Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 14 September 2020 | 12(12): 16647–16714

 

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5357.12.12.16647-16714

#5357 | Received 25 August 2019 | Final received 01 August 2020 | Finally accepted 15 August 2020

 

 

 

Marine Annelida of India: taxonomy and status evaluation and an updated checklist

 

Sanitha K. Sivadas 1  & Russell Carvalho 2

 

1 National Centre for Coastal Research (NCCR), Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), NIOT Campus, Pallikaranai, Chennai,

Tamil Nadu 600100, India.

2 Santa Margarita Catholic High School, Science Department, 222062 Antonio Parkway Rancho, Santa Margarita, CA 92688, USA.

1 sanitha_sivadas@yahoo.com, sanitha@nccr.gov.in (corresponding author), 2 carvalhorussell@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

Abstract: We present an updated checklist of marine annelids from the Indian subcontinent.  Records of annelid species were obtained from published and grey literatures and online databases.  Our review of annelid publications was restricted to the Indian continental shelf region.  This paper also discusses the taxonomic status of marine annelid species recorded from this region and problems that impede its research.  The updated list comprises of 727 species belonging to 334 genera and 72 families.  A total of 152 species have their type locality in India including 88 species that are endemic to the region.  The current checklist indicates that 25% (183 species) of the records are questionable and require further examination.  Our results highlight that marine annelid richness of the Indian sub-continent is underestimated with many of the native undescribed species being most likely concealed under ‘erroneous’ or ‘cosmopolitan’ records.  With a combination of factors that include a lack of experts, funding, and failure to update regional literature has resulted in an incomplete state of knowledge for the marine annelid biodiversity from this region.  Therefore, there is an urgent need for extensive and intensive sampling to discover new species, conduct detailed re-examinations of doubtful records and, collaborate within the local and international institutes and organizations to improve the regional biodiversity studies.

 

Keywords: Annelids, cosmopolitan, Echiura, Errantia, Fauvel, Sedentaria, Sipuncula.

 

 

 

Editor: Cinthya S.G. Santos, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brasil.       Date of publication: 14 September 2020 (online & print)

 

Citation: Sivadas, S.K. & R. Carvalho (2020). Marine Annelida of India: taxonomy and status evaluation and an updated checklist.  Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(12): 16647–16714. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5357.12.12.16647-16714

 

Copyright: © Sivadas & Carvalho 2020. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: SKS funding: CSIR Research Associate (No.31/26(187)/2010-EMR-I) and Science and Engineering Research Board Fast track young scientist project grant (DST No: SR/FTP/ES-18/2012).

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Dr. Sanitha K Sivadas works as a Scientist D at the National Centre of Coastal Research, Chennai. Primary research area is centred on marine benthic functional ecology from intertidal to deep sea habitat.  Other research interest includes marine benthic biogeography pattern, preparing benthic species inventory and, marine litter and microplastics. Dr. Russell Carvalho is a Science Teacher at Santa Margarita Catholic high school (SMCHS) and also an Adjunct Professor at Santa Ana College in Southern California, USA. The author is an avid marine biologist and benthic expert. He loves to conduct field trips and educational camps for students and kids of all ages.

 

Author contribution: SKS—conceptualization, investigation and writing - original draft; RC—conceptualization and writing - review & editing.

 

Acknowledgements: SKS would like to thank The Director, National Centre for Coastal Research (NCCR), Ministry of Earth Sciences, for the facilities. Part of this work was carried out at CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR-NIO), Goa-India. We are deeply indebted to Dr. Brett Gonzalez from Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institute, Washington D.C. and Ms. Leslie Harris, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, CA, for their encouragement and support. The authors thank the anonymous reviewer for the constructive comments which greatly improved this manuscript. Special thanks to Drs. Andre S.Y. Mackie (National Museum Wales, Cardiff, UK); Christopher J. Glasby (Museum & Art Gallery Northern Territory, Australia); Charlotte Watson (Australia); Elena K Kupriyanova (Australian Museum); Geoff Read (NIWA, New Zealand), Harry ten Hove (Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, Netherlands); Igor Jirkov (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia); Karin Meißner (Senckenberg Research Institute, Germany), Luis F. Carrera-Parra (El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, México); Maria Cristina Gambi (Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Italy); María Ana Tovar-Hernández (Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Mexico); Markus Böggemann (Universität Vechta, Germany); Pat Hutchings(Australian Museum); Rodolfo Elias (INVEMAR, Colombia); Tulio F. Villalobos Guerrero (Kagoshima University, Japan) for clarifying doubts and sharing their publications.During SKS tenure at CSIR-NIO, she was supported by CSIR Research Associate (No.31/26(187)/2010-EMR-I) and Science and Engineering Research Board Fast track young scientist project grant (DST No: SR/FTP/ES-18/2012).

 

 

 

Introduction

 

The Phylum Annelida is among the most diverse invertebrate groups that inhabits the marine, freshwater, brackish, and terrestrial ecosystems.  Annelids exhibit exceptional morphological and ecological diversity. Evolving and radiating globally around the Cambrian period (490–500 million years ago) this group diversified into 21,000 species (Appeltans et al. 2012; Weigert et al. 2014).  The evolution of numerous feeding guilds, modes of locomotion, and reproductive strategies allow them to inhabit a wide range of marine habitats, spanning from the intertidal to the deep sea (Carvalho et al. 2013), including extreme environments such as Oxygen minimum zones (OMZ), cold seeps, and hydrothermal vents.  Because of their diversity and dominance in most benthic habitats, they are a significant component of the marine ecosystem, forming an important link in the food web and nutrient recycling (Hutchings 1998).  In addition, they are reliable ecological indicators for marine habitat quality because they are abundant, diverse, and contain both sensitive and tolerant species (Pocklington & Wells 1992).

Introduced as an established phylum (Lamarck 1802), classification of the Annelida has been updated numerous times and, of all the major animal clades, the annelid phylogeny has always been a unique and evolving challenge (e.g., Rouse & Pleijel 2007; Weigert & Bleidron 2016).  Moreover, Annelida show the highest discordance between morphology and molecular-based phylogenetic knowledge (Andrade et al. 2015).  Recent studies using next-generation sequencing and phylogenomic analyses have been able to resolve the annelid phylogeny, but many questions about their phylogeny are still unresolved (Weigert et al. 2014; Andrade et al. 2015; Struck et al. 2015; Weigert & Bleidorn 2016).

Classification of polychaete into Errantia and Sedentaria was the most common and widely used during the 20th century (e.g., Day 1967; Hartman 1968).  Based on morphological cladistics analysis of Annelida and other groups, a new classification was outlined (Fauchald & Rouse 1997; Rouse & Fauchald 1997); however this classification was challenged by molecular data (Rouse & Pleijel 2007).  According to Weigert & Bleidorn (2016), Annelida are divided into two major clades, Errantia and Sedentaria, and five basal branching lineages (Sipuncula, Amphinomida, Chaetopteridae, Magelonidae, and, Oweniidae).

Errantia include Aciculata (Phyllodocida and Eunicida), Myzostomidae, and the interstitial polychaetes, Protodriliformia.  Sedentaria contain the polychaete families formerly classified as Canalipalpata or Scolecida, the interstitial polychaetes, Parergodrilidae, Diurodrilidae, Dinophilidae, and Nerillidae.  Clitellata, Echiura, and Siboglinidae are also grouped with Sedentaria.  Since we have followed the Weigert & Bleidorn (2016) classification, the term “polychaetes” refers to the traditional name used for the bristle worms in this publication.

The mega diverse Indian subcontinent contributes to approximately 7–8% of the total species recorded on our planet and shows a high level of endemism.  The varied climatic, topographic, oceanographic, and hydrodynamic conditions have resulted in a wide range of habitats accounting for this rich biodiversity.  Despite being labelled as a biodiversity hotspot region; with the exception of birds, mammals, and a few plant groups, rest of this biodiversity has received little attention.  Comprehensive reviews of marine biodiversity, the most recent rate of loss of marine life, along with updated taxonomic monographs and checklists are lacking for many marine invertebrates, including the Annelida.  Because of this, India has failed to overcome its taxonomic impediment for most of its biodiversity groups (Dar et al. 2012).

Studies on the Annelida in India dates from the late 17th century with the description of a new species, Amphinome rostrata (Pallas, 1766).  It was only in 1921, that the first comprehensive checklist of brackish water polychaetes was published (Southern 1921).  A total of 30 polychaete species was reported including three new genera and 27 new species from the Gangetic Delta and Chilika in the east, and Kochi backwaters in the southwestern coast of India.  During the following years, numerous papers were published, mostly from southern India (e.g., Gravely 1927; Krishnan 1936; Panikkar & Aiyar 1937; Paul 1942).  Aiyar & Alikunhi focused on the interstitial polychaetes and made a number of significant publications (Aiyar & Alikunhi 1940, 1943, 1944; Alikunhi 1941, 1942, 1943 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951).  Annandale & Kemp (1915), Prashad (1919, 1921, 1935), Prashad & Awati (1929), DattaGupta et al. (1963), DattaGupta & Menon (1966), and DattaGupta (1974) made a significant contribution to the study of the Echiura from India.  Badri Prasad Haldar contributed to the study of sipuncula from India and published the first checklist of Indian sipuncula (Haldar 1991).  The aquatic oligochaetes of India were compiled by Naidu (2005) in the series of taxonomic publications, “Fauna of India” by the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI).

