899: 752.

Hippasa pantherina Pocock, 1900: 250.

Hippasa pantherina Gravely, 1924: 594, fig. 1F.

Hippasa greenalliae Tikader & Malhotra, 1980: 277, figs. 72–76.

Hippasa greenalliae Sen et al., 2015: 47, figs. 188–192, pl. 14.

Hippasa greenalliae Dhali, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 69, figs. 317–321, pl. 23.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA132, 1 female, 26.iii.2012; MCC-ARA266, 1 female, 26.x.2012; MCC-ARA463, 1 female, 13.ii.2013; MCC-ARA507, 1 female, 11.iii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.

Distribution in India: Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Gujarat, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

 

Hippasa madraspatana Gravely, 1924 (Images 11H–L, 26J)

Hippasa madraspatana Gravely, 1924: 595, figs. 1J.

Hippasa madraspatana Tikader & Malhotra, 1980: 289, figs. 93–96.

Hippasa madraspatana Sen et al., 2015: 46, figs. 177–182, pl. 14.

Hippasa madraspatana Dhali, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 68, figs. 306–311, pl. 23.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA197, 1 female, 9.x.2012; MCC-ARA366, 1 male, 12.xii.2012; MCC-ARA466, 1 female, 14.ii.2013; MCC-ARA506, 1 female, 11.iii.2013; MCC-ARA610, 1 male, 18.vii.2013; MCC-ARA717, 1 female, 3.xii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D. & Soreiphy Mungkung.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

 

Genus Lycosa Latreille

Lycosa bistriata Gravely, 1924 (Image 26K)

Lycosa bistriata Gravely, 1924: 600.

Lycosa bistriata Sinha, 1951a: 21.

Lycosa bistriata Tikader & Malhotra, 1980: 385, figs. 261–263.

Lycosa bistriata Buchar, 1997: 26, figs. 29.

Lycosa bistriata Gajbe, 2007: 506, figs. 257–259.

Lycosa bistriata Sen et al., 2015: 53, figs. 264–268, pl. 16.

Lycosa bistriata Dhali, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 83, figs. 443–447, pl. 24.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA316, 1 male, 14.xi.2012; MCC-ARA547, 1 female, 25.iii.2013; MCC-ARA720–ARA721, 1 female & 1 male, 5.xii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D. & Soreiphy Mungkung.

Global distribution: India and Bhutan.

Distribution in India: Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.

 

Lycosa indagatrix Walckenaer, 1837 (Image 26L)

Lycosa catula Simon, 1885b: 459, pl. 10, fig. 4.

Lycosa indagatrix Gravely, 1924: 599, figs. 2A, 3A.

Hogna catula Reimoser, 1934: 471, fig. 4.

Lycosa catula Sinha, 1951a: 20, f.

Lycosa indagatrix Tikader & Malhotra, 1980: 411, figs. 306–310.

Lycosa indagatrix Dhali, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 80, figs. 404–409, pl. 24.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA646–ARA647, 2 females, 12.viii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India and Sri Lanka.

Distribution in India: Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Wadicosa Zyuzin

Wadicosa fidelis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872) (Image 26M)

Lycosa fidelis O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872: 319.

Lycosa birmanica Gravely, 1924: 607, fig. 4J.

Pardosa bhatnagari Sadana, 1971: 226, figs. 1–4.

Pardosa birmanica Buchar, 1976: 206, fig. 4H.

Pardosa birmanica Tikader & Malhotra, 1980: 329, figs. 163–167.

Pardosa birmanica Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 52, figs. 82–83.

Pardosa birmanica Gajbe, 2007: 499, figs. 235–239.

Pardosa        birmanica  Sen et al., 2015: 50, figs. 224–228, pl. 15.

Wadicosa fidelis Lu et al., 2016: 137, figs. 9A–H, 10A–D, 11A–D, 12E–F.

Pardosa birmanica Dhali, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 74, figs. 353–357, pl. 25.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA837, 2 females, 27.ix.2014; MCC-ARA858–ARA860, 1 male & 2 females, 4.x.2014, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D. & Soreiphy Mungkung.

Global distribution: Macaronesia, northern Africa, southern Europe, Caucasus, Middle East, central Asia, China, Japan, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Philippines, and Indonesia (Sumatra).

Distribution in India: Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.

 

Wadicosa quadrifera (Gravely, 1924) (Images 12A–G, 26N–O)

Lycosa quadrifera Gravely, 1924: 608, fig. 4K.

Lycosa quadrifer Tikader & Malhotra, 1980: 422, figs. 324–326

Wadicosa quadrifer Kronestedt, 1993: 314, figs. 1–6.

Wadicosa quadrifera Kronestedt, 2017: 296, figs. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 17–18.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA99, 1 female, 29.ii.2012; MCC-ARA202–ARA203, 2 females, 10.x.2012; MCC-ARA201, 1 male, 10.x.2012; MCC-ARA722–ARA723, 1 female & 1 male, 5.xii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D. & Soreiphy Mungkung

Global distribution: India and Sri Lanka.

Distribution in India: Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu.

 

Family Oecobiidae Blackwall

Genus Oecobius Lucas

Oecobius putus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1876 (Image 27A)

Oecobius putus Tikader, 1962: 682, figs. 1a–d.

Oecobius putus Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 12, figs. 1–4.

Oecobius putus Gajbe, 2007: 427, figs. 11–15.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA89, 1 female, 14.ii.2012; MCC-ARA38, 1 female, 30.vii.2010; MCC-ARA431–ARA432, 1 male & 1 female, 8.ii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Egypt, Sudan to Iran, Azerbaijan, and India. Introduced to USA and Mexico.

Distribution in India: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu (new record), and West Bengal.

 

Family Oxyopidae Thorell

Genus Hamataliwa Keyserling

Hamataliwa sp. 1 (Images 13A–G, 27B)

Specimens examined: NCBS-QA463, 1 female, 18.iii.2013; NCBS-QA465, 1 male, 20.xi.2013; NCBS-QA464, 1 female, 19.vii.2013; MCC-ARA658, 1 female, 18.x.2013; NCBS-QA467, 1 male, 28.ii.2014: MCC, all coll. John Caleb T.D.

Natural History: Found among low vegetation at MCC campus.  This species is usually found about the ground level.  The female makes an elongated pod shaped egg sac.  Eggs are usually laid on a dry leaf and covered with silk and suspended on a strand of silk while the female guards the egg sac clinging in an upside-down position (Image 13G).  Variations in the external appearance occur among individuals depending upon the age.  Older spiders are mostly darker while younger ones are brightly coloured.

 

Hamataliwa sp. 2 (Images 13H–M, 27C)

Specimens examined: NCBS-QA459, 1 female, 10.x.2012; NCBS-QA462, 1 male, 03.xii.2013; NCBS-QA460, 1 female, 8.xi.2012; NCBS-QA461, 1 female, 25.iii.2013; NCBS-QA458, 1 female, 12.vi.2010: MCC, all coll. John Caleb T.D.

 

Genus Oxyopes Latreille

Oxyopes hindostanicus Pocock, 1902 (Images 14A–E, 27D)

Oxyopes hindostanicus Pocock, 1901: 482.

Oxyopes hindostanicus Sherriffs, 1951: 657, figs. 8–13.

Oxyopes hindostanicus Sherriffs, 1955: 304, fig. 34.

Oxyopes hindostanicus Gajbe, 2008: 51, figs. 102–105.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA368, 1 female, 23.xii.2012; MCC-ARA468, 1 female, 14.ii.2013; MCC-ARA715, 1 female, 3.xii.2013, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

Distribution in India: Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

 

Oxyopes sp. (Image 27E)

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA104, 1 female, 6.iii.2012; MCC-ARA29, 1 female, 20.vii.2010; MCC-ARA321, 1 female, 15.xi.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Peucetia Thorell

Peucetia viridana (Stoliczka, 1869) (Image 27F)

Sphasus viridanus Stoliczka, 1869: 220, pl. 20, fig. 1.

Peucetia viridana Pocock, 1900: 255, figs. 86.

Peucetia viridana Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 65, figs. 110–111.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA204, 1 female, 10.x.2012; MCC-ARA322, 1 female, 15.xi.2012; MCC-ARA511–ARA512, 1 male & 1 female, 11.iii.2013; MCC-ARA724, 1 female, 5.xii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.

Distribution in India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

 

Family Philodromidae Thorell

Genus Tibellus Simon

Tibellus elongatus Tikader, 1960 (Image 27G)

Tibellus elongatus Tikader, 1960: 176, figs. 3a–b.

Tibellus elongatus Tikader, 1971: 82, figs. 20E–F.

Tibellus elongatus Tikader, 1980a: 217, figs. 288–289.

Tibellus elongatus Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 88, figs. 152–153.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA40, 1 female, 30.vii.2010; MCC-ARA602, 1 female, 27.vi.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu (new record), and West Bengal.

 

Family Pholcidae C.L. Koch

Genus Artema Walckenaer

Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837 (Image 27H)

Artema atlanta Pocock, 1900: 239, fig. 81.

Artema atlanta Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 18, figs. 12.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA686–ARA687, 1 male & 1 female, 15.xi.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Northern Africa and Middle East. Introduced elsewhere (mainly tropical and subtropical regions).

Distribution in India: Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.

 

Genus Crossopriza Simon

Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall, 1867) (Images 27I,J)

Crossopriza lyoni Pocock, 1900: 240.

Crossopriza lyoni Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 18, figs. 13–15.

Crossopriza lyoni Sen et al., 2015: 88, figs. 514–518, pl. 19.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA87, 1 male, 14.ii.2012; MCC-ARA284, 1 female, 5.xi.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.         

Global distribution: Africa. Introduced to USA, Venezuela, Germany, China, Japan, Korea, tropical Asia, and Australia.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.

 

Genus Pholcus Walckenaer

Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775) (Image 27K)

Pholcus phalangioides Sen et al., 2015: 88, figs. 509–513, pl. 19.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA286–ARA287, 2 females, 5.xi.2012; MCC-ARA288, 1 male, 5.xi.2012; MCC-ARA426, 1 female, 29.i.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Western Asia. Introduced to both Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and numerous islands.         

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.

 

Pholcus sp. (Image 27L)

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA311, 1 female, 14.xi.2012; MCC-ARA427, 1 female, 29.i.2013; MCC-ARA114, 1 female, 21.iii.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Family Salticidae Blackwall

Genus Bianor Peckham & Peckham

Bianor balius Thorell, 1890 (Images 15A–C, 27M)

Bianor carli Reimoser, 1934: 506, fig. 27.

