Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 April 2020 | 12(5): 15631–15645

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4754.12.5.15631-15645

#4754 | Received 10 December 2018 | Final received 06 March 2020 | Finally accepted 01 April 2020

 

 

Comparative phytosociological assessment of three terrestrial ecosystems of Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India

 

M. Vishnu Chandran 1, S. Gopakumar 2  & Anoopa Mathews 3

 

1,2 Department of Natural Resource Management, College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, N.H. 47, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, Kerala 680656, India.

3 Department of Geology and Environmental Science, Christ College, Irinjalakuda, Thrissur, Kerala 680125, India.

1 vchandran187@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 gopan.s@kau.in (corresponding author), 3 anuanoopamathews15@gmail.com

 

 

 

Editor: K. Ravikumar, Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT), Bengaluru, India.             Date of publication: 26 April 2020 (online & print)

 

Citation: Chandran, M.V., S. Gopakumar & A. Mathews (2020). Comparative phytosociological assessment of three terrestrial ecosystems of Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(5): 15631–15645. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4754.12.5.15631-15645

 

Copyright: © Chandran et al. 2020. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, Kerala.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Mr. M. Vishnu Chandran is a postgraduate in tropical forestry from the Department of Natural Resource Management of College of Forestry of Kerala Agricultural University, India and is specializing in the study and management of invasive alien plant species in tropical ecosystems.  Dr. S. Gopakumar is a Professor of Forest Management in the Department of Natural Resource Management of College of Forestry of Kerala Agricultural University, India with over 21 years of research and academic experience in tropical forestry. Miss. Anoopa Mathews is an Environmental science postgraduate from Christ College Irinjalakkuda, India. She is an amateur plant taxonomist and an expert in tree and grass systematics.

 

Author contribution: MVC—conducted the field study, data analyses, drafting the manuscript, provided literatures, photos of specimens, habitats. SG-— conceptualized the research idea and peer reviewed the manuscript. AM—identification of the observed plant species.

 

Acknowledgements: The first and second author would like to thank the Kerala Agricultural University for the financial and technical support given for this study.  The permission granted by the Kerala state Forest and Wildlife department to undertake this investigation which forms a part of the postgraduate study of the first author is also gratefully acknowledged.

 

 

 

Abstract: Phytosociological studies were conducted in three vegetation types in the WS II area of Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary.  In each vegetation type, 85 quadrats (10 x 10 m) were laid to quantify the vegetation.  Natural forest showed comparatively higher species richness than plantation and vayal (swamps/low lying grassland).  In natural forest 96 plant species were present while it was 70 and 66 respectively in plantation and vayal.  Fabaceae was the dominant family in all the three vegetation types.  The natural forest was dominated by Chromolaena odorata, followed by Lantana camara, Mimosa pudica, Terminalia elliptica, Glycosmis pentaphylla.  In the plantations, Chromolaena odorata, Tectona grandis, Mimosa pudica and Glycosmis pentaphylla showed dominance.  The vayal was dominated by Arundinella leptochloa.  The second most dominant species in the vayal was Chromolaena odorata.  Other dominant species were Kyllinga nemoralis and Sporobolus tenuissimus.  Among the three, vayal recorded the highest Simpson Diversity Index.  The highest Berger-Parker Dominance Index value in plantation indicates the presence of dominant species. Natural forests recorded highest Margalef Richness Index and the least was in vayal.  The highest Pielou’s Wiener Equitability Index in vayal indicated all species are evenly distributed.

 

Keywords: Invasive alien species, phytosociology, Simpson Diversity Index, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats.

 

Abbreviations: C—Climber | H—Herb | IVI—Important Value Index | NF—Natural Forest | S—Shrub | T—Tree | WS—Wildlife Sanctuary | WS II—Wildlife Sanctuary II.