The first monograph on Indian polychaetes “Fauna of India, Including Pakistan, Ceylon, Burma and Malaya: Annelida Polychaeta” was published by Professor Pierre Fauvel (Fauvel 1953).  The monograph was based on the collection of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) and the Indian Museum, Kolkata (Fauvel 1930, 1932) which included polychaetes from the neighbouring countries (Myanmar, Pakistan, Malaysia, and Sri Lanka).  A total of 462 polychaete species was reported, out of which 304 were recorded from India (Fauvel 1953).  In subsequent years, Olga Hartman made important contributions to the study of Indian Ocean polychaetes based on the samples collected during the first International Indian Ocean Expeditions (IIOE) (Hartman 1974a,b).  Part I was on taxonomy and included 244 taxa of which 116 were new records to the area and 16 were new species.  Part II was a catalogue of species and bibliography that listed 883 species in 315 genera and 59 families.  Many of the samples of the first IIOE, however, currently located at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, still remain to be analysed (Sivadas et al. 2016a).

With numerous expeditions, individual, local as well international studies being conducted on the subcontinent, the ZSI started to make important contributions to marine annelid studies and published several reports on new species, new distribution records, and checklists as part of the series, “Fauna of the coastal states of India” (Sen et al. 2016).  Reviews and checklists from different coastal regions continued to be published during the 1990s and 2000s (e.g., Haldar 1991; Khan & Murgesan 2005; Sivaleela & Venkatraman 2012; Rajasekaran & Fernando 2012; Pati et al. 2015).  Mitra & Mishra (2017) reviewed the freshwater polychaetes of India and reported 41 species belonging to 25 genera in 15 families.  Local checklists have been published at regular intervals throughout the decades, however, there are no comprehensive checklists available for the entire Indian subcontinent that could provide an overview of the marine annelid diversity.  The aims of this paper are to address the following objectives: (1) to provide an annotated checklist of marine Annelida of India, (2) to critically assess taxonomic status of the species recorded, and (3) to identify the problems that impede annelid diversity studies in India.

 

 

Methods

 

Geological features of the Indian coast

The Indian coast spans across a large latitude of 15° (6°–23° N) and has a total coastal length of ~7,516km (Figure 1).  The Indian exclusive economic zone (EEZ) has an area of 2.015 x 106 km2.  The width of the western continental shelf varies from 345km off Daman (north) and tapers to 60km off Kochi (south).  The western continental shelf of India has an area of about 3,10,000km2, with sediment and organic matter varying from the inner shelf to the outer shelf (Faruque & Ramachandran 2014).  The eastern continental shelf also has a variable width of 35km off Tamil Nadu (south) to 120km around Digha (north).  Just like the western shelf, the eastern continental shelf is also characterized by various sediment features (Faruque et al. 2014).  The country has 14 major, 44 medium, and 162 minor rivers with a total catchment area of 3.12 x 106 km2, discharging 1,645km3 of freshwater every year to the seas around the country.  The Ganga-Brahmaputra is the largest river in the country and third largest freshwater outlet to the world’s oceans.  All these features create a diverse coastal habitat which includes rivers and estuaries endowed with extensive mangroves and mudflats (e.g., the Sunderbans, the largest mangrove ecosystem of the world), coral reefs, seagrass beds, sandy and rocky shores, largest saltwater lake in Asia (Chilika) and the largest and most intense Oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) extending from 100 to 1,000 m depth (Arabian Sea).  All these diverse habitats make the Indian coast a complex region that supports a species-rich marine fauna (Sivadas & Ingole 2016).

 

Data Collection

The marine annelid species data was compiled from published and grey literature.  Our review of annelid related publications was restricted to the Indian continental shelf region.  As for the deep sea, most of the knowledge on marine biodiversity is a result of environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies in the Central Indian Ocean basin, and ecological studies of OMZ and Carlsberg Ridge.  Although, in most of these studies, polychaetes were the dominant taxa, identification was restricted to the genus or family level (Parulekar et al. 1993; Ingole et al. 2005, 2010; Pavithran et al. 2007, 2009) and therefore, were not considered in this review.  Data from predatory journals were also not considered due to their conflicting and controversial information.

The compiled species lists were checked against the World Register of Marine Worms (WoRMS) database (WoRMS Editorial Board 2020) for the synonyms, spelling errors, and updated species names.  In this paper, we followed the classification of Weigert & Bleidorn (2016).  The final list is presented in Table 1 with the following information:  Species author, type-locality, distribution, references, and comments.  The records were classified as: endemic ($), type-locality in India (*), questionable (#) and, misidentification (@).  Species were categorized as ‘endemic’ if they were reported only from India, except for those species reported in the last 10 years (2011–2020).  Erroneous (questionable and misidentification) records were identified based on the type locality and distribution data of species from published literature and WoRMS (WoRMS Editorial Board 2020).  Species with type localities and/or with distributions restricted to the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Southern Ocean, or the North Sea were considered as questionable records that require verification.

We also conducted a systematic review to assess the “status quo” of general marine annelid research in India.  The search engines, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and Scopus were used for this purpose.  The criteria for search included any paper published up to April 2020 with terms such as “Annelida”, “benthos”, “Clitellata’, “Oligochaeta”, “polychaetes”, “Polychaeta”, “Sedentaria”, “Errantia”, “India”, “Echiura”, “Sipuncula” “coastal”, “macrobenthos”, “macrofauna”, “meiobenthos”, “meiofauna”, and “marine” in the title, keywords, or abstract.  The results summed to 863 papers that without duplication became 594 papers from 1915 to 2020.

While preparing the checklist, the following locations were referred by their current names: Bombay = Mumbai; Chilka = Chilika; Cochin = Kochi; Mangalore = Mangaluru; Madras = Chennai; Laccadive = Lakshadweep; Malabar Coast = Kerala (north); Orissa = Odisha; Pondicherry = Puducherry; Tuticorin = Thoothukudi; Vizagapatnam/ Waltair = Visakhapatnam.

 

 

Results

 

The updated checklist of marine annelids is presented in Table 1 that includes the accepted names, authors, the type locality, distribution information (world and India) followed by remarks, and references.  The type locality information was taken from the original descriptions; however, whenever original publications were not available, information was extracted from other publications, WoRMS, and online resources.  For publications with ambiguous information, e.g., Willey (1905), did not clearly describe if the type locality of species recorded were in India or Sri Lanka, and because of this we did not consider this information in the type locality species list from India.  The annelid families and species names are presented alphabetically.  Some recent changes in the families or genera have been followed, and their sources have been mentioned in the reference and remarks column.  In the remarks and reference column, a short remark on the questionable records and references are mentioned to encourage further studies.

The marine annelids in India comprise of 727 species belonging to 334 genera and 72 families (Table 1 and Figure 2).  Errantia is the most species-rich clade with 354 species belonging to 31 families in 151 genera (Table 2), and the most species-rich families are Nereididae (72 species and 17 genera), Eunicidae (33 and 8 genera), and Polynoidae (32 species and 22 genera).  Sedentaria is represented by 301 species in 155 genera and 31 families (Table 2 and Figure 2) and Spionidae (37 and 14 genera) and Serpulidae (34 species and 14 genera) are the most species-rich families.  At present, 152 species have their type locality in India with 88 species being putatively endemic to the region (Table 1).  The maximum number of new species (142 species) recorded in India was before the year 2000 (Figure 3).  And from the years 2001–2019, only eight new species have been recorded.

 

Doubtful species records from India

The checklist of marine Annelida from India that we have compiled is far from complete due to a number of reasons.  Based on the criteria established, we identified a total of 173 species as questionable records and 10 misidentifications from the region (Tables 1 and 2).  An example is the species Paraprionospio pinnata from the Spionidae family.  This species has been frequently reported from ecological publications and local checklists.  Yokoyama & Sukumaran (2012), however, suggested that the Paraprionospio species reported from India have been misidentified as P. pinnata.  At present, Paraprionospio cordifolia (Yokoyama, 2007), P. cristata (Zhou, Yokoyama & Li, 2008), and P. patiens (Yokoyama, 2007) are the species of Paraprionospio reported from the region.  Paraprionospio pinnata is considered a dominant species in the macrobenthic community having a wide distribution along the Indian coast, including the upwelling and OMZ areas (Ingole et al. 2010; Sivadas et al. 2016b).  Based on type locality (Chile) and the recent publication of Yokoyama & Sukumaran (2012), there is a vital need to re-evaluate all records reported as P. pinnata.  In addition to the above examples, based on the taxonomically revised publications, Capitella capitata (Fabricius, 1780), Eurythoe complanata (Pallas, 1766), Hydroides norvegica Gunnerus, 1768, Marphysa sanguinea (Montagu, 1813), Owenia fusiformis Delle Chiaje 1844, Serpula vermicularis Linnaeus, 1767, Sternaspis scutata (Ranzani, 1817), S. costata Marenzeller, 1879), and Terebellides stroemii Sars, 1835 and others are also considered as questionable records from India (Table 1).

 

 

Discussion

 

The checklist presented in this publication represents the most updated list of marine Annelida recorded from the Indian subcontinent.  The updated information based on species occurrence data recorded 727 species belonging to 72 families.  We have identified 173 questionable and 10 misidentified species because all correspond to species with type localities and distributions outside the Indian Ocean region.  Of the total of 183 erroneous species recorded, almost 50% of the species were reported by Fauvel (1932, 1953) and five species by Hartman (1974a,b).