Bianor incitatus Logunov, 2001: 236, figs. 87–104.

Bianor balius Logunov, 2019: 102, figs. 12–16.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA210, 1 female, 11.x.2012; MCC-ARA421, 1 male 21.i.2013; MCC-ARA500, 1 female, 27.ii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, China, Japan (Ryukyu Is.), Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Kiribati (Caroline Is.)

Distribution in India: Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, and Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Brettus Thorell

Brettus cf. adonis Simon, 1900 (Images 15D, 27N)

Brettus adonis Simon, 1900: 32.

Portia adonis Simon, 1901: 402.

Brettus adonis Wanless, 1979: 186, figs. 1B,D,F,H; 2D–E; 3A.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA550, 1 female, 7.v.2013, MCC, coll. Nagoor Meerasa Mohammed

Global distribution: India and Sri Lanka.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Carrhotus Thorell

Carrhotus viduus (C.L. Koch, 1846) (Image 27O)

Carrhotus viduus Pocock, 1904: 804, pl. 66, fig. 8.

Carrhotus viduus Jastrzębski, 1999: 4, figs. 8–11.

Plexippus gajbei Karthikeyani & Kannan, 2013: 43, figs. 1a–c, images 1–2.

Carrhotus viduus Roy, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2016: 18, figs. 14A–E, 25C, 27J.

Carrhotus viduus Caleb, 2016a: 273, figs. 1–5.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA207, 1 male, 11.x.2012; MCC-ARA458, 1 female, 13.ii.2013; MCC-ARA502, 1 female, 27.ii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India to China.

Distribution in India: Assam, Lakshadweep Islands, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

 

Genus Chrysilla Thorell

Chrysilla volupe (Karsch, 1879) (Image 28A)

Chrysilla volupe Caleb, 2016a: 271.

Chrysilla volupe Caleb et al., 2018: 144, figs. 1–25.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA30, 1 male, 20.vii.2010, MCC, Chennai, coll. Sam Thomas. 

Global distribution: Sri Lanka, India, and Bhutan.

Distribution in India: Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, and West Bengal.

           

Genus Cyrba Simon

Cyrba ocellata (Kroneberg, 1875) (Images 15E–G, 28B)

Cyrba micans Simon, 1885b: 457.

Cyrba ocellata Wanless, 1984: 455, figs. 7A–F, 8A–G, 18A–C.

Cyrba ocellata Talwar et al., 2017: 139, figs. 1–13.

Cyrba ocellata Majagi et al., 2018: 16, figs. 1–6.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA31, 1 male, 20.vii.2010, MCC, coll. Sam Thomas.

Global distribution: Eastern Africa to India and Indonesia, Caucasus to central Asia, and China. Introduced to Australia (Queensland).

Distribution in India: Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Harmochirus Simon

Harmochirus exaggeratus Caleb & Mathai, 2015 (Images 15H–K, 16A–C, 28C)

Harmochirus exaggeratus Caleb & Mathai, 2015: 117, figs. 1–26.

Specimens examined: NCBS-QA471, holotype male, MCC, 27.ii.2014; NCBS-QA472, allotype female, 12.viii.2013; NCBS-QA468, 1 paratype male, 10.vi.2013; NCBS-QA470, 1 male, 19.vii.2013; NCBS-QA473, 1 female, 27.vi.2013: all coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

Natural History: Found among grass and leaf litter in the scrub.

 

Harmochirus zabkai Logunov, 2001 (Images 16D–E, 28D)

Harmochirus brachiatus Tikader, 1976: 410, figs. 1–5.

Harmochirus zabkai Logunov, 2001: 260, figs. 248–256.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA429, 1 male, 29.i.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Laos, and Vietnam.

Distribution in India: Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, and Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Hasarius Simon

Hasarius adansoni (Audouin, 1826) (Image 28E)

Hasarius adansoni Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010: 168, figs. 79–84.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA589, 1 male, 21.vi.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Africa. Introduced to both Americas, Europe, India, Laos, Vietnam, China, and Japan

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu (new record) and West Bengal.

 

Genus Hyllus C.L. Koch

Hyllus manu Caleb et al., 2014 (Images 16F–H, 28F–G)

Hyllus manu Caleb et al., 2014: 635, figs. 1–10.

Specimens examined: Holotype: SRC-ZSI I/SP 12, 1 male, 10.vi.2013, MCC; paratypes from same location: SRC-ZSI I/SP 15, 1 male 12.xii.2013; SRC-ZSI I/SP 13, 1 female, 10.vi.2013; SRC-ZSI I/SP 14, 1 female, 12.viii.2013; NCBS-QA451, 1 female, 18.x.2013, coll. John Caleb T.D. & Anulin Christudhas.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Hyllus semicupreus (Simon, 1885) (Image 28H)

Thyene semicuprea Simon, 1885a: 4, 29, pl. 10, fig. 1.

Sandalodes semicupreus Simon, 1903: 689, figs. 820–821.

Phidippus indicus Tikader, 1974a: 122, figs. 5–9.

Phidippus indicus Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 92, figs. 160–163.

Hyllus semicupreus Prószyński, 1992: 180, figs. 57, 60–64.

Hyllus semicupreus Roy, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2016: 16, figs. 12A–E, 25A, 27H.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA264, 1 male, 18.x.2012; MCC-ARA261, 1 female, 18.x.2012; MCC-ARA97, 1 male, 29.ii.2012; MCC-ARA109, 1 female, 15.iii.2012; MCC-ARA320, 1 female, 15.xi.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Sri Lanka.

Distribution in India: Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu (new record), and West Bengal.

 

Genus Langona Simon

Langona albolinea Caleb & Mathai, 2015 (Image 28I)

Langona albolinea Caleb & Mathai, in Caleb, Mungkung & Mathai, 2015: 3, figs. 6–15.

Specimens examined: NCBS-QA455, holotype male, MCC, 12.viii.2013, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Langona davidi (Caleb, Mungkung & Mathai, 2015) comb. nov. (Images 17H–J, 29C)

Mashonarus davidi Caleb, Mungkung & Mathai, 2015: 5, figs. 16–25.

Phlegra davidi Logunov & Azarkina, 2018: 112, figs. 504–506.

Specimens examined: NCBS-QA483, holotype male, 04.x.2014, MCC, coll. Soreiphy Mungkung & John Caleb T.D.; NCBS-AU138, 1 male, 13.ix.2016, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

Remarks: The species was originally described in the genus Mashonarus but was later transferred to Phlegra by Logunov & Azarkina (2018).  It is assigned to Langona based on the presence of a single RTA accompanied by thick long setae (Fig. 17J) which is characteristic of the genus.

 

Langona tigrina (Simon, 1885) (Images 18A–I, 28J)

Aelurillus tigrinus Simon, 1885b: 456, pl. 10, fig. 9.

Langona tigrina Heciak & Prószyński, 1983: 228, figs. 17,32,39.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA195, 1 female, 9.x.2012; MCC-ARA285, 1 female, 5.xi.2012; MCC-ARA469, 1 male, 14.ii.2013; MCC-ARA508, 1 male, 11.iii.2013, MCC-ARA590–ARA591, 1 female & 1 male, 21.vi.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Diagnosis. The male palp resembles L. bhutanica but can be distinguished by the absence of flattened scale-like bristles at the edge of the tibial junction (present in L. bhutanica) (cf. fig 10 in Heciak & Prószyński 1983 with Image 18E).  Females can be readily distinguished by its abdominal pattern with a median lighter stripe with lateral dark streaks (cf. fig. 39 in Heciak & Prószyński 1983 with Image 18F).

Description. Male (in mm; Images 18A–E). Total length: 4.60; carapace: 2.46 long, 1.84 wide; abdomen: 2.14 long, 1.32 wide.  Clypeus height 0.21.  Eye measurements: AME 0.33, ALE 0.19, PME 0.07, PLE 0.17, AER 1.10, PER 1.11, EFL 0.82. Leg measurements: I 3.49 (1.24, 0.76, 0.60, 0.46, 0.43); II 3.40 (1.14, 0.75, 0.65, 0.50, 0.36); III 4.62 (1.47, 0.86, 0.78, 0.94, 0.57); IV 4.81 (1.46, 0.67, 1.20, 0.95, 0.53).  Leg formula: 4312.  Carapace reddish-brown, eye field densely covered with golden-brown hairs.  Posterior part of the carapace with a pair of faint white stripes.  Outer margin of carapace lined by a broad band of white hairs (Image 18A).  Clypeus covered with white hairs (Image 18B).  Anterior eyes surrounded by yellow-white scales.  Sternum oval, yellow brown.  Chelicerae yellowish-brown, with a single tooth on the promargin and toothless on the retromargin; labium and maxillae brown with paler margins.  Legs yellowish except brown femora, tibiae and metatarsi of leg I.  Abdomen brownish with a mid-longitudinal darker patch in the cardiac area. Lateral margins covered with white hairs.  Spinnerets yellow, covered with white hairs dorsally (Image 18A).  Palps yellow-brown; embolus thin, bulbus with a proximal projection; RTA single accompanied with long black setae; VTA blunt, directed anteriad (Images 18C-E).

Female (in mm; Images 18F–I). Total length: 5.67; carapace: 2.38 long, 1.91 wide; abdomen: 3.29 long, 2.27 wide. Clypeus height 0.22. Eye measurements: AME 0.31, ALE 0.19, PME 0.05, PLE 0.16, AER 1.14, PER 1.19, EFL 0.81. Leg measurements: I 3.54 (1.27, 0.87, 0.59, 0.38, 0.43); II 3.32 (1.16, 0.84, 0.56, 0.38, 0.38); III 4.60 (1.40, 0.91, 0.82, 0.90, 0.57); IV 5.12 (1.42, 0.87, 1.03, 1.20, 0.60).  Leg formula: 4312.  Colour same as in males (Image 18F) but differs in the following: the clypeus brownish-yellow; thin white stripe originates between the AMEs and ALEs gently moves laterally and joins the lateral white band (Image 18G).  Abdomen brownish, with a median lighter band with lateral darker streaks broken by diagonal branches (Image 18F).  Epigyne as in Image 18H; copulatory ducts long; spermathecae pear-shaped (Image 18I).

Remarks: Hęciak & Prószyński (1983) redescribed the species based on the single holotype female originally described by Simon in 1885.  There are no additional records of this species in the literature.  The species was known hitherto by the female sex only and the male is described here for the first time.  The species is discovered and redescribed 135 years after its first description.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Menemerus Simon

Menemerus bivittatus (Dufour, 1831) (Images 28K,L)

Menemerus bivittatus Sen et al., 2015: 33, figs. 87–91, pl. 13.