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

                 

Forests are the principal bio-resources and repositories of natural wealth that support human well-being and ecological sustainability (Sarkar 2016).  Phytosociological studies are necessary for protecting the biodiversity and natural plant communities (Rao et al. 2015).  These are very essential components for understanding the changes accomplished in the past and future (Hamzaoglu 2006).  The environmental safety of a country depends on the health of its forest area (Lloyd & Ghelard 1964) as it is the forest ecosystems which allocate disparate share to the world’s biodiversity (Battles et al. 2001).  For the conservation of biodiversity, it is crucial to attain forest sustainability (Chaubey et al. 1988).  It is proven that long-term sustainability of forest ecosystems is greatly related to plant diversity and their phytosociological attributes.  Most of the forests in the world today are under extensive anthropogenic disturbances and require careful management intervention to maintain overall biodiversity and sustainability (Kumar et al. 2006).  As plants provide both food and habitat for other organisms (Das et al. 2015), the total forest diversity is a dependent factor of plant diversity.  The overall strength of the forest rests on its plant composition, and hence the information on its composition, diversity and ecological aspects is of primary importance in conservation planning and implementation.

Tree species control the growth of other vascular plants as they regulate sunlight availability of the forest floor.  Analysis and estimation of tree diversity, through which a combination of physical habitat, vegetation, physiognomy, species composition and community relationship are unlocked, are useful datasets in forest management interventions (Battles et al. 2004).  The inherent variation within communities and ecosystems must be documented and used as base-line data to effectively predict the outcome of disturbances, such as regeneration and harvest methods on floristic diversity and richness (Sarkar 2015).

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Study area

The study was carried out in Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (WWS), Kerala State located in southern India, between October 2016 and February 2017.  WWS is spread over to 344km2 and comprises two discontinuous land areas of 77.67km2 (WS-I) and 266.77 km2 (WS-II) (Figure 1).  The larger of these two, WS-II lies within the geographical extremes of 11035’–11 049’N and 76013’–76027’E.  The other area WS-I lies within 11050’–11059’N and 76002’–7607’E. The phytosociological study was done in WS-II which has been divided into three forest ranges, namely, Muthanga, Kurichiat, and Sulthan Bathery.  The dominant natural vegetation here is characterized by moist and dry deciduous forest (Image 1), teak and eucalyptus plantations (Image 2), and bamboo brakes (Management Plan 2012–2022).  Swamps, which are low lying grasslands are spread over 715.79ha.  The land area locally known as vayals (Image 3), represent an edaphic climax with its deep clayey soils and are waterlogged during the monsoon, but sustain grasses throughout the year.

The quadrat method was employed for phytosociological analysis of all vegetation.  Three ecosystems, viz., natural forest (NF), plantation, and swamps/vayal (low lying grasslands) were compared.  In each vegetation type, 85 quadrats (10 × 10 m) were randomly laid to quantify the tree vegetation.  Tree species found within each quadrat were photographed.  Those plants which could not be immediately identified were recorded by their vernacular names (information from range officer, beat officer, forest guards, and local people). These species were later identified and their scientific names recorded by consulting dendrologists, books, articles, and internet.  The other vegetation inside the 10 × 10 m quadrat was further surveyed using 2 × 2 m nested quadrats.  In the nested quadrats, for all the species identity, origin (native or alien), growth form (herb, shrub, and climber), and abundance of other vascular plant species were recorded.  In order to analyse the diversity of tree vegetation, frequency, relative frequency, density, and relative density were calculated using the following formulae.

 

                             Number of individuals

Density (D)     = –––––––––––––––––––

                                           Hectare

                                              Number of individuals of the species

Relative Density (RD) = ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––× 100

                                          Number of individuals of all species

                    Total number of individuals of a species in all quadrats

Abundance (A)  = –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

                               Number of quadrats of occurrence of the species

                              Number of quadrats of occurrence of the species

Frequency (F)  = –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––× 100

                                     Total number of quadrats studied

                                                   Frequency of individual species

Relative frequency (RF) = –––––––––––––––––––––––––––× 100

                                                     Sum of frequency of all species

                 

Importance value index (IVI) was calculated by adding relative frequency, relative density and relative basal area.

Species richness was calculated according to Margalef (1958).  Diversity was calculated using Simpson’s diversity index (Simpson 1949).  The evenness was calculated in terms of Pielou’s equitability index (Pielou 1969). Dominance was calculated using Berger-Parker dominance index (Berger & Parker 1970).