The use of publications from other regions (e.g., Day 1967) also resulted in the erroneous records.  Fauvel and Day’s monographs continue to be the most widely used references by most Indian researchers.  Taxonomists like Fauvel, Day, and Hartman believed in the cosmopolitan distribution of polychaete species (Salazar-Vallejo et al. 2014; Hutchings & Kupriyanova 2018).  Therefore, they recorded European species in their publications in the Indian Ocean and other regions and synonymized several species without evidence (Hutchings & Kupriyanova 2018).  This resulted in the species found from tropical regions having names that were often based upon the specimens of the Scandinavian or Mediterranean regions (Salazar-Vallejo et al. 2014; Hutchings & Kupriyanova 2018).  This argument is very true for the marine annelids of India as European taxonomists carried out the initial studies on the fauna of this region.  Multiple records may exist for species from Europe and other regions, which most likely may not be found in the Indian waters.  Therefore, we may have many native undescribed species concealed under incorrectly applied older European names (Sivadas et al. 2016a; Hutchings & Kupriyanova 2018).

Like the polychaetes, there are no updated publications on the other marine annelid groups from this region.  In the case of sipunculans, after the publication of the first checklist (Haldar 1991), there was no other publication on this group, except for a new subspecies report (Saiz et al. 2015).  The aquatic oligochaetes of India were compiled by Naidu (2005) that reported 101 species and one subspecies from the region.  Only three species, however, were reported from the estuarine and coastal areas.  Although, oligochaetes, sipunculans, and echiurans are frequently reported in ecology papers, their identification is usually restricted to higher taxonomic level.

 

Impediments to taxonomy

This checklist was compiled with the aim of updating the Indian annelid species list for future references.  A number of factors combine to make the current marine annelid checklist of India far from complete.  One of the factors that contribute to a decline in biodiversity research is that taxonomic studies are largely neglected in favour of ecological research.  There are other priorities that take over taxonomic research in this country, for e.g., global science trends, commercial or political treatise, and specific interests of some scientific lobbies and corporations.  Evidence for this is substantiated from our bibliography review, wherein, only 207 publications were focused on annelid studies, and in the last few decades (1960–2020) only 74 papers were related to taxonomy (Figure 3).  The Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), Centre for Marine and Living Resources (CMLRE), CSIR- National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR-NIO), National Centre for Coastal Research (formerly, Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management - Project Directorate; ICMAM PD), National Centre of Sustainable Coastal Management (NCSCM), ZSI, and a few credible Indian universities (e.g., Andhra University, Anna University, Annamalai University, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Goa University) are some of the institutions working on marine biodiversity.  Marine biodiversity studies on this subcontinent are mainly focused on select marine taxa, considered of economic importance, and the level of identification is often kept to genera/family level.  We have also observed that biodiversity and ecology research are limited to a few locations along the Indian coast, such as, habitats near and around the host institutes and biodiversity hotspot regions like, the Gulf of Kachchh in Gujarat (northwest coast), Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay in Tamil Nadu (southeastern coast) and, Andaman & Nicobar Island (Bay of Bengal).  Therefore, a vast region of this country is still underexplored.

Further, there is limited work to update the checklist of marine invertebrates in the country (Parameswaran et al. 2017; Samuel et al. 2017).  Monographic revisions allow identifying missing data, the need for new collections and additional data, and updated taxonomic status of a species (Dayrat 2011).  The lack of recent monographic revisions makes Indian researchers depend on older literature and monographs or literature from temperate regions.  The use of such sources is one of the primary reasons for erroneous species records found in the regional biodiversity data.  A major drawback when referring to older literature is that the descriptions of many species are very brief with poor illustrations, limited or no supporting information on their location, reproduction or habitat (Hutchings & Kupriyanova 2018).  Another drawback of overdependence on Fauvel and Day’s monographs is that new species publications from the region, post 1953 Fauvel’s publication, are not referred; as a result, those species have not been reported from any other location (e.g., Glycera embranchiata Krishnamoorthi 1962, Hesionides peculiaris Westheide & Rao, 1977, and Lycastonereis indica Nageswara-Rao, 1981).

A primary reason for the poor state of marine biodiversity knowledge is that most Indian institutes and universities lack trained taxonomists; as a result, young researchers are often ‘self-taught’ using outdated literature.  Their complete dependence on outdated keys along with very short descriptions given in those publications ultimately results in erroneous species reporting.  Currently, many institutions lack access to critical taxonomic literature, which may partly explain why researchers continue their dependence on such older literature.  With these outdated works still cited in many recent publications, we feel that younger and newer researchers working on taxonomy need to make an effort to update and carry out taxonomic revisions of annelids from the Indian subcontinent.  Most institutes and museums in India and other regions are digitizing their library collections, hence, many of these original publications are now easily available online for free and hopefully are being referenced by numerous researchers.

Our review of several ecological publications and EIA and monitoring reports revealed doubtful species records, misidentifications, spelling errors, and a usage of unaccepted scientific species names, a trend observed in ecological studies worldwide (Bortolus 2008; Sivadas & Madeswaran 2020).  Since ecological studies form the baseline for many of the biological disciplines, it also plays an important role in spreading and magnifying the conceptual and methodological errors (Bortolus 2008).  Moreover, taxon authorities and literature that were used for identification are not included in the reference sections of most publications.  Although such publications were not considered in the present paper, researchers need to cite the identification literature and taxonomic authority as it will allow for future correction or verification and will also help to improve the citation quality of taxonomic papers.  The alarming trend in systematic and taxonomic/bibliometric evaluation of publications is a topic that is extensively discussed (e.g., Krell 2002; Boero 2010; Steiner et al. 2015).  In addition to the above reasons, predatory publications are affecting the quality of local marine research and in particular, the overall biodiversity and taxonomic studies in India (Raghavan et al. 2014).  The superficial or non-existing peer review process in predatory journals does not allow fixing of scientific and taxonomic errors resulting in the propagation of the mistakes.

As mentioned earlier in this paper, ecology programs have been given a top priority over taxonomic studies in India in the last few decades.  Premier institutes with access to research ships and state-of-the art facilities focus their research on ecology and other scientific disciplines.  Mainly, due to the fact that acquiring funding for ecology projects are comparatively easier than for biodiversity programs.  Ecological and monitoring projects are conducted on a long-term basis that can generate extremely valuable data on their distribution pattern, temporal variability, and habitat information and thus contribute to an increased knowledge of marine biodiversity of a region (Sivadas & Madeswaran 2020).  This is evident from some of the recent new marine invertebrate species and checklist published from India as outcomes of ecology projects (e.g., Mandal et al. 2007, 2018; Yokoyama & Sukumaran 2012; Saiz et al. 2015; Parapar et al. 2016).

 

Role of Taxonomy in Conservation

Modification of Earth’s ecosystem has altered biodiversity in many regions of the world which will be further exacerbated as consequence of human-induced climate crisis.  The estimated global species extinction rate is between 100 and 1,000 times the rate during pre-human history (Lamkin & Miller 2016).  Despite the biodiversity crisis, data shows that there is a decrease in the number of new species described in proportion to the number taxonomists (Costello et al. 2014).  The limited knowledge of Earth’s biodiversity in a rapidly changing environment will have a consequence on the conservation; mainly because, developing species conservation plans requires adequate knowledge and description of the species for that region.  One of the most important criteria used for conservation plans are the indices of species diversity and endemism (e.g., Myers et al. 2000; Pimm et al. 2014; Ceauşu et al. 2015).  Therefore the revelation that 25% of the recorded species from the region are doubtful records will have a major implication for biodiversity studies.  As species also form the basis of variety of disciplines including ecology, biogeography, and monitoring, several modelling approaches have been developed to predict species distribution (Guisan & Thuiller 2005; Elith & Leathwick 2009).  Such models, however, are often limited due to uncertainty and errors which includes deficiencies in species data (Costa et al. 2015).

Considering that most of the annelid species were first recorded during the 19th century and subsequent records were based on older monographs (e.g., Day 1967), the identities of these historical species must be used with caution.  Species that are identified incorrectly contribute to a false negative towards ‘taxonomic and functional diversity estimates’, leading to inaccurate results on the biodiversity data of a region (e.g., Beerkircher et al. 2009; Costa et al. 2015; Soultan & Safi 2017).  This causes a domino effect resulting in poorly assessed decisions, leading policy makers to underestimate critical decisions that adversely affect our sensitive ecosystems (e.g., Morrison et al. 2009; Austen et al. 2016).  As the present list of erroneous records was based on distribution data and literature, it can only be confirmed by examination of type material, or collection of fresh samples that need to be identified under expert guidance.  Loss of native biodiversity due to misidentification is one of the most common examples of taxonomic errors (Bortolus 2008).  Therefore, the information presented here should encourage future studies on the marine Annelida of the Indian subcontinent.

 

Way Forward

As a positive step towards improving our regional biodiversity studies, our paper contributes to the updated checklists of marine annelids from the Indian subcontinent.  National and international collaborations with initiatives focusing on new exploration and training young researchers will be fundamental to complete annelid inventories and contribute to the worldwide effort to understand the world’s biodiversity.  Brazil, USA, Mexico, Spain, Russia, and the European countries are examples of how a continuous support for taxonomy results in the substantial growth of biodiversity studies and is reflected in the number of taxonomic papers published from these regions (de Carvalho et al. 2007).  In fact, Brazil’s ‘National Zoology Program’ is an example of a biodiversity program that was implemented in the 1980s at a relatively low cost.  Hundreds of new taxonomists were trained, resulting in rapid increase in the reporting of new species, and the Brazilian zoological community continues to grow rapidly (Buckup et al. 2007; de Carvalho et al. 2007; Lana et al. 2017).