Menemerus bivittatus Dhali, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 30, figs. 43–47, pl. 17.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA196, 1 male, 9.x.2012; MCC-ARA209, 1 male, 11.x.2012; MCC-ARA330, 1 male, 23.xi.2012; MCC-ARA433, 1 female, 8.ii.2013; MCC-ARA539, 1 female, 25.iii.2013; MCC-ARA645, 1 male, 12.viii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Africa. Introduced to North, central, and South America, southern Europe, China, Japan, Australia, and Pacific Islands.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu (new record) and West Bengal.

 

Genus Myrmaplata Prószyński

Myrmaplata plataleoides O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869 (Image 28M)

Myrmarachne plataleoides Bhattacharya, 1937: 426, fig. 3.

Myrmarachne daitarensis Prószyński, 1992: 185, figs. 80-81, 83–89.

Myrmarachne megachelae Kumar & Mohanasundaram, 1998: 27, 5 unnumbered figs. Syn. nov.

Myrmarachne plataleoides Sen et al., 2015: 42, figs. 147–151, pl. 14.

Myrmarachne plataleoides Benjamin, 2015: 2646, figs. 29A–D, 30A–D, 31A–E.

Myrmarachne plataleoides Roy, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2016: 25, figs. 21A–G, 26A, 28A–C.

Myrmarachne plataleoides Caleb, 2016b: 411, figs. 31–54.

Specimens examined: NCBS-AR134, 1 male, 25.iii.2013; NCBS-AR133, 2 males, 09.v.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D. & Nagoor Meerasa Mohammed.

Global distribution: India, Sri Lanka, China, and southeastern Asia.

Distribution in India: Bihar, Karnataka, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

Remarks: Myrmarachne megachelae Kumar & Mohanasundaram, 1998 was described from Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.  From the original illustrations it is apparent that the species corresponds to the darker form of M. plataleoides as illustrated in Caleb (2016b) (cf. figs from Kumar & Mohanasundaram (1998) with figs 37–40 in Caleb (2016b)).  The species is identical in general morphology and cheliceral pattern with dorsally flattened basal region and swollen anterior region and dentition with 5 promarginal teeth. Therefore, M. megachelae, is considered a junior synonym of M. plataleoides.

 

Genus Myrmarachne MacLeay

Myrmarachne melanocephala MacLeay, 1839 (Image 28N)

Myrmarachne melanocephala MacLeay, 1839: 11, pl. 1, fig. 4.

Myrmarachne orientales Tikader, 1973: 60, figs. 3–6.

Myrmarachne orientales Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 105, figs. 193–194.

Myrmarachne orientales Sen et al., 2015: 42, figs. 152–156, pl. 14.

Myrmarachne melanocephala Roy, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2016: 24, figs. 20A–F, 25I, 27R.

Myrmarachne melanocephala Caleb, 2016b: 410, figs. 20–30.

Myrmarachne melanocephala Dhali, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 39, figs. 105–109, pl. 17.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA205, 1 male, 10.x.2012; MCC-ARA314–ARA315, 1 male & 1 female, 14.xi.2012; MCC-ARA630, 1 female, 27.vii.2013; MCC-ARA660, 1 female, 18.x.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Pakistan to Indonesia.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, and West Bengal.

 

Genus Phanuelus Caleb & Mathai

Phanuelus gladstone Caleb & Mathai, 2015 (Images 17A–D, 28O)

Phanuelus gladstone Caleb & Mathai, in Caleb, Mungkung & Mathai, 2015: 7, figs. 26–46.

Specimens examined: NCBS-QA474, holotype male, MCC, 13.ix.2013, coll. John Caleb T.D.; paratypes: NCBS-QA475, 1 female, 13.ix.2013; NCBS-QA476, 1 male, 27.vi.2013; NCBS-QA477, 1 male, 27.x.2014; NCBS-QA478, 1 male, 28.x.2014, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

Natural history: The species is tiny and cryptically coloured making it hard to notice.

 

Genus Phintella Strand

Phintella vittata (C.L. Koch, 1846) (Image 29A)

Salticus ranjitus Tikader, 1967: 117, figs. 1a–c.

Salticus ranjitus Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 89, figs. 154–155.

Phintella vittata Prószyński, 1992: 200, figs. 148–152.

Phintella vittata  Sen et al., 2015: 37, figs. 10–111, pl. 13.

Phintella vittata Roy, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2016: 18, figs. 15A–E, 25D, 27K.

Phintella vittata Dhali, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 34, figs. 73–77, pl. 18.

Phintella vittata Tyagi et al., 2019: Supplement, figs. S2.54, S3.27–30.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA32, 1 female, 20.vii.2010; MCC-ARA262–ARA263, 2 females, 18.x.2012; MCC-ARA608, 1 male, 18.vii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India to Philippines.

Distribution in India: Goa, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu (new record), and West Bengal.

 

Genus Phintelloides Kanesharatnam & Benjamin

Phintelloides jesudasi Caleb & Mathai, 2014 (Images 17E–G, 29B)

Phintelloides jesudasi Kanesharatnam & Benjamin, 2019: 41, figs. 3, 6E–H, 17A–E, 18A–D.

Specimens examined: SRC-ZSI I/SP 7, holotype male, 18.v.2014, Vanianchatiram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, coll. John Caleb T.D. & John Thomas C.H.; SRC-ZSI I/SP 8, 1 female allotype (data same as holotype); SRC-ZSI I/SP 9, 1 female paratype, 18.viii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India and Sri Lanka.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Phlegra Simon

Phlegra prasanna Caleb & Mathai, 2015 (Images 19A–D, 29D)

Phlegra prasanna Caleb & Mathai, in Caleb, Mungkung & Mathai, 2015: 11, figs. 47–56.

Specimens examined: NCBS-QA481, holotype male, 20.iii.2014, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.; Paratype: NCBS-QA482,1 male paratype, 06.x.2014, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Plexippus C.L. Koch

Plexippus paykulli (Audouin, 1826) (Image 29E)

Plexippus paykulli Tikader, 1967: 120, figs. 4a–c.

Marpissa bengalensis Tikader, 1974b: 211, figs. 11–12.

Marpissa mandali Tikader, 1974b: 213, figs. 13–16.

Plexippus paykulli Sen et al., 2015: 31, figs. 72–76, pl. 13.

Plexippus paykulli Roy, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2016: 16, figs. 13A–E, 25B, 27I.

Plexippus paykulli Dhali, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 27, figs. 20–27, pl. 18.

Plexippus paykulli Tyagi et al., 2019: Supplement, figs. S2.57, S3.33–36.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA111, 1 male, 15.iii.2012; MCC-ARA513, 1 male, 11.iii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Africa. Introduced to both Americas, Europe, Middle East, India, China, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Australia, and Pacific islands.

Distribution in India: Lakshadweep Islands, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu (new record), and West Bengal.

 

Plexippus petersi (Karsch, 1878) (Image 29F)

Plexippus petersi Tyagi et al., 2019: Supplement, figs. S2.56, S3.37–38.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA43, 1 male, 9.i.2011; MCC-ARA576, 1 male, 10.vi.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Asia. Introduced to Africa and Pacific islands.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu (new record) and West Bengal.

 

Genus Rhene Thorell

Rhene flavicomans Simon, 1902 (Image 29G)

Rhene flavicomans Jastrzębski, 1997: 51, figs. 9–11.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA34, 1 female, 20.vii.2010; MCC-ARA546, 1 female, 25.iii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu (new record) and West Bengal.

 

Genus Stenaelurillus Simon

Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 (Images 19E–J, 29H)

Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934: 504, figs. 25–26.

Stenaelurillus lesserti Prószyński, 1984: 139.

Stenaelurillus lesserti Wesolowska, 2014: 248, figs. 1A–B, 2A–F, 3A–D.

Stenaelurillus lesserti Sebastian et al., 2015: 72, figs. 4A–C, 5A–G, 6A–C, 7B, 10A–J, 11A–F.

Stenaelurillus lesserti Caleb & Sanap, 2016: 83, figs. 1–11.

Stenaelurillus lesserti Logunov & Azarkina, 2018: 77, figs. 87–89, 336–337.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA579–ARA583, 1 male, 4 females, 10.vi.2013; MCC-ARA616, 1 female, 22.vii.2013; NCBS-AR118, 1 male, 26.vi.2013; NCBS-AR119, 1 male, 21.vi.2013; NCBS-AR120, 1 male, 18.vii.2013; NCBS-AR121, 1 male, 02.vii.2013; NCBS-AR122, 1 female, 05.ix.2013: MCC, all coll. John Caleb T.D.; NCBS-AR123, 2 females, 31.i.2014, coll. Karthy.

Type material: Type material kept at NHMW, Vienna. Reg No: NHMW 21.890. Photographs of the types were obtained from NHMW by Mr. M. Freudenshuss.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.

 

Stenaelurillus metallicus Caleb & Mathai, 2016 (Images 19K–N, 29I)

Stenaelurillus metallicus Caleb & Mathai, 2016a: 185, figs. 1–22.

Specimens examined: NCBS-AR103, holotype male, 21.vi.2013, MCC , coll. John Caleb T.D.; paratypes (from same location): NCBS-AR110, 1 male, 21.vi.2013; NCBS-AR109, 1 male, 18.vii.2013; NCBS-AR104 & AR113, 1 male & 1 female, 5.ix.2013; NCBS-AR112, 1 female 11.xi.2013; NCBS-AR111, 1 male, 21.iv.2015, all coll. John Caleb T.D.; NCBS-AR105–AR108 & AR114–AR117, 4 males & 4 females, 30.i.2014, coll. Karthy

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Telamonia Thorell

Telamonia dimidiata (Simon, 1899) (Image 29J)

Phidippus pateli Tikader, 1974a: 124, figs. 10–11.

Phidippus pateli Tikader & Malhotra, 1978: 543, figs. 1–3.

Phidippus pateli Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 91, figs. 156–159.

Telamonia dimidiata Prószyński, 1992: 207.

Telamonia dimidiata Sen et al., 2015: 38, figs. 117–121, pl. 13.

Telamonia dimidiata Roy, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2016: 12, figs. 10A–E, 24H, 27F.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA236,1 female, 16.x.2012; MCC-ARA313, 1 female, 14.xi.2012; MCC-ARA90, 1 male, 15.ii.2012; MCC-ARA327–ARA328, 1 male & 1 female, 23.xi.2012; MCC-ARA479, 1 male, 21.ii.2013; MCC-ARA514, 1 female, 11.iii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Bhutan, Malaysia, and Indonesia (Sumatra).