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

Overall 129 plant species representing 111 genera were recorded from the three ecosystems (Table 2).  Of these, 55 were trees, 24 were shrubs, 35 herbs, and 12 climbers (Table 1).  Natural forest showed comparatively higher species richness than plantation and vayal.  In natural forest there were 96 plant species.  Plantation and vayal had 70 and 66 plant species, respectively.  The species recorded in natural forest represented 84 genera in 46 families (Table 1).  Fabaceae was the dominant family across the three ecosystems (Figure 2).  In the natural forest alone, Fabaceae was represented by 12 species.  The other dominant families were Poacae, Asteraceae, Caesalpinaceae, Combretaceae, Verbenaceae and Euphorbiaceae.

Among the tree species Anogeissus latifolia, Butea monosperma, Cassia fistula, Lagerstroemia microcarpa, Lannea coromandelica, Naringi crenulata, Olea dioica, Pterocarpus marsupium, Shorea roxburghii, Syzygium cumini, Tabernamontana alternifolia, Tectona grandis, Terminalia bellirica, and T. elliptica were seen in all the three vegetation types.  Aporosa cardiosperma, Carallia brachiata, Dalbergia lanceolaria, Diospyros melanoxylon, Elaeocarpus variabilis, Gmelina arborea, Hydnocarpus pentandra, Miliusa tomentosa, Pongamia pinnata, Streblus asper, and Terminalia paniculata were observed only in NF.  In vayals, the trees, namely, Careya arborea and Trewia nudiflora were seen.  In plantations, only Ailanthus triphysa, Elaeocarpus tuberculatus, Mallotus tetracoccus, and Ziziphus mauritiana were present.

Biophytum reinwardtii var. reinwardtii, Crassocephalum crepidioides, Curculigo orchioides, Curcuma neilgherrensis, Elephantopus scaber, Eleutheranthera ruderalis, Lepidagathis incurva, Mimosa pudica, Mitracarpus hirtus, and Senna tora were the herbs seen in all the three vegetation types.  Centella asiatica, Chamaecrista absus, and Lindernia crustacea were the herbs observed only in NF.  In plantations, the herbs seen were Acalypha paniculata, Desmodium gangeticum, Gomphrena celosioides.  Arundinella leptochloa, Axonopus compressus, Cyperus pilosus, Desmodium trifolium, Digitaria ciliaris, Grangea maderaspatana, Jansenella griffithiana, and Kyllinga nemoralis were observed only in vayal.

Catunaregam spinosa, Dendrocalamus strictus, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Sida acuta, S. alnifolia, and Solanum aculeatissimum are the shrubs that could be recorded in all three vegetation types.  Canthium coromandelicum, Carmona retusa, Clerodendrum infortunatum, Desmodium heterocarpon, D. pulchellum, Flacourtia indica, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Helicteres isora, Melastoma malabathricum, Osbeckia aspera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Sida acuta, S. alnifolia, Solanum aculeatissimum, Stachyphrynium jamaicensis, and Triumfetta rhomboidei were the shrubs observed in NF.  Canthium coromandelicum, Clerodendrum infortunatum, Flacourtia indica, Osbeckia aspera, and Rauvolfia serpentina were seen only in NF.  Carmona retusa, Catunaregam spinosa, Cipadessa baccifera, Dendrocalamus strictus, Desmodium heterocarpon, D. pulchellum, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Helicteres isora, Sida acuta, S. alnifolia, S. rhombifolia, Solanum aculeatissimum, Stachyphrynium jamaicensis, and Triumfetta rhomboidei were the shrubs seen in plantation.  Calotropis gigantea, Catunaregam spinosa, Dendrocalamus strictus, Flemingia strobilifera, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Ludwigia peruviana, Melastoma malabathricum, Sida acuta, S. alnifolia, and Solanum aculeatissimum were the shrubs commonly seen in vayal.  Among these, Calotropis gigantea and Flemingia strobilifera were only seen in vayal. 