For improving the annelid research in India, the following initiatives are recommended:

Workshops for training and exchanging new data between Indian institutes and universities.

Updating the current literature based on re-evaluating type material and new collections under expert guidance.

Increased collaboration between organizations working on ecology and biodiversity.

Forming taxonomic groups or societies at the local and national levels.

Form a standard process to track and maintain new species vouchers at private collections, institutes or at museums.

Collaborate with international researchers and museums on new information, analysis techniques, and sample exchanges.

 

 

Conclusion

 

India, although a megadiverse region, knowledge of its marine biodiversity is yet to be acquired.  Based on our assessment, this is also true for the marine annelid diversity of India and the numbers reported may indeed be an underestimation of the true diversity in India.  A significant percentage of this undocumented diversity of annelid exists as ‘cosmopolitan/ erroneous’ species records.  Accurate taxonomy will greatly benefit ecological studies and conservation programs as it will be based on a relatively secure species list.  We, therefore, feel it is crucial for India to know and recognize its native biota.  National and regional initiatives focusing on new exploration, especially in deeper waters and training new researchers is a must for the future of annelid research in India.  Given that the best technology and facilities are available in some of the national institutes, we suggest the active role of these organizations in biodiversity studies.  Suitable as this may sound, we would still like to point out that no matter how efficient a given training is, it can only be beneficial if there are sufficient job opportunities in taxonomy available in that country.  Just like annelids, most marine invertebrates of India are neglected and while compiling this paper, we have become even more aware of the magnitude of the work that still needs to be done in the area of marine biodiversity of the region.  For this, we should be willing to accept our past mistakes in identifying species, and use this as a learning curve towards the accurate identification of native biota.  Through this paper, we, therefore, hope to stimulate regional and international interest in improving the overall accuracy of India’s regional taxonomy and new revisionary studies.

 

 

Table 1. List of polychaete species recorded from India. * Type locality India; $ Endemic; # questionable records; @ misidentification.

Indian Coastal States/ Territories: AN—Andaman & Nicobar Island | AP—Andhra Pradesh | AS—Arabian Sea | BoB—Bay of Bengal | GA—Goa | GJ—Gujarat | KA—Karnataka | KL—Kerala | LK—Lakshadweep Island | MH—Maharashtra | OD—Odisha | PD—Puducherry | TN—Tamil Nadu | WB—West Bengal.

 

Species

Type locality

Distribution

References and comments

ERRANTIA

 

 

 

Family Acoetidae

 

 

 

Acoetes melanonota (Grube, 1876) 

Philippines

World: Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, Madagascar, Mozambique, South China Sea.

India: AS

Wehe & Fiege (2002);  Glasby et al. (2016)

 

Eupanthalis edriophthalma (Potts, 1910) 

Saya de Malha, Indian Ocean

World: South China Sea

India: WB

Potts (1910); Glasby et al. (2016)

# Panthalis oerstedi Kinberg, 1856 

Bohusl@n (Sweden)

World: Belgium, Greece, France, North Atlantic Ocean, South China Sea, Spain

India: MH, GA, AN, LK

 Fauvel (1953)

Family Alciopidae

 

 

 

Alciopina parasitica Claparède & Panceri, 1867 

Gulf of Naples (Italy), Mediterranean Sea

World: Arabian Sea, Caribbean Sea, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Mozambique, North Atlantic Ocean, South China Sea, Spain

India: TN, AS, BoB

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Dean (2012); Glasby et al. (2016)

Plotohelmis capitata (Greeff, 1876) 

Algiers (Algeria),  Mediterranean Sea

World: Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf, Indian Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, Spain, Mozambique, South China Sea.

India: AS, LK

Day (1967)

Rhynchonereella capitata (Greeff, 1876)

Not documented

World: Arabian Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Pacific Ocean, China Sea

India: AS

Fauvel (1953)

R. gracilis Costa, 1864 

Gulf of Naples (Italy),  Mediterranean Sea

World: Belgium, Canada, France, North Pacific, North Atlantic Ocean, Arabian Sea, South China Sea

India: AS

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

Vanadis formosa Claparède, 1870 

Gulf of Naples (Italy),   Mediterranean Sea

World: Arabian Sea, France, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Spain, South China Sea

India: AS, KL, LK

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

Family Aphroditidae

 

 

 

# Aphrodita aculeata Linnaeus, 1758 

Not documented

World: Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, South China Sea, Spain, UK

India: TN, KL

Barnich & Fiege (2000) restricted distribution to North Atlantic Ocean and Western Mediterranean Sea and reports from Aegean Sea and Adriatic Sea due to confusion with A. alta.  Further, specimens identified using Fauvel's key may belong to either species (Aphrodita aculeata or A. alta) (Faulwetter et al. 2017).

 

 

 

Dean (2012); Glasby et al. (2016)

A. alta Kinberg, 1856 

Rio De Janeiro (Brazil),  Atlantic Ocean

World: Argentina, Mediterranean Sea, Madagascar, North Atlantic Ocean, Persian Gulf, Spain, South China Sea

India: KL, MH

Glasby et al. (2016)

A. australis Baird, 1865 

Port Jackson (Australia)

World: New Zealand, South China Sea

India: LK, TN

Glasby et al. (2016)

# A. talpa Quatrefages, 1866 

New Zealand 

World: South China Sea, Gulf of Oman

India: AN, BoB, KL, LK, OD

Fauvel (1953); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

# Aphrogenia alba Kinberg, 1856 

St. Thomas, Caribbean Sea

World: Arabian Sea, Brazil, Gulf of Mexico, Suez Canal

India: AN, TN

Fauvel (1953); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Craveiro et al. (2019)

Laetmonice hystrix (Savigny in Lamarck, 1818) 

Gulf of Naples (Italy),   Mediterranean Sea

World: Arabian Sea, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Aden, Ireland, Mediterranean Sea, Mozambique, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, South China Sea,  UK

India: AN

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Dean (2012); Glasby et al. (2016)

Pontogenia indica Grube, 1875 

Bohol (Philippine)

World: Singapore

India: GJ, LK, TN

Glasby et al. (2016)

P. macleari (Haswell, 1883) 

Queensland (Australia)

World: Indonesia, South China Sea

India: AN

Glasby et al. (2016)

Family Arabellidae

 

 

 

Arabella iricolor (Montagu, 1804) 

UK EEZ

World: Atlantic Ocean, Arabian Gulf, Caribbean Sea, British Columbia Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Aden, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, New Zealand, Panama, Red Sea, Singapore, Suez Canal

India: AN, AP, GA, MH, TN

A. iricolor is probably a species complex and its cosmopolitan distribution is questionable (Colbath 1989; Zanol & Ruta 2015).

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016).

A. mutans (Chamberlin, 1919)

Easter Island (Chile)

World: Caribbean Sea, Colombia, Gulf of Mexico, Mozambique, North Atlantic Ocean, Panama, Sri Lanka, South China Sea, Tanzania, Venezuela, Zanibar

India: AN, LK

Day (1967); Dean (2012); Glasby et al. (2016)

Drilonereis filum (Claparède, 1868) 

Gulf of Naples (Italy), Mediterranean Sea

World: Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, UK, South China Sea, Suez Canal

India: AN, BoB, GA

Although considered cosmopolitan, Helgason et al. (1990) indicates that more than one species may have been reported under Drilonereis filum.

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

D. monroi Day, 1960

Off Lamberts Bay (South Africa), Atlantic Ocean

World: Red Sea

India: AS, TN

Wehe & Fiege (2002)

Oenone fulgida (Savigny in Lamarck, 1818) 

Red Sea

World: Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Indian Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, Panama, Singapore

India: AN, LK

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

Family Chrysopetalidae

 

 

 

Bhawania cryptocephala Gravier, 1901 

Djiboutian, Gulf of Aden

World: Myanmar, South China Sea, Sri Lanka

India: AN, LK, MH

Fauvel (1953); Glasby et al. (2016)

B. goodei Webster, 1884 

Bermuda, Pacific Ocean

World: North Atlantic Ocean, Panama, Red Sea, Spain, South China Sea

India: AN, TN

Day (1967); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

Chrysopetalum debile (Grube, 1855) 

Villfranche-sur-Mer (France)

World: Arabian Gulf, Belgium, Cuba, Caribbean Sea, Ireland, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Mediterranean Arabian Gulf, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Aden, Mediterranean Sea, Madagascar, Mozambique, Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Mozambique, Red Sea, South China Sea, Suez Canal

India: TN

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

 

Family Dorvilleidae

 

 

 

Dorvillea gardineri (Crossland, 1924)

East Africa

World: Arabian Gulf, Madagascar

India: Soutwest coast

Wehe & Fiege (2002)

# Ophryotrocha puerilis Claparède & Mecznikow, 1869

Neotype: Genoa (Italy)

World: Greece, Ireland, New Zealand, North Atlantic Ocean, Spain, South Africa, Turkey, UK, Venezuela

India: TN

Achari (1969) reported the species from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar.  Species complex.  At least two cryptic species of Ophryotrocha puerilis have been reported in the Mediterranean Sea (Taboada et al. 2017).