Distribution in India: Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu (new record), and West Bengal.

 

Genus Thyene Simon

Thyene imperialis (Rossi, 1846) (Images 29K, L)

Thyene imperialis Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010: 184, figs. 154–156, 163.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA208, 1 male, 11.x.2012; MCC-ARA480, 1 female, 21.ii.2013; MCC-ARA499, 1 male, 27.ii.2013; MCC-ARA540–ARA541, 1 male & 1 female, 25.iii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Southern Europe, northern and eastern Africa, Middle East to central Asia, China, India, and Indonesia

Distribution in India: Punjab and Tamil Nadu.

 

Family Scytodidae Blackwall

Genus Scytodes Latreille

Scytodes lugubris (Thorell, 1887) (Images 20A–D, 29M)

Dictis lugubris Thorell, 1887: 86.

Scytodes lugubris Rheims, Brescovit & Durán-Barrón, 2007: 105, figs. 20–22, 90–93.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA233, 1 female, 16.x.2012; MCC-ARA289, 1 female, 5.xi.2012; MCC-ARA323, 1 female, 15.xi.2012, MCC-ARA577, 1 female, 10.vi.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Tropical Asia. Introduced to Hawaii, Mexico.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu (new record).

 

Family Sicariidae Keyserling

Genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe

Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820) (Images 21A–H, 29N)

Loxosceles indrabeles Tikader, 1963: 23, figs. 1a–c.

Loxosceles rufescens Trivedi & Dal, 2019: 2, figs. 1a–h, 2a–f.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA484–ARA486, 2 females & 1 male, 25.ii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Southern Europe, northern Africa to Iran. Introduced to USA, Mexico, Macaronesia, South Africa, India, China, Japan, Korea, Laos, Thailand, Australia, Hawaii.

Distribution in India: Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu (new record).

 

Family Sparassidae Bertkau

Genus Heteropoda Latreille

Heteropoda venatoria (Linnaeus, 1767) (Image 29O)

Heteropoda venatoria Gravely, 1931: 251, figs. 9C, 10D.

Heteropoda andamanensis Tikader, 1977: 189, figs. 16A–E

Heteropoda nicobarensis Tikader, 1977: 191, figs. 17A–D

Heteropoda andamanensis Sethi & Tikader, 1988: 15, figs. 40–45.

Heteropoda nicobarensis Sethi & Tikader, 1988: 28, figs. 130–134.

Heteropoda venatoria Sethi & Tikader, 1988: 16, figs. 52–57.

Heteropoda venatoria Sen et al., 2015: 57, figs. 289–293, pl. 16.

Heteropoda venatoria Dhali, Saha & Raychaudhuri, 2017: 45, figs. 140–145, pl. 19.

Heteropoda venatoria Tyagi et al., 2019: Supplement, figs. S2.63, S3.7–10.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA105–ARA106, 2 females, 6.iii.2012; MCC-ARA523, 1 male, 21.iii.2013; MCC-ARA584, 1 female, 10.vi.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Tropical Asia. Introduced to Pacific Is., North, Central and South America, Macaronesia, Europe, Africa

Distribution in India: Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Assam, Bihar, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and almost all over India (Sethi & Tikader 1988).

 

Genus Olios Walckenaer

Olios lamarcki (Latreille, 1806) (Image 30A)

Sparassus lamarcki Pocock, 1900: 267.

Olios lamarcki Gravely, 1931: 241, figs. 5B, 6B–C.

Olios lamarcki Caleb, 2018: 339, figs. 1–17.        

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA35–ARA36, 2 females, 28.vii.2010; MCC-ARA644, 1 male, 8.viii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Madagascar to India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh.

Distribution in India: Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

 

Genus Palystes L. Koch

Palystes flavidus Simon, 1897 (Image 30B)

Palystes flavidus Pocock, 1900: 266.

Palystes flavidus Gravely, 1931: 258, figs. 14A–B.

Palystes flavidus Tikader & Sethi, 1990: 178, figs. 38–43.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA37, 1 female, 30.vii.2010; MCC-ARA232, 1 female, 12.x.2012, MCC-ARA237, 1 male, 16.x.2012; MCC-ARA601, 1 female, 27.vi.2013; MCC-ARA609, 1 male, 18.vii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Bihar, eastern Himalaya, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.

 

Family Tetragnathidae Menge

Genus Guizygiella Zhu, Kim and Song

Guizygiella melanocrania (Thorell, 1887) (Images 30C, 33D)

Zygiella melanocrania Tikader & Bal, 1980: 243, figs. 1–4.

Zygiella melanocrania Tikader, 1982: 215, figs. 419–422.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA795, 1 female, 22.iv.2014, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India to China, Laos.

Distribution in India: Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu (new record).

 

Genus Leucauge White

Leucauge decorata (Blackwall, 1864) (Images 30D, 33C)

Tetragnatha decorata Blackwall, 1864: 44.

Nephila angustata Stoliczka, 1869: 241, pl. 20, fig. 7.

Leucauge decorata Simon, 1906: 282.

Leucauge decorata Gravely, 1921b: 451, 454, figs. 8d–e.

Leucauge decorata Tikader, 1970: 41, figs. d–f.

Leucauge decorata Gajbe, 2007: 509, figs. 263–265.

Leucauge decorata Sen et al., 2015: 102, figs. 595–600, pl. 21.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA45, 1 female, 9.i.2011; MCC-ARA93, 1 female, 24.ii.2012; MCC-ARA718, 1 male, 03.xii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Pakistan, India, Bangladesh to Thailand, Philippines, China, Japan, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Australia.

Distribution in India: Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.

 

Genus Meta C.L. Koch

?Meta sp. (Image 30E)

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA281, 1 female, 05.xi.2012; MCC-ARA481, 1 female, 21.ii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.   

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Tetragnatha Latreille

Tetragnatha mandibulata Walckenaer, 1841 (Image 30F)

Tetragnatha mandibulata Pocock, 1900: 215, fig. 67.

Tetragnatha mandibulata Gravely, 1921b: 429, 441 figs. 1d, 3d–e.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA270, 1 female, 26.x.2012; MCC-ARA309, 1 female, 8.xi.2012; MCC-ARA611, 1 male, 18.vii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Central America, Caribbean, Guyana, Brazil, West Africa, India to Philippines, and Australia.

Distribution in India: Assam, Bihar, Kerala, Karnataka, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

 

Family Theraphosidae Thorell

Genus Sahydroaraneus Mirza & Sanap

Sahydroaraneus sp. (Images 22A–F, 30G)

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA422, 1 female, 21.i.2013; MCC-ARA428, 1 female, 29.i.2013; MCC-ARA509, 1 female, 11.iii.2013; WILD-13-ARA-1236, 1 female, 01.viii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Family Theridiidae Sundevall

Genus Argyrodes Simon

Argyrodes argentatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1880 (Image 30H)

Argyrodes argentatus Javed, Srinivasulu & Tampal, 2010: 982, figs. 4–6.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA103, 1 female, 06.iii.2012; MCC-ARA551, 1 female, 07.v.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India, Indonesia to China. Introduced to Hawaii.

Distribution in India: Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu (new record).

 

Genus Ariamnes Thorell

Ariamnes sp. (Image 30I)

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA524, 1 female, 21.iii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

           

Genus Meotipa Simon

Meotipa multuma Murthappa, Malamel, Prajapati, Sebastian & Venkateshwarlu, 2017 (Image 30J)

Meotipa multuma Murthappa et al., 2017: 592, figs. 3A–E, 4E–F.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA234, 1 female, 16.x.2012; MCC-ARA423, 1 female, 23.i.2013, MCC-ARA462, 1 female, 13.ii.2013; MCC-ARA544, 1 male, 25.iii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Karnataka and Tamil Nadu (new record).

 

Genus Nihonhimea Yoshida

Nihonhimea mundula (L. Koch, 1872) (Images 30K, 33E)

Achaearanea mundula Chrysanthus, 1963: 741, figs. 76–77, 83.

Parasteatoda mundula Saaristo, 2006: 69, figs. 55–59.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA100, 1 female, 29.ii.2012; MCC-ARA331, 1 female, 23.xi.2012; MCC-ARA460, 1 female, 13.ii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Seychelles, India to New Caledonia.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu (new record).

 

Genus Rhomphaea L. Koch

Rhomphaea projiciens O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 (Image 30L)

Argyrodes projiciens Patel, 1973: 152.

Rhomphaea projiciens Srinivasulu et al., 2013: 4486.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA510, 1 female, 11.iii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: USA to Argentina. Introduced to India.

Distribution in India: Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu (new record).

 

Family Thomisidae Sundevall

Genus Bomis L. Koch

Bomis khajuriai Tikader, 1980 (Image 30M)

Bomis khajuriai Tikader, 1980a: 141.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA612, 1 female, 18.vii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu (new record).

 

Genus Henriksenia Lehtinen

Henriksenia hilaris (Thorell, 1877) (Image 30N)

Misumenoides deccanes Tikader, 1965: 279, figs. 3a–b.

Misumenoides shulli Tikader, 1965: 280, figs. 4a–b.

Diaea jaintious Tikader, 1966: 59, figs. 5a–b.

Diaea jaintious Tikader, 1968: 108, figs. 4–5.

Diaea jaintious Tikader, 1971: 44, figs. 13C–D.

Misumenoides deccanes Tikader, 1971: 59, figs. 16J–K.

Misumenoides shulli Tikader, 1971: 59, figs. 16R–S.

Misumena decorata Tikader, 1980a: 103, figs. 145–146.

Diaea jaintious Tikader, 1980a: 105, figs. 147–148.

Misumenoides deccanes Tikader, 1980a: 152, figs. 216–217.

Misumenoides shulli Tikader, 1980a: 154, figs. 218–219.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA112, 1 female, 15.iii.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India to Philippines, Indonesia (Sulawesi), and New Guinea.

Distribution in India: Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh.

 

Genus Indoxysticus Benjamin

Indoxysticus minutus (Tikader, 1960) (Image 30O)

Xysticus minutus Tikader, 1960: 173, figs. 1a–b.

Xysticus minutus Tikader, 1968: 113, figs. 18–20.

Xysticus minutus Tikader, 1971: 50, figs. 14K–M.

Xysticus minutus Tikader, 1980a: 120, figs. 165–167.

Xysticus minutus Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 80, figs. 143–144.

Xysticus minutes Gajbe, 2007: 444, figs. 44–46.

Indoxysticus minutus Benjamin & Jaleel, 2010: 162, figs. 3–4, 8–15.