Protodorvillea biarticulata Day, 1963 

Agulhas Bank (South Africa)

World: Aegean Sea, Egypt, Greece

India:MH, TN

Day (1967); Faulwetter et al. (2017)

P. egena (Ehlers, 1913) 

False Bay (South Africa), Atlantic Ocean

World: Malaysia, Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea

India: GA

Idris & Arshad 2013

# Schistomeringos neglecta (Fauvel, 1923) 

Urville (France)

World: Belgium, Greece, Ireland, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Porto Novo, Spain, South Africa, Turkey, UK

India: TN

Reported from Port Novo Srikrishnadhas et al. (1987).

Day (1973); Faulwetter et al. (2017)

# S. matsushimaensis (Okuda & Yamada, 1954)

Togu (Matsushima Bay), Japan

World: Japan EEZ, Korea (West Sea)

India: TN

Okuda & Yamada (1994); Park et al. (2014)

Family Eunicidae

 

 

 

Eunice afra Peters, 1854 

Mozambique, Indian Ocean

World: Arabian Gulf, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Madagascar, Panama, Red Sea, South China Sea, Tanzania

India: AN, TN

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Dean (2012); Glasby et al. (2016)

E. afra afra Peters, 1855 

Mozambique, Indian Ocean

World: Madagascar, South Africa

India: AN, LK, TN

Day (1967)

E. afra paupera Grube 

Philippine Islands

World: Malay Seas, New Caledonia, Philippine

India: GJ, LK

Fauvel (1953)

E. aphroditois (Pallas, 1788) 

Sri Lankan EEZ, Indian Ocean

World: Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Madagascar, New Zealand, North Atlantic Ocean, Panama, Red Sea, Spain, Singapore, South Africa

India: AN

Day (1967); Fauchald (1992); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Dean (2012); Glasby et al. (2016)

E. australis Quatrefages, 1866 

New Zealand

World: Cuba, Madagascar, Mozambique, Red Sea, South Africa, South China Sea

India: AN, GJ, TN

Day (1967); Dean (2012); Glasby et al. (2016)

E. coccinea Grube, 1878 

Philippine

World: Gulf of Aden, Madagascar, Mozambique, Red Sea, South Africa, South China Sea, Singapore

India: LK

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

# E. floridana (Pourtalès, 1867)

Caribbean Sea 

World: Colombia, Greece, Gulf of Mexico Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Sea Ocean

India: LK

Fauvel (1953).

E. grubei Gravier, 1900 

Djiboutian, Gulf of Aden

World: Madagascar, Mozambique, Red Sea, South Africa, Singapore

India: AN

Day (1967)

E. guttata Baird, 1869

Mumbai to Singapore, Indian Ocean

Mumbai to Singapore

Fauchald (1992) mentions that the holotype was “taken between Bombay and Singapore, Indian Ocean”

Baird (1869)

* E. indica Kinberg, 1865 

Bangka Strait (Indonesia)

World: Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Madagascar, Mozambique, Mediterranean, Red Sea

India: AN, GA, KA, TN

Day (1967); Aungtonya et al. (2002); Wehe & Fiege (2002)

E. laticeps Ehlers, 1868

Port Western (Australia)

World: Arabian Sea, Madagascar, Mozambique, New Zealand, Red Sea

India: AN, GJ, LK, MH, TN

Wehe & Fiege (2002)

E. marenzelleri Gravier, 1900 

Djiboutian, Gulf of Aden

World: Arabian Gulf, Red Sea, South China Sea

India: AN, LK, TN

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

E. petersi Fauchald, 1992 

Mozambique, Indian Ocean

World: Red Sea

India: AN, GJ, LK

Wehe & Fiege (2002)

E. savignyi Grube, 1878 

Philippines

World: Sri Lanka, Persian Gulf

India: MH

Fauvel (1953)

E. tubifex Crossland, 1904 

Puopo Islet (Kokotoni Harbour, Zanzibar), Indian Ocean

World: Arabian Sea, Australia, Gulf of Oman, Mozambique, Philippines, Red Sea, Sri Lanka

India: AP, KL, TN

Fauvel (1953);  Wehe & Fiege (2002)

E. wasinensis Fauchald, 1992 

Syntype: Wasin Harbour (Kenya), Indian Ocean

World: Red Sea, South China Sea

India: OD

Fauchald (1992); Wehe & Fiege (2002);  Glasby et al. (2016)

Leodice antennata Savigny in Lamarck, 1818 

Gulf of Suez from synonym Eunice antennata

World: Arabian Gulf, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Aden, Madagascar, Mozambique, New Zealand, North Atlantic Ocean, Panama, Red Sea, South Africa, Singapore, Suez Canal, Turkey

India: AN, LK, MH, TN

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Çinar et al. (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

Lysidice collaris Grube, 1870

Red Sea

World: Atlantic Ocean, Aegean Sea, Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Singapore

India: AN, TN

Glasby et al. (2016)

L. natalensis Kinberg, 1865 

Durban (South Africa), Indian Ocean

World: Mediterranean Sea

India: GJ, LK, WB

Day (1967); Wehe & Fiege (2002);  Glasby et al. (2016)

# L. ninetta Audouin & H Milne Edwards, 1833 

Isles of Chansey (France)

World: Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, New Zealand, Red Sea, South China Sea

India: AN, LK, TN

A single report from Lakshadweep Island (Misra & Chakraborty 1991).  Species complex, with two cryptic species reported from Mediterranean Sea (Iannotta et al. 2009).

Day (1967); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

L. unicornis (Grube, 1840)

Mediterranean Sea

World: Caribbean, Atlantic Ocean, Panama, Pacific Ocean, Red Sea

India: AN, BoB, GJ

World: Sri Lanka

India: TN

Şahin & Çinar (2009)

Willey (1905)

Marphysa chevalensis Willey, 1905

South East Cheval Paar (Gulf of Mannar, Sri Lanka), Indian Ocean

 

 

M. corallina (Kinberg, 1865)

Hawaiian EEZ, Pacific Ocean

World: Madagascar, Mozambique, New Zealand, Red Sea, South Africa, Suez Canal

India: LK, TN

Day (1967); Wehe & Fiege (2002)

*M. gravelyi Southern, 1921

Chilika Lake (India), Bay of Bengal

World: Arabian Gulf, South China Sea

India: AP, GJ, KA, KL, OD, TN, WB

Southern (1921); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

M. macintoshi Crossland, 1903

Zanzibar, Indian OCean

World: Caribbean Sea, Madagascar, Mozambique, Red Sea, Singapore, Tanzania

India: LK, TN, WB

Day (1967);  Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

M. mossambica (Peters, 1854)

Mozambique, Indian Ocean

World: Gulf of Aden, Fiji, Australia, Red Sea, Singapore

India: AN, MH, TN, WB

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

M. orientalis Willey, 1905

Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean

World: Sri Lanka, South China Sea

India: TN

As Paramyphysa orientalis (Treadwell, 1936) in Wiley (1905).

Willey (1905); Glasby et al. (2016).  

$M. sanguinea (Montagu, 1813)

Devon (UK)

World: Arabian Gulf, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Aden, Japan, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, South China Sea

India: AN, AP, GA, MH, PD TN, WB

 

Based on the neotype, M. sanguinea cosmopolitan distribution is not valid and all specimens described as M. sanguinea has to be re-examined (Hutchings & Karageorgopoulos 2003).  Recent publications have also confirmed species complexity in M. sanguinea (e.g. Wang et al. 2018; Lavesque et al. 2017).

Day (1967)

Nicidion cincta Kinberg, 1865

Society Islands, Pacific Ocean

World: South Africa, South China Sea

India: LK

Day (1967); Glasby et al. (2016)

Palola siciliensis Grube, 1840

Palermo, Sicily (Italy), Mediterranean Sea

World: Arabian Gulf, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of  Mexico, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Mediterranean Sea, Madagascar, Mozambique, New Zealand, North Atlantic Ocean, Panama, Red Sea, South Africa, South China Sea

India: AN, GJ, LK, TN

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

Paramarphysa orientalis Willey, 1905 

Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean

World: South China Sea

India: TN

Willey (1905); Glasby et al. (2016) 

# Paucibranchia fallax (Marion & Bobretzky, 1875)

Marseille, Mediterranean Sea

World: Mediterranean Sea, English Channel, Ireland, France, Greece, North Atlantic Ocean, Spain, Turkey

India: TN

Marphysa fallax was one of the 13 species of Marphysa classified as subgroup I that is now included in the new genera, Paucibranchia (Molina-Acevedo 2018).  The species was reported from west-central region of the Mediterranean Sea and north of Morocco.  The distribution of P. fallax reported by Fauvel 1923 in Molina-Acevedo (2018) from France is doubtful.