Xysticus minutus Sen et al., 2015: 67, figs. 364–368, pl. 17.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA282, 1 female, 05.xi.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India and Sri Lanka

Distribution in India: Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu (new record), and West Bengal.

 

Genus Pagida Simon

Pagida salticiformis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1883) (Images 23A–B, 31A)

Palaephatus salticiformis O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1883: 362, pl. 37, fig. 7.

Pagida salticiformis Simon, 1895: 1000, figs. 1064–1065.

Pagida salticiformis Benjamin & Clayton, 2016: 361, figs. 4–16, 18–30, 34–37.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA95, 1 female, 28.ii.2012; MCC-ARA741, 1 male, 16.xii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India (new record) and Sri Lanka.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Runcinia Simon

Runcinia insecta (L. Koch, 1875) (Images 23C–F, 31B)

Thomisus cherapunjeus Tikader, 1966: 53, figs. 1a–b.

Thomisus cherapunjeus Tikader, 1968: 104, figs. 13–14.

Thomisus cherapunjeus Tikader, 1971: 24, figs. 8K–L.

Runcinia chauhani Sen & Basu, 1973: 103, figs. 1A–B.

Runcinia chauhani Tikader, 1980a: 60, figs. 89–90.

Thomisus cherapunjeus Tikader, 1980a: 54, figs. 82–83.

Thomisus cherapunjeus Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 78, figs. 139–140.

Thomisus cherapunjeus Sunil Jose & Sebastian, 2001: 184, figs. 2A–B.

Thomisus cherapunjeus Gajbe, 2007: 440, figs. 40–41.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA367, 1 female, 12.xii.2012; MCC-ARA483, 1 female, 21.ii.2013; MCC-ARA545, 1 female 25.iii.2013; MCC-ARA716, 1 female 03.xii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: Africa and Asia. Introduced to Australia.

Distribution in India: Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, and Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Synema Simon

Synema decoratum Tikader, 1960 (Image 31C)

Synema decorata Tikader, 1960: 174, figs. 2a-c.

Synema decorata Tikader, 1971: 54, figs. 15J–M.

Synema decorata Tikader, 1980a: 136, figs. 192–195.

Synema decorata Gajbe, 2007: 447, figs. 50–53.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA33, 1 female, 20.vii.2010; MCC-ARA501, 1 female, 27.ii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India and China.

Distribution in India: Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu (new record), and West Bengal.

 

Genus Thomisus Walckenaer

Thomisus pugilis Stoliczka, 1869 (Image 31D)

Thomisus pugilis Stoliczka, 1869: 225, pl. 19, fig. 3.

Thomisus pugilis Tikader, 1971: 21.

Thomisus pugilis Tikader, 1980a: 48, figs. 71–72.

Thomisus pugilis Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 76, figs. 135–136.

Thomisus pugilis Gajbe, 2007: 439.

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA134–ARA135, 1 female & 1 male, 26.iii.2012; MCC-ARA268, 1 female, 26.x.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Global distribution: India.

Distribution in India: Punjab, Tamil Nadu (new record), and West Bengal.

 

Thomisus sp. 1 (Image 31E)

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA131, 1 female, 26.iii.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Thomisus sp. 2 (Image 31F)

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA271, 1 female, 26.x.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Tmarus Simon

Tmarus sp. (Image 31G)

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA317, 1 female, 14.xi.2012, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Family Uloboridae Thorell

Genus Uloborus Latreille

Uloborus sp. (Images 23G, 31H, 33F)

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA41, 1 female, 30.vii.2010; MCC-ARA91, 1 male, 15.ii.2012; MCC-ARA110, 1 female, 15.iii.2012; MCC-ARA136, 1 female, 28.iii.2012; MCC-ARA461, 1 female, 13.ii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Family Zodariidae Thorell

Genus Hermippus Simon

Hermippus sp. (Images 31I)

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA578, 1 female, 10.vi.2013; MCC-ARA794, 1 male, 22.iv.2014, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

Genus Tropizodium Jocqué & Churchill

Tropizodium sp. (Images 31J)

Specimens examined: MCC-ARA522, 1 female, 21.iii.2013, MCC, coll. John Caleb T.D.

Distribution in India: Tamil Nadu.

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

The present study details the diversity of spiders from the MCC campus, Tambaram, Tamil Nadu, India.  A total of 25 families, 84 genera and 108 species were recorded during the study, amongst which, 10 species are new to science, along with 31 being recorded for the first time from the state of Tamil Nadu (Table 2).

Of the 60 families recorded in the Indian region, 25 are found in the MCC campus.  This represents 41% of the total families recorded in India.  Salticidae was the most diverse with 28 species under 22 genera.  It is followed by Araneidae with 19 species belonging to 11 genera.  Thomisidae (10 species), Lycosidae (seven species), Oxyopidae (five species) and Theridiidae (five species) (Figure 1) constitute other major families. Among the 469 genera recorded from the Indian region, 84 (18%) have been recorded from MCC.  Maximum generic diversity was found in Salticidae (22 genera) followed by Araneidae (11), Thomisidae (eight), Lycosidae (five) and Theridiidae (five) (Figure 1).  The 108 species correspond to 5% of the total Indian diversity (1830 species) and 47% of the diversity known from Tamil Nadu (226 species) (Karthikeyani et al. 2017).  Twenty species (18%) are endemic to India, of which, nine are from Salticidae, three from Araneidae, two from Gnaphosidae, and one each from Corinnidae, Idiopidae, Lycosidae, Philodromidae, Sparassidae and Theridiidae. Eleven species are endemic to the Indo-Sri Lankan region (Table 2).  Guild structure analysis revealed seven feeding guilds (Uetz et al. 1999) (Table 1).  Dominant feeding guild is constituted by the stalkers (33%) followed by orb web weavers (24%), ground runners (19%), ambushers (12%), scattered line weavers (9%), foliage runners (8%) and sheet web builders (3%) (Figure 2).  The different web patterns of various spider families are illustrated in Images 32A–H & 33A–F. 

The diversity of invertebrates especially the arachnids have been understudied and poorly represented in the region owing to a lack of up-to-date comprehensive studies.  For instance, even large and speciose family as Salticidae has been severely neglected with the vast majority of Indian forms remaining undescribed or understudied.  The present study has recorded the highest number of species (28) from this family, of which, eight were new to science.  No large-scale work was undertaken in or around Chennai for more than seven decades after the early studies carried out by Sherriffs (1919, 1927) and Gravely (1921, 1924, 1931, 1935) in the early half of the 20th century.

Many species were rediscovered after several decades with no records or observations until the present study, for example, Araneus viridisomus Gravely (described in 1921 and recorded only in 2014; Caleb & Mathai 2014), Aetius decollatus O. Pickard-Cambridge (recorded by Reimoser in 1934 and rediscovered in 2016;  Caleb & Mathai 2016; Sudhin et al. 2016), Coenoptychus pulcher Simon (recorded in 1931 by Gravely and rediscovered in 2018; Paul et al. 2018 and present study).  Two species (Oxyopes hindostanicus Pocock, 1901 and Langona tigrina (Simon, 1885)) were redescribed based on original type specimens only and have not been recorded or collected again.  These have been recorded and illustrated in the present study. Such vast intervals between sightings/reports indicate the poor state of faunistic studies in the Indian context.

MCC has a very rich and diverse habitat structure (Images 2A–H).  The vegetation structure is predominantly tropical dry evergreen forest (Lal & Livingstone 1978; Amirthalingam 2005).  Satellite data showed that over 99% of the area under scrub jungle vegetation has been lost in Chengelpet, near Tambaram (Shankar-Raman et al. 1996).  Currently 95% of the potential area under evergreen type is under cultivation, 4.5% under thicket, and barely 0.5% remains under scrub-woodlands.  This 5% group has been placed under Albizia amara plesioclimax community with several sub-communities and transitions (Meher-Homji 1973).

Despite the rapid loss of habitat and destruction around the MCC campus, the campus itself on the other hand has conserved rapidly vanishing unique habitat of the scrub regions and the tropical dry evergreen forest with much of the native flora and fauna intact (Phillips & Jesudasan 2013).  This fact has been supported by the recent discovery of many new species of fungus (Hosagoudar et al. 2009), white files (Phillips & Jesudasan 2013), and spiders (Caleb & Mathai 2013, 2014a, 2015, 2016; Caleb et al. 2014, 2015, 2020) from the campus.  During the recent past, however, fragmentation and human interference is gradually taking its toll in the campus for educational, housing, developmental activities and recreational facilities.  Therefore, conservation and protection of these last left exclusive lifelines which are home to several unique species is the need of the hour.

 

 

 

Table 1. Different functional guild structure of spiders found in MCC campus.

 

Guilds

Families

Orb web weavers

Araneidae, Tetragnathidae, Uloboridae

Ambushers

Deinopidae, Philodromidae, Thomisidae

Stalkers

Oxyopidae, Salticidae

Scattered line weavers

Pholcidae, Theridiidae

Sheet web weavers

Eresidae, Oecobiidae

Foliage runners

Clubionidae, Cheiracanthiidae, Hersiliidae, Scytodidae, Sparassidae

Ground runners

Corinnidae, Gnaphosidae, Idiopidae, Liocranidae, Lycosidae, Sicariidae, Theraphosidae, Zodariidae

 

 

Table 2. Checklist of spider species found in the Madras Christian College campus.

 

 

 

Family

Species

1

Araneidae         

Anepsion maritatum O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1877#

2

Araneus bilunifer Pocock, 1900*

3

Araneus viridisomus Gravely, 1921*

4

Argiope aemula (Walckenaer, 1841)

5

Argiope anasuja Thorell, 1887

6

Argiope pulchella Thorell, 1881

7

Cyclosa confraga (Thorell, 1892)#

8

Cyclosa hexatuberculata Tikader, 1982#

9

Cyclosa neilensis Tikader, 1977*#

10

Cyrtophora cicatrosa (Stoliczka, 1869)

11

Eriovixia excelsa (Simon, 1889)

12

Eriovixia laglaizei (Simon, 1877)

13

Gasteracantha geminata (Fabricius, 1798)^

14

Larinia chloris (Audouin, 1826)#

15

Neoscona molemensis Tikader & Bal, 1981#

16

Neoscona mukerjei Tikader, 1980#

17

Neoscona vigilans (Blackwall, 1865)

18

Parawixia dehaani (Doleschall, 1859)#

19

Poltys nagpurensis Tikader, 1982#

20

Cheiracanthiidae

Cheiracanthium sp.

21

Clubionidae

Clubiona filicata O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1874#

22

Corinnidae

Aetius decollatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896^

23

Castianeira flavipes Gravely, 1931*

24

Coenoptychus pulcher Simon, 1885^

25

Corinnomma severum (Thorell, 1877)#

26

Deinopidae

Asianopis likuensis (Yin, Griswold & Yan, 2002)

27

Eresidae

Stegodyphus sarasinorum Karsch, 1891

28

Stegodyphus tibialis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869)

29

Gnaphosidae

Poecilochroa tridotus Caleb & Mathai, 2013*

30

Zelotes tambaramensis Caleb & Mathai, 2013*

31

Hersiliidae

Hersilia savignyi Lucas, 1836

32

Hersilia tibialis Baehr & Baehr, 1993^

33

Idiopidae

Idiops constructor (Pocock, 1900)*

34

Liocranidae

Oedignatha scrobiculata Thorell, 1881

35

Lycosidae

Draposa atropalpis (Gravely, 1924)^

36

Hippasa greenalliae (Blackwall, 1867)

37

Hippasa madraspatana Gravely, 1924*

38

Lycosa bistriata Gravely, 1924

39

Lycosa indagatrix Walckenaer, 1837^

40

Wadicosa fidelis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872)

41

Wadicosa quadrifera (Gravely, 1924)^

42

Oecobiidae

Oecobius putus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1876#

43

Oxyopidae

Hamataliwa sp. 1

44

Hamataliwa sp. 2

45

Oxyopes hindostanicus Pocock, 1901

46

Oxyopes sp.

47

Peucetia viridana (Stoliczka, 1869) 

48

Philodromidae

Tibellus elongatus Tikader, 1960*#

49

Pholcidae

Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837

50

Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall, 1867)

51

Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775)

52

Pholcus sp.

53

Salticidae

Bianor balius Thorell, 1890

54

Brettus cf. adonis Simon, 1900^

55

Carrhotus viduus (C. L. Koch, 1846)

56

Chrysilla volupe (Karsch, 1879)

57

Cocalus sp.

58

Cyrba ocellata (Kroneberg, 1875)

59

Harmochirus exaggeratus Caleb & Mathai, 2015*

60

Harmochirus zabkai Logunov, 2001

61

Hasarius adansoni (Audouin, 1826)#

62

Hyllus manu Caleb et al., 2014*

63

Hyllus semicupreus (Simon, 1885)^#

64

Langona albolinea Caleb & Mathai, 2015*

65

Langona davidi (Caleb, Mungkung & Mathai, 2015)*

66

Langona tigrina (Simon, 1885)*

67

Menemerus bivittatus (Dufour, 1831)#

68

Myrmaplata plataleoides O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869

69

Myrmarachne melanocephala MacLeay, 1839

70

Phanuelus gladstone Caleb & Mathai, 2015*

71

Phintella vittata (C. L. Koch, 1846)#

72

Phintelloides jesudasi (Caleb & Mathai, 2014)^

73

Phlegra prasanna Caleb & Mathai, 2015*

74

Plexippus paykulli (Audouin, 1826)#

75

Plexippus petersi (Karsch, 1878)#

76

Rhene flavicomans Simon, 1902#

77

Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934*

78

Stenaelurillus metallicus Caleb & Mathai, 2016*

79

Telamonia dimidiata (Simon, 1899)#

80

Thyene imperialis (Rossi, 1846)

81

Scytodidae

Scytodes lugubris (Thorell, 1887)#

82

Sicariidae

Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820)#

83

Sparassidae

Heteropoda venatoria (Linnaeus, 1767)

84

Olios lamarcki (Latreille, 1806)

85

Palystes flavidus Simon, 1897*

86

Tetragnathidae

Guizygiella melanocrania (Thorell, 1887)#

87

Leucauge decorata (Blackwall, 1864)

88

?Meta sp.

89

Tetragnatha mandibulata Walckenaer, 1841

90

Theraphosidae

Sahydroaraneus sp.

91

Theridiidae

Argyrodes argentatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1880#

92

Ariamnes sp.

93

Meotipa multuma Murthappa et al., 2017*#

94

Nihonhimea mundula (L. Koch, 1872)#

95

Rhomphaea projiciens O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896#

96

Thomisidae

Bomis khajuriai Tikader, 1980#

97

Henriksenia hilaris (Thorell, 1877)

98

Indoxysticus minutus (Tikader, 1960)#

99

Pagida salticiformis (O.P.-Cambridge, 1883)##^

100

Runcinia insecta (L. Koch, 1875)

101

Synema decoratum Tikader, 1960#

102

Thomisus pugilis Stoliczka, 1869#

103

Thomisus sp. 1

104

Thomisus sp. 2

105

Tmarus sp.

106

Uloboridae

Uloborus sp.

107

Zodariidae

Hermippus sp.

108

Tropizodium sp.

 

 

*—Endemic to India | ^—Endemic to India and Sri Lanka | #—New to Tamil Nadu | ##—New to India.

 

 

For figures & images - - click here

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Amirthalingam, M. (2005). Madras Christian College – A biological heritage site of Chennai city. April–June Issue 11: 1. http://cpreec.org/55.htm

Agnarsson, I., J.A. Coddington & M. Kuntner (2013). Systematics:  progress in the study of spider diversity and evolution, pp 58–111. In: Penny, D. (ed). Spider Research in the 21st Century: Trends and Perspectives. Siri Scientific Press, Manchester, UK, 320pp.

Baehr, M. & B. Baehr (1993). The Hersiliidae of the Oriental Region including New Guinea. Taxonomy, phylogeny, zoogeography (Arachnida, Araneae). Spixiana 19(Suppl.): 1–96.

Barrion, A.T. & J.A. Litsinger (1995). Riceland spiders of South and Southeast Asia. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, xix+700pp.

Benjamin, S.P. (2015). Model mimics: antlike jumping spiders of the genus Myrmarachne from Sri Lanka. Journal of Natural History 49(43–44): 2609–2666.

Benjamin, S.P. & Z. Jaleel (2010). The genera Haplotmarus Simon, 1909 and Indoxysticus gen. nov.: two enigmatic genera of crab spiders from the Oriental region (Araneae: Thomisidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 117: 159–167.

Benjamin, S.P. & C.I. Clayton (2016). Phylogenetic placement and revision of the tropical Asian crab spider genus Pagida (Araneae: Thomisidae). Invertebrate Systematics 30(4): 353–369.

Bhattacharya, G.C. (1937). Notes on the moulting process of the spider (Myrmarachne plataleoides, Camb.). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 39: 426–430.

Blackwall, J. (1864). Descriptions of seven new species of East Indian spiders received from the Rev. O. P. Cambridge. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 14(3): 36–45.

Blackwall, J. (1867). Descriptions of several species of East Indian spiders, apparently to be new or little known to arachnologists. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 19(3): 387–394.

Biswas, B. (1984). Description of six new species of spiders of the families Clubionidae, Gnaphosidae and Salticidae from India. Bulletin of the Zoological Survey of India 6: 119–127.

Bradoo, B.L. (1975). The sexual biology and morphology of the reproductive organs of Stegodyphus sarasinorum Karsch (Araneae: Eresidae). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 111: 239–247.

Buchar, J. (1976). Über einige Lycosiden (Araneae) aus Nepal. Ergebnisse des Forschungsunternehmens Nepal Himalaya 5: 201–227.

Buchar, J. (1997). Lycosidae aus Bhutan 1. Venoniinae und Lycosinae (Arachnida: Araneae). Entomologica Basiliensis 20: 5–32.

Caleb, J.T.D. (2016a). New data on the jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from India. Arthropoda Selecta 25(3): 271–277.

Caleb, J.T.D. (2016b). Taxonomic notes on some ant-mimicking jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from India. Arthropoda Selecta 25(4): 403–420.

Caleb, J.T.D. (2018). Redescription of the tropical huntsman spider Olios lamarcki (Latreille, 1806) (Aranei: Sparassidae). Arthropoda Selecta 27(4): 339–343.

Caleb, J.T.D. & M.T. Mathai (2013). New species of Poecilochroa Westring and Zelotes Gistel (Araneae: Gnaphosidae) from Tamil Nadu, India. Indian Journal of Arachnology 2(2): 1–6.

Caleb, J.T.D. & M.T. Mathai (2014a). A new species of Deinopis MacLeay (Araneae: Deinopidae) from India. Indian Journal of Arachnology 3(1): 1–7.

Caleb, J.T.D. & M.T. Mathai (2014b). Record of Araneus viridisomus Gravely, 1921 (Araneae: Araneidae) from Tamil Nadu, India. Indian Journal of Arachnology 3(2): 1–5.

Caleb, J.T.D. & M.T. Mathai (2015). Description of a new species of Harmochirus Simon (Araneae: Salticidae) from South India. Munis Entomology and Zoology 10(1): 117–121.

Caleb, J.T.D. & M.T. Mathai (2016a). A new jumping spider of the genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from India (Araneae: Salticidae: Aelurillina). Zootaxa 4103(2): 185–188.

Caleb, J.T.D. & M.T. Mathai (2016b). Extended boundaries of the ant mimicking swift spider genus Aetius decollatus Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 (Araneae: Corinnidae). Indian Journal of Arachnology 5: 36–41.

Caleb, J.T.D. & R.V. Sanap (2016). Lessert’s rainbow spider, Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser (Araneae: Salticidae: Aelurillina) from new localities in South India. Acta Arachnologica 65(2): 83–87.

Caleb, J.T.D. & P.M. Sankaran (2020). Araneae of India. Version 2020, http://www.indianspiders.in. Accessed on 7 February 2020.

Caleb, J.T.D., C. Bera & S. Acharya (2020). New species and synonymies in the genus Carrhotus Thorell, 1891 from India (Aranei: Salticidae: Salticini). Arthropoda Selecta 29(1): 51–66.

Caleb, J.T.D., A. Christudhas, K. Laltanpuii & M. Chitra (2014). New species of Hyllus C.L. Koch (Araneae: Salticidae) from India. Munis Entomology and Zoology 9(2): 634–637.

Caleb, J.T.D., S. Mungkung & M.T. Mathai (2015). Four new species of jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae: Aelurillinae) with the description of a new genus from South India. Peckhamia 124.1: 1–18.

Caleb, J.T.D., R.V. Sanap, K.G. Patel, P.P. Sudhin, K.S. Nafin & A.V. Sudhikumar (2018). First description of the female of Chrysilla volupe (Karsch, 1879) (Araneae: Salticidae: Chrysillini) from India, with notes on the species’ distribution and life history. Arthropoda Selecta 27(2): 143–153.