Fauvel (1953)

P. stragulum (Grube, 1878) 

Talibon, Bohol (Philippines)

World: Arabian Gulf, Philippines, South China Sea, Sri Lanka

India: GJ, KL

Fauvel (1953); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016); Molina-Acevedo (2018)

Family Glyceridae

 

 

 

Glycera alba (O.F. Müller, 1776)

Norway

World: Andaman Sea, Black Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Gulf North Sea,  Mediterranean Sea,  Madagascar, North Sea, NW Pacific coasts, Red Sea, South China Sea

India: AP,GJ, GA,MH, KA, KL, OD, TN, WB

Böggemann (2002); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

G. africana Arwidsson, 1899

Not documented

World: Bay of Bengal, Gulf of Aden,  Suez Canal, West and east coasts of Africa

India: AN

Böggemann (2002); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Lakra et al. (2018)

# G. americana Leidy, 1855

Point Judith, Atlantic City, Atlantic Ocean

World: Arabian Sea, Atlantic coasts of North and South America, Brazil, Bangladesh, Caribbean Sea, Japan, British Columbia, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Pacific coasts of South America, New Zealand, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea

India: AS

Böggemann (2002); Dean (2012); Muir & Hossain (2014)

G. brevicirris Grube, 1870

Indian Ocean

World: Andaman Sea, Brail, Central Pacific Basin, Caribbean Sea, Indian Ocean, Indo-Pacific, North Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Red Sea, Venezuela

India: AN

Böggemann (2002); Böggemann & Eibye-Jacobsen (2002); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Rizzo et al. (2007); Fauchald et al. (2009)

G.cinnamomea Grube, 1874

Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean

World: Andaman Sea, East and South China Sea, Indian Ocean, Indo-Pacific, Mozambique, Persian Gulf, Red Sea

India:

Aungtonya et al. (2002);  Böggemann (2002); Böggemann & Eibye-Jacobsen (2002); Idris & Arshad (2013); Glasby et al. (2016)

$ G. embranchiata Krishnamoorthi, 1962 

Chennai (India), Bay of Bengal

India: AN, BoB, TN

Krishnamoorthi (1962) 

# G. fallax Quatrefages, 1850

France

World: Ireland, France, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Spain, UK

India: LK

 Fauvel (1953).

G. lancadivae Schmarda, 1861 incertae sedis

Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean

World: Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf, Madagascar, Red Sea, South China Sea

India: AP,LK, OD, TN, WB

Böggemann & Fiege (2001); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

G. lapidium Quaterefages 1866

Mediterranean Sea

World: Andaman Sea, Azores, English Channel, Iceland, Ireland, Greece; North Sea, South China

Sea, Turkey

India: AN

O’Connor (1987); Böggemann & Eibye-Jacobsen (2002); Faulwetter et al. (2012); Çinar et al. (2014); Lakra et al. (2018)

G. nicobarica Grube, 1868

Amboina (Indonesia)

World: Andaman Sea, East and South China Sea, Indian Ocean, Indo-Pacific, Japan, Singapore

India: AN

Day (1973); Böggemann (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

G.  oxycephala Ehlers, 1887

Barbados (West Indies), Carribean Sea

World: Arabian Gulf, Bay of Seine, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Gulf of Mexico, Hispaniola, Norway to the southern coast of Brittany, Panama, South Africa, Thailand

India: KL

Day (1967); O’Connor (1987); Böggemann & Eibye-Jacobsen (2002); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Rizzo et al. (2007); Fauchald et al. (2009); Dean (2012)

 # G. papillosa Grube, 1857 incertae sedis

Valparaiso (Chile), Pacific Ocean

World: Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, North Atlantic Ocean, South Africa, Venezuela

India: KL

Böggemann & Fiege (2001); Day (1967);

G. posterobranchia Hoagland 1920

Tayabas Light, Marinduque Island (Philippine Islands), Philippine Sea

World: Bay of Bengal, Philippine, South China Sea, Vietnam

India: AN

Böggemann (2002); Glasby et al. (2016); Lakra et al. (2018)

G. sphyrabrancha Schmarda, 1861

Jamaican EEZ, Caribbean Sea

World: Arabian Gulf, Andaman Sea, Aruba, Belize, Caribbean Sea, Cuba, Curaçao, Honduras, Jamaica, Panama, Phillipinnes, Red Sea, South Africa, South China Sea, Tobago, Trinidad, Venezuela

India: AP, GJ, GA, KA, KL, MH, OD, WB, TN

Day (1967); Böggemann & Eibye-Jacobsen (2002); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Dean (2012); Salazar-Vallejo et al. (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

G. tesselata Grube, 1840 

Croatia, Mediterranean Sea

World: Arabian Gulf, Andaman Sea, Bangladesh Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Indo-Pacific, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, northwestern Pacific, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, South China Sea, south coasts of Africa

India: AN, AP, GJ, KL, LK, OD, WB

Aungtonya et al. (2002); Böggemann (2002); Idris & Arshad (2013);  Muir &  Hossain (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

G. tridactyla Schmarda, 1861 

St. Malo (France), Atlantic Ocean

World: Arabian Gulf, Arabian Sea, Australia, Bangladesh, Bay of Bengal, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Japan Ireland, Madagascar, Mediterranean Sea, Mozambique, New Guinea North Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Red Sea, Singapore, Suez Canal, South Africa, South China Sea, UK

India: LK, MH, WB

Böggemann (2002); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016); Muir & Hossain (2014)

G. unicornis Lamarck, 1818 

? Egypt

World: Arabian Gulf, Bangladesh, Belgium, France, Greece, Gulf of Oman, Ireland, Madagascar, Mozambique, Netherlands, North Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Spain, South Africa, Turkey, UK

India: MH, OD, TN, WB

Böggemann (2002) mentions the type locality is not known or Egypt (?) while according to O’connor (1987) it is Mediterranean Sea.

O’connor (1987); Böggemann (2002); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Çinar et al. (2014); Muir &  Hossain (2014)

Family Goniadidae

 

 

 

Glycinde capensis Day 1960 

False Bay (South Africa), Atlantic Ocean

World: Coasts of west to southern Africa

India: Southwest coast

Day (1967); Böggemann (2005)

G. kameruniana Augener 1918 

Cameroons, Atlantic Ocean

World: Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Australia, Gulf of Oman, South Africa, South China Sea

India: Southwest coast

Day (1967); Böggemann (2005); Böggemann & Eibye-Jacobsen (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

Goniada emerita Audouin & H. Milne Edwards 1833

Nice (France), Mediterranean Sea

World: Australia, Caribbean Sea, Greece, Eastern coasts of South America, France, Hawaii, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Madagascar, Mozambique, New Zealand, North Atlantic Ocean, Spain, Red Sea, South Africa, South China Sea, Turkey

India: AP, GJ, KL, TN, WB

Böggemann (2005); Faulwetter et al. (2017)

G. hexadentes Böggemann and Eibye-Jacobsen 2002

Thailand, Andaman Sea

World: Italy, Israel, Mediterranean Sea, Northeast and east Atlantic, Spain

India: GA

Böggemann (2005); Böggemann & Eibye-Jacobsen (2002); Faulwetter et al. (2017)

Goniadides aciculata Hartmann-Schröder 1960

Ghardaqa (Egypt), Red Sea

World: Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba, El Hamira

India: AN, AP, LK

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Böggemann (2005)

* Goniadopsis agnesiae (Fauvel, 1928) 

Krusadai Island, Gulf of Mannar (India), Indian Ocean

World: South Africa

India: TN

Fauvel (1928); Day (1967); Böggemann (2005)

G.longicirrata (Arwidsson, 1899) 

West Africa, Atlantic Ocean

World: Myanmar, Andaman Sea, Thailand, Phuket Island, Ghana, Indian Ocean, Indo-Pacific, Southern coasts of Africa

India: KL, MH, TN

Fauvel (1932); Böggemann (2005)

Family Hesionidae

 

 

 

$ Alikuhnia elegans (Alikuhni, 1949) 

Chennai (India), Bay of Bengal

India: TN

Alikuhni (1949)

$ Alikuhnia erythraeus (Alikuhni, 1949) 

Chennai (India), Bay of Bengal

India: TN

Alikuhni (1949)

$ Alikuhnia longicirrus (Alikuhni, 1949)

Chennai (India), Bay of Bengal

India: TN

Alikuhni (1949)

$ Alikuhnia splendens (Alikuhni, 1949)

Chennai (India), Bay of Bengal

India: TN

Alikuhni (1949)

Hesione intertexta Grube, 1878 

Zamboanga (Philippine)

World: Arabian Sea, Caribbean Sea, Cuba, French Polynesia, Indonesia, Philippines, South China Sea, Solomon Islands, Southern Japan to Australia

India: AN, TN

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016); Salazar-Vallejo (2018)

H. splendida Lamarck, 1818 

Red Sea

World: Atlantic coast of France to Senegal, Cape Verde Islands, Brazil, Caribbean Sea, Florida (USA),Jamaica, Gulf of Mexico,

Greece Italy, Japan, Madagascar, Mediterranean Sea, Mozambique, Pacific Ocean, Persian Gulf, Puerto Rico, Red Sea, Samoa, South China Sea, Suez Canal, Sri Lanka, tropical Indo-West Pacific, Tonga, Venezuela

India: AN, AP, GJ, LK

Day (1967); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Dean (2012); Costa & Christoffersen (2016); Glasby et al. (2016); Salazar-Vallejo (2018)

$Hesionides andamanensis Chandrasekhara-Rao, 1993

Butler Bay, Andaman and Nicobar (India), Indian Ocean

India: AN

Chandrasekhara-Rao (1993)

H.  arenaria Friedrich, 1937 

Germany, North Sea 

World: Cuba, Greece, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, Spain

India: AN, AP, LK

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Dean et al. (2012); Faulwetter et al. (2017)

H. gohari Hartmann-Schröder, 1960 

Egypt, Red Sea

World: Greece, North Atlantic Ocean, Spain

India: AN, LK, WB

Faulwetter et al. (2017)

$ H.  indooceanica Westheide & Rao, 1977 

Palk Bay and South Andamans (India), Bay of Bengal

India: TN

Westheide & Rao (1977) 

$ H. peculiaris Westheide & Rao, 1977

Covelong, Tamil Nadu (India), Bay of Bengal

India: TN

Westheide & Rao (1977) 

$ H. minima   Westheide & Rao  1977

Chennai and Pulicat, Tamil Nadu (India), Bay of Bengal

India: TN

Westheide & Rao (1977) 

$ H. similis Chandrasekhara-Rao, 1978 

Gopalpur, Odisha (India), Bay of Bengal

India: OD

Chandrasekhara-Rao (1978) 

# Hesionura elongata (Southern, 1914) 

Clew Bay (Ireland)

World: Bahamas, Belgium, Belize, Denmark, Greece, Gulf of Mexico, North Atlantic up to Mediterranean, North Sea, Skagerrak

India: AN, LK

H. elongata was reported from Andaman and Nicobar Island (Chandrasekhara-Rao 1988) and Lakshadweep (Chandrasekhara-Rao 1991).