Caleb, J.T.D., G.B. Pravalikha, B.E. Johnson, M. Manyu, S. Mungkung & M.T. Mathai (2017). Hersilia aadi Pravalikha, Srinivasulu & Srinivasulu, 2014 a junior synonym of Hersilia savignyi Lucas, 1836 (Araneae: Hersiliidae). Zootaxa 4254(3): 396–400.

Champion, H.G. & S.K. Seth (1968). Revised survey of the forest types of India. New Delhi: Manager of Publications.

Chrysanthus, P. (1963). Spiders from south New Guinea V. Nova Guinea, Zoology 24: 727–750.

Dankittipakul, P., M.L. Tavano, W. Chotwong & T. Singtripop (2012). New synonym and descriptions of two new species of the spider genus Clubiona Latreille, 1804 from Thailand (Araneae, Clubionidae). Zootaxa 3532: 51–63.

Deeleman-Reinhold, C.L. (2001). ForestSspiders of South East Asia: with a Revision of the Sac and Ground Spiders (Araneae: Clubionidae, Corinnidae, Liocranidae, Gnaphosidae, Prodidomidae and Trochanterriidae [sic]). Brill, Leiden, 591pp.

Dhali, D.C., S. Saha & D. Raychaudhuri (2017). Litter and ground dwelling spiders (Araneae: Arachnida) of reserve forests of Dooars, West Bengal. World Scientific News 63: 1–242.

El-Hennawy, H.K. (2016). Stegodyphus tibialis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869) in central India (Araneae: Eresidae), with notes on Indian Stegodyphus species. Indian Journal of Arachnology 5: 28–35.

Gajbe, U.A. (2007). Araneae: Arachnida. In: Fauna of Madhya Pradesh (including Chhattisgarh), State Fauna Series. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata 15(1): 419–540.

Gajbe, U.A. (2008). Fauna of India and the adjacent countries: Spider (Arachnida: Araneae: Oxyopidae). Zoological Survey of India Kolkata 3: 1–117.

Kumar, M.G. & M. Mohanasundaram (1998). A new species of ant-like spider from cotton fields of Tamil Nadu (Araneae: Salticidae). Zoos’ Print Journal 13(11): 27–28.

Gravely, F.H. (1921a). The spiders and scorpions of Barkuda Island. Records of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 22: 399–421.

Gravely, F.H. (1921b). Some Indian spiders of the subfamily Tetragnathinae. Records of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 22: 423–459.

Gravely, F.H. (1922). Common Indian spiders. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 28: 1045–1050.

Gravely, F.H. (1924). Some Indian spiders of the family Lycosidae. Records of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 26: 587–613.

Gravely, F.H. (1931). Some Indian spiders of the families Ctenidae, Sparassidae, Selenopidae and Clubionidae. Records of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 33: 211–282.

Gravely, F.H. (1935). Notes on Indian mygalomorph spiders. II. of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 37: 69–84.

Gunti, P., C. Srinivasulu & G. Devender (2016). New locality data for Stegodyphus tibialis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869) (Araneae: Eresidae) from Telangana State, India. Check List 12(5): 1–3.

Hęciak, S. & J. Prószyński (1983). Remarks on Langona Simon (Araneae, Salticidae). Annales Zoologici, Warszawa 37: 207–233.

Hosagoudar, V.B., P.J. Robin & G.R. Archana (2009). New foliicolous fungi from the campus flora of Madras Christian College, India. Sydowia 61(2): 243–248.

Jastrzębski, P. (1997). Salticidae from the Himalayas. Genus Rhene Thorell, 1869 (Araneae: Salticidae). Entomologica Basiliensis 20: 45–56.

Jastrzębski, P. (1999). Salticidae from the Himalaya: The genus Carrhotus Thorell 1891 (Araneae, Salticidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 79: 1–9.

Javed, S.M.M., C. Srinivasulu & F. Tampal (2010). Addition to araneofauna of Andhra Pradesh, India: occurrence of three species of Argyrodes Simon, 1864 (Araneae: Theridiidae). Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(6): 980–985. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2194.980-5

Jose, K.S. (2011). A new species of the genus Cyrtarachne (Araneae: Araneidae) from western Ghats, India. Munis Entomology and Zoology 6: 321–324.

Jose, K.S. & P.A. Sebastian (2001). New report on some crab spiders (Araneae: Thomisidae) from Kerala, India. Entomon 26: 183–189.

Kanesharatnam, N. & S.P. Benjamin (2019). Multilocus genetic and morphological phylogenetic analysis reveals a radiation of shiny South Asian jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae). ZooKeys 839: 1–81.

Karthikeyani, R. & S. Kannan (2013). A new Plexippus spider from the western Ghats, Kumbakarai Falls, Theni District, Tamil Nadu, south India (Arachnida: Araneae: Salticidae). Indian Journal of Arachnology 2(2): 42–46.

Karthikeyani, R., J.T.D. Caleb, U.A. Gajbe & K. Muthuchelian (2017). Checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of the State of Tamil Nadu, India. Munis Entomology and Zoology 12(1): 180–193.

Keswani, S. (2013). Revision of spiders from the genus Cyclosa (Araneae: Araneidae) with description of two new species and the first record of male of C. moonduensis Tikader, 1963 from India. Indian Journal of Arachnology 2(1): 61–80.

Keswani, S. (2015). New record of spider Poltys illepidus (Araneae: Aranedae) [sic] from India. Indian Journal of Arachnology 4(1): 8–11.

Keswani, S. & G. Vankhede (2014). Description of one new species of the genus Clubiona (Araneae: Clubionidae) from India. Indian Journal of Arachnology 3(1): 35–40.

Kraus, O. & M. Kraus (1989). The genus Stegodyphus (Arachnida, Araneae). Sibling species, species groups, and parallel origin of social living. Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg 30: 151–254.

Kronestedt, T. (1993). Species of Wadicosa (Araneae: Lycosidae): revised generic allocation of Lycosa quadrifer Gravely from Sri Lanka and India. Journal of Natural History 27: 313–321.

Kronestedt, T. (2010). Draposa, a new wolf spider genus from South and Southeast Asia (Araneae: Lycosidae). Zootaxa 2637: 31–54.

Kronestedt, T. (2017). Species of Wadicosa (Araneae, Lycosidae): a new species close to W. quadrifera (Gravely) from the Western Ghats, India. Zootaxa 4300(2): 295–300.

Lal, G. & C. Livingstone (1978).Campus flora”, Ballussery Press, Madras.

Lin, Y.J., L. Shao, A. Hanggi, J.T.D. Caleb, J.K.H. Koh, P. Jager & S. Li (2020). Asianopis gen.nov., a new genus of the spider family Deinopidae from Asia. ZooKeys 911: 67–99.

Logunov, D.V. (2001). A redefinition of the genera Bianor Peckham & Peckham, 1885 and Harmochirus Simon, 1885, with the establishment of a new genus Sibianor gen. n. (Aranei: Salticidae). Arthropoda Selecta 9: 221–286.

Logunov, D.V. (2019). Taxonomic notes on the Harmochirina Simon, 1903 from South and South-East Asia (Aranei: Salticidae). Arthropoda Selecta 28(1): 99–112.

Logunov, D.V. & G.N. Azarkina (2018). Redefinition and partial revision of the genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 (Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 430: 1–126.

Lu, T., L.Y. Wang, P. Hadole & Z.S. Zhang (2016). Redescription of four wolf-spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) from India. Indian Journal of Arachnology 5: 130–142.

MacLeay, W.S. (1839). On some new forms of Arachnida. Annals of Natural History 2(7): 1–14, pl. 1–2.

Malamel, J.J., P.M. Sankaran, M.M. Joseph & P.A. Sebastian (2015). Cyrtarachne keralensis Jose, 2011 is a junior synonym of Anepsion maritatum (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1877) (Araneae, Araneidae). Zootaxa 4039(3): 478–482.

Majagi, S.H., S. Talwar, K. Vijaykumar & S. Kamble (2018). First record of male Cyrba ocellata Kroneberg, 1875 from India (Araneae: Salticidae). Ecology and Fisheries 11(1): 15–20.

Majumder, S.C. & B.K. Tikader (1991). Studies on some spiders of the family Clubionidae from India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper 102: 1–175.

Meher-Homji, V.M. (1973). A phytosociological study of the Albizia amara Boiv. community of India. Phytocoenologia 1(1): 114–129.

Meher-Homji, V.M. (1974). On the origin of tropical dry evergreen forest of south India. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Science 1: 19–39.

Meher-Homji, V.M. (2007). Tropical dry evergreen forest. Current Science 93(1): 11–12.

Murthappa, P.S., D.A. Prajapati, P.M. Sankaran & P.A. Sebastian (2016). First records of the genus Cambalida Simon, 1909 (Araneae: Corinnidae, Castianeirinae) from Asia, with the description of two new species from India and one new combination. Zootaxa 4103(6): 526–536.

Murthappa, P.S., J.J. Malamel, D.A. Prajapati, P.A. Sebastian & M. Venkateshwarlu (2017). First description of the male of the type species Meotipa picturata Simon, 1895 and description of a new Meotipa species (Araneae, Theridiidae) from India. Zootaxa 4344(3): 589–596.

Patel, B.H. (1973). Some interesting theridiid spiders (Araneae: Theridiidae) from Gujarat, India. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 2: 149–152.

Patel, B.H. (1975). Studies on some spiders of the family Argiopidae (Arachnida: Araneae) from Gujarat, India. Vidya 18: 153–167.

Patel, B.H. & H.K. Patel (1973). On some new species of spiders of family Clubionidae (Araneae: Arachnida) with a record of genus Castianeira Keyserling from Gujarat, India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science 78(B): 1–9.

Patil, V.K. & V.P. Uniyal (2016). Redescription of male and range extension of Araneus viridisomus Gravely, 1921 (Araneae: Araneidae). Indian Journal of Arachnology 5: 172–175.

Paul, J., P.M. Sankaran, P.A. Sebastian & M.M. Joseph (2018). A review of the wasp mimicking spider genus Coenoptychus Simon, 1885 (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae). Zootaxa 4413(1): 163–172.

Phanuel, G.J. (1963). Stegodyphus tibialis (Cambridge) (Family Eresidae: Araneida) from Madras. Journal of the Madras University, Section B 33(3): 305–310.

Phillips, A. & R.W.A. Jesudasan (2013). A new genus, two new species and two new records of White flies (Aleyrodidae:Hemiptera) from India. The Bioscan 8(1): 343–347.

Pickard-Cambridge, O. (1872). General list of the spiders of Palestine and Syria, with descriptions of numerous new species, and characters of two new genera. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 40(1): 212–354, pl. 13–16.

Pickard-Cambridge, O. (1874). On some new species of Drassides. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 42(3): 370–419, Pl. LI–LII.

Pickard-Cambridge, O. (1883). On some new genera and species of spiders. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 51(3): 352–365, Pl. XXXVI–XXXVII.

Pickard-Cambridge, O. (1897). On some new and little-known spiders (Araneidae). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 64(4, for 1896): 1006–1012, Pl. LII.

Pocock, R.I. (1899). Diagnoses of some new Indian Arachnida. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 12: 744–753.

Pocock, R.I. (1900). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Arachnida. Taylor and Francis, London, 279pp.

Pocock, R.I. (1901). Descriptions of some new species of spiders from British India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 13: 478–498.

Pocock, R.I. (1904). Arachnida, pp. 797–805. In: Gardiner S.J. (ed). The Fauna and geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes. Cambridge University Press, London, 2, 797pp.

Pravalikha, G.B., C. Srinivasulu & B. Srinivasulu (2014). New species of genus Hersilia Audouin, 1826 (Araneae: Hersiliidae) from India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(3): 5553–5557. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3723.5553-7

Prószyński, J. (1984). Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Wyższa Szkola Rolniczo-Pedagogiczna, Siedlcach 2: 1–177.

Prószyński, J. (1992). Salticidae (Araneae) of India in the collection of the Hungarian National Natural History Museum in Budapest. Annales Zoologici, Warszawa 44: 165–277.

Prószyński, J. & C.L. Deeleman-Reinhold (2010). Description of some Salticidae (Araneae) from the Malay Archipelago. I. Salticidae of the Lesser Sunda Islands, with comments on related species. Arthropoda Selecta 19: 153–188.

Rajoria, A. (2015). Redescription of Poltys illepidus C.L.Koch, 1843* with first record of male from India. Indian Journal of Arachnology 4(2): 6–9.

Raman, T.R.S., R.K.G. Menon & R. Sukumar (1996). Ecology and managaement of Chital and Blackbuck in Guindy National Park, Madras. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 93: 178–192.

Reimoser, E. (1934). Araneae aus Süd-Indien. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 41: 465–511.

Rheims, C.A., A.D. Brescovit & C.G. Durán-Barrón (2007). Mexican species of the genus Scytodes Latreille (Araneae, Scytodidae). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 13: 93–119.

Roy, T.K., S. Saha & D. Raychaudhuri (2016). A treatise on the jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) of tea ecosystem of Dooars, West Bengal, India. World Scientific News 53(1): 1–66.

Roy, T.K., S. Saha & D. Raychaudhuri (2017). On the araneid fauna (Araneae: Araneidae) of the tea estates of Dooars, West Bengal, India. World Scientific News 67(1): 1–67.

Saaristo, M.I. (2006). Theridiid or cobweb spiders of the granitic Seychelles islands (Araneae, Theridiidae). Phelsuma 14: 49–89.

Sadana, G.L. (1971). Description of a new species of Pardosa Koch (Lycosidae: Araneida) from India. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 107: 226–227.

Sanjeeva Raj, P.J. (2011). Wildlife Reserves and Corridors in Chennai City. Eco News 17(3): 3–7.

Shankar-Raman, T.R., R.K.G. Menon & R. Sukumar (1996). Ecology and managaement of Chital and Blackbuck in Guindy National park, Madras. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 93: 178–192.

Sankaran, P.M., M.J. Jobi & P.A. Sebastian (2015). Redescription of the orb-weaving spider Gasteracantha geminata (Fabricius, 1798) (Araneae, Araneidae). Zootaxa 3915(1): 147–150.

Sankaran, P.M., J.T.D. Caleb & P.A. Sebastian (2019). New synonymies and transfers in Castianeira Keyserling, 1879 (Araneae, Corinnidae, Castianeirinae) from India. Zootaxa 4623(2): 331–340.

Schwendinger, P.J. (1991). Two new trap-door spiders from Thailand (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Idiopidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 8: 233–240.

Sebastian, P.A., P.M. Sankaran, J.J. Malamel & M.M. Joseph (2015). Description of new species of Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from the Western Ghats of India with the redescription of Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 and notes on mating plug in the genus (Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae). ZooKeys 491: 63–78.

Sen, J.K. & K.C. Basu (1973). A new spider of the genus Runcinia Simon, 1875 (Thomisidae: Archanida [sic], from India. Journal of the Zoological Society of India 24: 103–104.

Sen, S., D.C. Dhali, S. Saha & D. Raychaudhuri (2015). Spiders (Araneae: Arachnida) of Reserve Forests of Dooars: Gorumara National Park, Chapramari Wildlife Sanctuary and Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary. World Scientific News 20: 1–339.

Sethi, V.D. & B.K. Tikader (1988). Studies on some giant crab spiders of the family Heteropodidae from India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Miscellaneous Publications, Occasional Paper 93: 1–94.

Sherriffs, W.R. (1919). A contribution to the study of south Indian arachnology. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 9(4): 220–253.

Sherriffs, W.R. (1927). South Indian arachnology. Part II. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 9(19): 533–542.

Sherriffs, W.R. (1951). Some oriental spiders of the genus Oxyopes. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 120: 651–677.

Sherriffs, W.R. (1955). More Oriental spiders of the genus Oxyopes. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 125(2): 297–308.

Simon, E. (1885a). Matériaux pour servir à la faune arachnologiques de l’Asie méridionale. I. Arachnides recueillis à Wagra-Karoor près Gundacul, district de Bellary par M. M. Chaper. II. Arachnides recueillis à Ramnad, district de Madura par M. l’abbé Fabre. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 10: 1–39.

Simon, E. (1885b). Matériaux pour servir à la faune arachnologiques de l’Asie méridionale. III. Arachnides recueillis en 1884 dans la presqu’île de Malacca, par M. J. Morgan. IV. Arachnides recueillis à Collegal, district de Coimbatoore, par M. A. Theobald G. R. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 10: 436–462.

Simon, E. (1895). Histoire naturelle des araignées. Deuxième édition, tome premier. Roret, Paris, pp. 761–1084.

Simon, E. (1900). Etudes arachnologiques. 30e Mémoire. XLVII. Descriptions d’espèces nouvelles de la famille des Attidae. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 69: 27–61.

Simon, E. (1901). Histoire naturelle des araignées. Deuxième édition, tome second. Roret, Paris, pp. 381–668.

Simon, E. (1903). Histoire naturelle des araignées. Deuxième édition, tome second. Roret, Paris, pp. 669–1080.

Simon, E. (1906). Arachnides (2e partie). In: Voyage de M. Maurice Maindron dans l’Inde méridionale. 8e Mémoire. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 75: 279–314.

Sinha, T.B. (1951a). On the collection of lycosid spiders in the Zoological Survey of India. Records of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 48: 9–52.

Sinha, T.B. (1951b). Some Indian spiders of the family Hersiliidae. Records of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 48: 121–126.

Srinivasulu, C., B. Srinivasulu, S.M.M. Javed, M. Seetharamaraju, S.A. Jyothi, C.A. Srinivasulu & F. Tampal (2013). Additions to the araneofauna of Andhra Pradesh, India – Part II. Records of interesting species of the comb-footed genera Latrodectus, Rhomphaea and Coleosoma (Araneae: Theridiidae). Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(10): 4483–4491. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.o2660.4483-91

Stoliczka, F. (1869). Contribution towards the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38(pt.2): 201–251.

Sudhin, P.P., K.S. Nafin, Z. Simmons & A.V. Sudhikumar (2016). On the type species of the genus Aetius O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896: the first description of male with notes on cymbial notch and mating plug (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae). Zootaxa 4154(4): 489–500.

Talwar, S.S., S.H. Majagi, K. Vijaykumar, A.K. Bodkhe & S.S. Kamble (2017). First record of genus Cyrba Simon, 1876 from India (Araneae: Salticidae). Serket 15(3): 138–142.

Thorell, T. (1887). Viaggio di L. Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. II. Primo saggio sui ragni birmani. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 25: 5–417.

Tikader, B.K. (1960). On some new species of spiders (Arachnida) of the family Thomisidae from India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 57: 173–183.

Tikader, B.K. (1962). Studies on some spiders of the genus Oecobius (family Oecobiidae) from India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 59: 682–685.

Tikader, B.K. (1963). On a new species of spider of the genus Loxosceles (Family Scytodidae) from India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, Calcutta 16: 23–25.

Tikader, B.K. (1965). On some new species of spiders of the family Thomisidae from India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science 61(B): 277–289.

Tikader, B.K. (1966). Studies on some crab-spider (family: Thomisidae) from Khasi and Jaintia hills, Assam, India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science 64(B): 53–61.

Tikader, B.K. (1967). Studies on some Salticidae spider from Sikkim, Himalaya, India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science, 66(B): 117–122.

Tikader, B.K. (1968). Studies on spider fauna of Khasi and Jaintia hills, Assam, India. Part-II. Journal of the Assam Science Society 10: 102–122.

Tikader, B.K. (1970). Spider fauna of Sikkim. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 64: 1–83.

Tikader, B.K. (1971). Revision of Indian crab spiders (Araneae: Thomisidae). Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 15(8): 1–90.

Tikader, B. K. (1973). Studies on some ant-like spiders from India (family: Salticidae). Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science 78(B): 59–67.

Tikader, B.K. (1974a). Studies on some jumping spiders of the genus Phidippus from India (family-Salticidae). Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science 79(B): 120–126.

Tikader, B.K. (1974b). Studies on some jumping spiders of the genus Marpissa from India (family-Salticidae). Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science 79(B): 204–215.

Tikader, B.K. (1976). Redescription of a jumping spider Harmochirus brachiatus (Thorell) with a new record from India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 73: 410–411.

Tikader, B.K. (1977). Studies on spider fauna of Andaman and Nicobar islands, Indian Ocean. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 72: 153–212.

Tikader, B.K. (1980a). Thomisidae (Crab-spiders). Fauna India (Araneae) 1: 1–247.

Tikader, B.K. (1980b). Description of a new species of spider of the genus Neoscona (Family: Araneidae) from India and some observations on intraspecific colour variation. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science (Animal Science) 89: 247–252.

Tikader, B.K. (1981). Studies on spiders of the genus Castianeira Keyserling (Family: Clubionidae) from India. Bulletin of the Zoological Survey of India 4: 257–265.

Tikader, B.K. (1982).