Leocrates claparedii (Costa in Claparède, 1868) 

Gulf of Naples (Italy), Mediterranean Sea

World: Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Aden, Greece Madagascar, Mozambique, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, South Africa, Spain, Singapore, Suez Canal, Turkey

India: AN, AP, GA, GJ, MH, TN

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Çinar et al. (2014); Glasby et al. (2016); Faulwetter et al. (2017)

L. diplognathus Monro, 1926 

Macclesfield Bank, Paracel Islands, South China Sea

World: Philippines

India: LK

Salazar-Vallejo et al. (2014)

L. chinensis Kinberg, 1866 

Hong Kong, South China Sea

World: Japan, Greece, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippines

India: MH

Day (1973); Salazar-Vallejo et al. (2014)

Leocratides ehlersi (Horst, 1921) 

Saleh Bay (Indonesia)

World: Japan, Red Sea

India: MH

Wehe & Fiege (2002);Jimi et al. (2017)

$ Microphthalmus urofimbriata Alikuhni, 1943 

Chennai (India), Bay of Bengal

World: Red Sea

India: GA, KA, MH, TN, WB

Alikuhni (1943);  Wehe & Fiege (2002)

Oxydromus angustifrons (Grube, 1878) 

Bohol (Philippines)

World: Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Aden, New Zealand, Red Sea, South Africa

India: AN, TN

Day (1967);  Wehe & Fiege (2002)

# Podarkeopsis arenicolus (La Greca, 1946)

Gulf of Naples (Italy), Mediterranean Sea

World: North Atlantic Ocean

India: BoB

Hartman (1974a) reported the species from Bay of Bengal.

P. capensis (Day, 1963) 

Agulhas Bank (South Africa)

World: Aegean Sea, Greece, Ireland, North Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Spain, Turkey

India: MH

Hartman (1974a); Day (1967); Faulwetter et al. (2017)

Family Iospilidae

 

 

 

Phalacrophorus pictus Greeff, 1879 

Canary Islands, Atlantic Ocean

World: Gulf of Mexico, North Atlantic Ocean, Southern Ocean, Madagascar, Indian Ocean, South China Sea

India: BoB, TN

Day (1967); Glasby et al. (2016)

Family Iphionidae

 

 

 

Iphione muricata Lamarck 1818 

Mauritius, Indian Ocean

World: Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Aden, Madagascar, Mozambique, Philippines, Red Sea, Suez Canal, Singapore, Tanzania

India: AN, LK, TN

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Dean (2012); Glasby et al. (2016)

Family Lopadorrhynchidae

 

 

 

$ Lopadorrhynchus panikkari Peter, 1972

Arabian Sea

India: AS

Peter (1972a)

L. brevis Grube, 1855

Equatorial Atlantic Ocean

World: Caribbean Sea, Honduras, North Atlantic Ocean

India: LK

Peter (1972b)

Pelagobia longicirrata Greeff 1879 

Canary Islands, Atlantic Ocean

World: Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, North Sea, Southern Ocean, Greece,  South China Sea

India: AS, LK, TN

Fauvel (1953) mentions its occurrence in Indian waters.

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

Family Lumbrineridae

 

 

 

Lumbrineris aberrans Day, 1963 

Agulhas Bank (South Africa)

World: Andamans Sea, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, South Africa

India: West coast

Day (1967); Perkins (1979); Oug (2002); Fauchald et al. (2009)

$ L. bilabiata Misra, 1999 

Kakdwip, Hoogly-Matla estuarine complex (India), Bay of Bengal

India: WB

Misra (1999) 

L. hartmani Day, 1953 

False Bay (South Africa), Atlantic Ocean

World: South Africa, Singapore

India: West coast

Day (1967); Glasby et al. (2016)

L. inhacae Hartman, 1977

Mozambique Channel, Indian Ocean

World: Northern Indian Ocean, Mozambique Channel, La Reunion

India:AP, KL, TN

Carrera-Parra  (2006)

L. japonica von Marenzeller, 1879 

Shimoda, Japan

World: Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Mexico North Sea, Red Sea, South China Sea, South Africa, Suez Canal, Turkey

India: GA

Aungtonya et al. (2002); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Carrera-Parra  (2006); Dean (2012); Glasby et al. (2016)

$ L. polydesma Southern, 1921 

Chilika Lake (India), Bay of Bengal

World: Bangladesh

India: KL, WB

Southern (1921); Muir &  Hossain (2014)

L. pseudobifilaris Fauvel, 1932 

off Akyab (Myanmar), Bay of Bengal

World: Myanmar

India: WB

Fauvel (1932)

$ L. simplex Southern, 1921 

Chilika Lake (India), Bay of Bengal

World: South China Sea

India: OD, TN

Southern (1921);  Glasby et al. (2016)

# L. sphaerocephala (Schmarda, 1861) 

New Zealand

World: Australia, Bangladesh, Gambia Island, New Caledonia, Red Sea, South China Sea

India: AN

Fauvel (1953); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Muir & Hossain (2014); Glasby et al. (2016).

Kuwaita heteropoda (Marenzeller, 1879) 

Japan

World: Arabian Gulf, Bangladesh, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Madagascar, Mozambique, Red Sea, South China Sea

India: GA, KL, MH

Wehe & Fiege (2002);  Muir &  Hossain (2014)

* Ninoe notocirrata (Fauvel, 1932) 

Visakhapatnam (India), Bay of Bengal

World: South China Sea, Bangladesh

India: AP, KL, OD

Fauvel (1932);  Muir &  Hossain (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

# Scoletoma impatiens (Claparède, 1868)

Gulf of Naples (Italy), Mediterranean Sea

World: Caribbean Sea, Ireland,  Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, South China Sea, Suez Canal, Turkey, UK

 India: KL

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

# S. tetraura (Schmarda, 1861) 

Cape of Good Hope and Chile

World: Gulf of Mexico, Ireland, North Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, South Africa, Red Sea

India: OD

Day (1967); Wehe & Fiege (2002)

Family Myzostomatidae

 

 

 

$ Endomyzostoma cryptopodium (Wheeler, 1897)

Uncertain, label Indicate Indian Museum, Calcutta

India: WB

Hartman (1974a); Summers et al. (2014)

Myzostoma adhaerens Remscheid, 1918

Kei Islands, Nahu Tawun (Indonesia)

World: Indonesia

India: TN

George (1950); Summers et al. (2014)

M. furcatum Graff, 1887

Moluccas, Pacific Ocean

World: Solomon Island, Phillipinnes, Lizard Island Moluccas, Kei Island

India: TN

Grygier (1990); Summers et al. (2014

M. fissum Graff, 1884

Kandavu Island (Fiji)

World: Zanzibar, Red Sea, Western Australia, Cape Boileau, Cauda Nhatrang, Fiji, Houtmann Abrolhos Island, Palau, Vietnam

India: KL, MH, TN

Grygier (1990);  Summers et al. (2014)

$ M. gopalai Subramaniam, 1938

Chennai (India), Bay of Bengal

India: TN

Subramanian (1938)

$ M. striata George, 1943

Chennai (India), Bay of Bengal

India: TN

George (1950)

Family Nephtyidae

 

 

 

Aglaophamus dibranchis (Grube, 1877) 

New Guinea

World: Andaman Sea, Arabian Gulf, Bangladesh, Gulf of Oman, Philippines, Red Sea, South Africa, Singapore

India: GA, KL, WB

Day (1967); Aungtonya et al. (2002); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

# A. lyrochaetus (Fauvel, 1902) 

Casamance (Senegal) Atlantic Ocean

World: Atlantic and Artic Ocean, Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Morocco, New Zealand, South China Sea, South Africa

India: MH

 

Day (1967); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016); Ravara & Carvalho (2017)

Sukumaran & Devi (2009)

# A. malmgreni (Théel, 1879) 

Off Novaya Zemlya, Artic Ocean

World: Barents Sea, Bering Sea, Canada, Greenland, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, Norway, North Sea, NE coast of North America, Sea of Okhotsk, Sweden, Svalbard

India: AN

A. malmgreni is reported from circumpolar region and it distribution from southern Europe requires confirmation (Ravara et al. 2010).  First reported in India from Andaman Sea (Fauvel 1953) which requires re-examination.

# Inermonephtys inermis (Ehlers, 1887) 

Florida, Atlantic Ocean

World: Arabian Sea, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, Spain, South China Sea

India: MH

Ravara et al. (2010) reported difference between the holotype and specimens of Inermonephtys inermis reported from Europe.  The species distribution may be restricted to the West Atlantic (Faulwetter et al. 2017).

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Dean (2012); Glasby et al. (2016).

*Micronephthys oligobranchia (Southern, 1921) 

Chilika Lake (India), Bay of Bengal

World: Bangladesh, South China Sea

India: WB

Muir &  Hossain (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

Nephtys capensis Day, 1953

Table Bay (South Africa), Atlantic Ocean

World: South Africa

India: AP, PD

 

$ N. dussumieri Quatrefages, 1866 

Kerala (India), Arabian Sea

India: KL

 

* N. polybranchia Southern, 1921 

Chilika Lake (India), Bay of Bengal

World: Bangladesh, South China Sea

India: GA, KA, KL, MH, TN

Muir & Hossain (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

Family Nereididae

 

 

 

# Alitta succinea (Leuckart, 1847) 

Cuxhaven (Germany)

World: Arabian Gulf, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Oman, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Panama, Red Sea, South Africa, Suez Canal

India: OD

A. succinea has a complex taxonomic history resulting in it is widespread distribution (Wehe & Fiege 2002; Villalobos-Guerrero & Carrera-Parra 2015).

Ceratonereis (Composetia) costae (Grube, 1840) 

Mediterranean Sea

World: Gulf of Aden, Italy, Greece, Madagascar, Mozambique, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, Sri Lanka, South China Sea, Suez Canal, Spain, Turkey

India: KL, TN

Fauvel (1953); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Çinar et al. (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

$ C. (Composetia)  flagellipes (Fauvel, 1932) 

Ganjam Coast (India), Bay of Bengal

India: WB

Fauvel (1932)

C. (Composetia) hircinicola (Eisig, 1870) 

Balearic Islands, Mediterranean Sea

World: Madagascar, North Atlantic Ocean, Greece, Red Sea, South Africa, Singapore, Turkey

India: Andaman Sea

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Çinar et al. (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

# C. mirabilis Kinberg, 1865

Brazil, Atlantic Ocean

World: Arabian Gulf, Aegean Sea, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, Madagascar, Mozambique, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, Singapore, Suez Canal, Turkey

India: AN, KL, LK, TN

Complex taxonomic history. Specimens from areas other than western Atalantic Ocean could be different species (Perkins 1980).  Accoridng to Çinar & Dagli (2012), this species is considered as a Lessepsian migrant.

Day (1967); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Çinar et al. (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

C. tripartita Horst, 1918 

Paternoster Islands (Indonesia)

World: Arabian Gulf, Singapore

India: AN

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

$ Dendronereides gangetica Misra, 1999 

Hooghly river (India), Bay of Bengal

India: WB

Misra (1999)

$ D. heteropoda Southern, 1921 

Gangetic Delta (India), Bay of Bengal

World: Arabian Gulf, Bangladesh, Singapore

India: MH, WB

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Muir & Hossain (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

D. zululandica Day, 1951

St. Lucia (Zululand)

World: South Africa, Mozambique, Singapore

India: AP

Day (1967)

* Dendronereis aestuarina Southern, 1921 

Gangetic Delta (India), Bay of Bengal

World: Bangladesh, Gulf of Siam

India: AP, GA, KA, KL, MH, OD, TN, WB

Southern (1921); Fauvel (1953); Muir &  Hossain (2014)

D. arborifera Peters, 1854 

Mozambique, Indian Ocean

World: Bangladesh, South Africa, Singapore

India: AP

Day (1967); Muir &  Hossain (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

$ D. dayi Misra, 1999 

Midnapur, Kolkatta (India), Bay of Bengal

India: WB

 

* Leonnates decipiens Fauvel, 1929 

Gulf of Mannar, Chennai (India), Bay of Bengal

World: Arabian Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, Mozambique, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, Singapore, Suez Canal, Turkey

India: TN

Day (1967); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Çinar et al. (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

L. indicus Kinberg, 1866 

Singapore

World: Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Aden,

Mediterranean Sea, Madagascar, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippines, Suez Canal, Red Sea, Turkey

India: AS, BoB, TN

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Çinar et al. (2014)

$Lycastonereis indica Nageswara-Rao, 1981 

Byatarani, Odisha (India), Bay of Bengal

India: OD, WB

Nageswara-Rao (1981) 

* Namalycastis fauveli  Nageswara-Rao, 1981 

Byatarani, Odisha (India), Bay of Bengal

World: Andaman Sea, South China Sea

India: AP, OD, WB

Nageswara-Rao (1981); Aungtonya et al. (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

* N. indica (Southern, 1921) 

Chilika Lake (India), Bay of Bengal

World: Andaman Sea, Mozambique, South China Sea

India: AN, OD, WB

Aungtonya et al. (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

$ N. glasbyi Fernando & Rajasekaran, 2007 

Gorai Creek, Mumbai, (India), Arabian Sea

India: MH

Fernando & Rajasekaran (2007) 

$ N. jaya Magesh Kvist & Glasby, 2012 

Kadinamkulam estuary, Thiruvananthapuram (India), Arabian Sea

India: KL

Magesh et al. (2012)

N. meraukensis (Horst, 1918) 

Papua New Guinea

World: Circumglobal distribution between 30°N and 30°S (Glasby 1999). New locations include Nigeria, Zaire, Seychelles, Burma, Thailand, Java, Borneo (Brunei), Sulawesi, China (Hainan), Taiwan, Fiji, Belize.

India: WB

N. meraukensis (Horst, 1918) is considered belonging to the N. abiuma species group sensu.  Distribution of N. abiuma is restircted to the type locality, Santa Catarina Island, Brazil.  The species group, however, is widely distributed (Glasby 1999).

$ Neanthes chilkaensis (Southern, 1921) 

Chilika Lake (India), Bay of Bengal

India: OD

Southern (1921)

* N. chingrighattensis (Fauvel, 1932) 

Salt Water Lake (India), Bay of Bengal

World: Bangladesh

India: WB

Muir &  Hossain (2014)

# N. cricognatha (Ehlers, 1904) 

New Zealand

World: Australia, New Zealand, South China Sea

India: WB

Fauvel (1953) recorded the species as Nereis cricognatha Ehlers from Andaman, Hooghly, and Gulf of Mannar.

Glasby et al. (2016)

 

* N. glandicincta (Southern, 1921) 

Gangetic Delta, Kolkatta (India), Bay of Bengal

World: Bangladesh, Singapore

India: WB

Muir &  Hossain (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

N. indica (Kinberg, 1866) 

Selat Banka (Indonesia)

World: Ivory Coast, Sri Lanka

India: AP, TN

Fauvel (1953)

N.  meggitti (Monro, 1931) 

St. Jetty, Rangoon River,

(Myanmar), Bay of Bengal

India: WB

Monro (1931); Bakken (2006)

N.  pachychaeta (Fauvel, 1918) 

Djibouti (Gulf of Aden) and Tuléar (Madagascar) 

World: Gulf of Aden, Indonesia, Malay Archipelago, Philippines, Red Sea

India: AN

Day (1967); Wehe & Fiege (2002)

$ N.  reducta (Southern, 1921) 

Chilika Lake (India), Bay of Bengal

India: OD

Southern (1921)

N.  trifasciata (Ehlers, 1901) 

Bohol (Philippines)

World: Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Aden, Caribbean Sea, Madagascar, Mozambique, Red Sea, South China Sea

India: LK

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

N.  unifasciata (Willey, 1905) 

Cheval Paar (Sri Lanka), Indian Ocean

World: Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Aden, Mozambique, Red Sea, Suez Canal, South China Sea

India: MH, TN

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

Nectoneanthes oxypoda (Marenzeller, 1879)

Gulf of Tonkin, South China Sea

World: Japan, Persian Gulf

India: AP

Salazar-Vallejo et al. (2014)

Nereis coutieri Gravier, 1899 

Gulf of Tadjoura, Djibouti (Gulf of Aden)

World: Arabian Gulf, Red Sea, Suez Canal, South China Sea

India: AN, TN

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

N. falcaria (Willey, 1905) 

South West Cheval Paar (Sri Lanka), Indian Ocean

World: Myanmar, Mozambique, New Zealand, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, South Africa, South China Sea

India: KL, TN

Wehe & Fiege (2002); Glasby et al. (2016)

N. heteromorpha (Horst, 1924)

Indonesia

World: Malay Archipelago Sri Lanka, South China Sea

India: TN

Fauvel (1953); Glasby et al. (2016)

N. jacksoni Kinberg, 1866 

New South Wales (Australia)

World: Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Madagascar, Mozambique, New Zealand, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, South Africa, South China Sea, Turkey

India: AN, AS, BoB, TN

Day (1967); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Çinar et al. (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

# N. lamellosa Ehlers, 1868 

Croatia, Adriatic Sea

World: Bangladesh, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea North Atlantic Ocean, Spain, South Africa

India: AP

Day (1967); Pramanik et al. 2009 in Muir &  Hossain (2014); Rao et al. (2009)

N. persica Fauvel, 1911

Bahrain, Arabian Gulf

World: Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Aden Madagascar, Mozambique, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, Suez Canal, South Africa, South China Sea, Turkey

India: GA, GJ, TN

Day (1967); Wehe & Fiege (2002); Çinar et al. (2014); Glasby et al. (2016)

N. talehsapensis Fauvel, 1932 

Taléh-Sap (Thailand), Gulf of Siam

World: South China Sea

India: MH

Glasby et al. (2016)

# N.  zonata Malmgren, 1867 

Spetsbergen, Arctic Ocean

Wordl:Bay of Fundy, Canada, France, Ireland, Myanmar, North Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, South China Sea, Turkey, UK

India: TN