Among the 11 climbers, Hemidesmus indicus and Ziziphus oenoplia were seen in all the vegetation types. Caesalpinia mimosoides, Cosmostigma racemosum, Elaeagnus kologa, and Piper nigrum were seen in NF.  In vayal, Chonemorpha fragrans was only climber which was seen.  No climber could be recorded in the plantation.

The vegetation analysis in NF showed that Chromolaena odorata has maximum abundance (81.6) and frequency (61.1) (Table 3).  Next to Chromolaena odorata, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (31.3) has maximum abundance.  The abundance of Senna spectabilis and Lantana camara were 17.7 and 9.8, respectively.  The density of Lantana camara was 532.9 stems ha-1.  After Lantana camara, Glycosmis pentaphylla (338.8 stems ha-1) and Mitracarpus hirtus (195.2 stems ha-1) were the densely seen plant species  in NF.  The most densely seen tree species in NF is S. spectabilis (188.2 stems ha-1).  Among the first ten highly dense plant species in NF, five were IAPS. Maximum frequency in NF was shown by Chromolaena odorata (61.1) and Lantana camara (54.1).  Terminalia elliptica (50.5) was the tree species having the highest frequency, followed by Lagerstroemia microcarpa (31.7) and Olea dioica (35.8).  It is Annona squamosa which has the lowest frequency, abundance and density in NF.

In plantation, Chromolaena odorata (75.29) was recorded in maximum frequency, followed by Glycosmis pentaphylla (44.7), Lantana camara (44.5) and Mimosa pudica (44.9) (Table 4).  After Chromolaena odorata (65.6), Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (38.5) recorded the second highest abundance.  The highest frequency in plantation was for Tectona grandis (87.05).  It was followed by Chromolaena odorata (75.29) and Mimosa pudica (49.4).  The least frequency was shown by Barleria mysorensis, Bauhinia racemosa, Lannea coromandelica, Melia azedarach and Mimusops elengi. Chromolaena odorata recorded the highest IVI, followed by Tectona grandis.

The most densely seen plant species in vayals was Arundinella leptochloa (11,662 stems ha-1) (Table 5). Density of Chromolaena odorata in vayal was (58,10.6 stems ha-1).  The lowest density in vayal was recorded for Bauhinia malabarica, Chonemorpha fragrans, and Lannea coromandelica.  The most abundantly seen plant species in vayals was Kyllinga nemoralis (173.6).  It was followed by Arundinella leptochloa (165.3) and Axonopus compressus (139.6).  In vayals, Ageratum conyzoides (72.56) was more abundantly seen than Chromolaena odorata.  The highest frequency in vayals was recorded for Chromolaena odorata (89.4) and Arundinella leptochloa (83.5).

The NF in WS II was dominated by Chromolaena odorata (60.56) (Figure 3).  The second most dominant species in NF was Lantana camara (15.7).  Other dominating species were Mimosa pudica (10.82), Terminalia elliptica (10.53), and Glycosmis pentaphylla (10.38).  In the WS II plantation also, the dominance of Chromolaena odorata (143.06) was evident.  The second most dominant species here was Tectona grandis (103.35).  Other dominating species were Mimosa pudica (57.01), and Glycosmis pentaphylla (55.42).  In vayal, Arundinella leptochloa (143.06) had the highest dominance.  This was followed by Chromolaena odorata (35.54), K. nemoralis (18.17) and Sporobolus tenuissimus (13.0) in that order.

Among the three ecosystems (Table 6), vayals recorded the highest Simpson’s diversity index, with plantations recording the least index value.  In the vayal ecosystem, the predominance of many grass species has contributed to the higher index value.  Moreover, vayals also recorded the highest Pielou’s Wiener equitability index, which means that, in vayals, the plant species present are also more evenly distributed.  The highest Berger-Parker dominance index for the plantations indicates the domination by selected species in this ecosystem which is also a reason for its reduced diversity index.  The highest Margalef richness index was in natural forest followed by plantation and vayal.

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

The paper assessed the phytosociological characters of the vegetation in three different ecosystems (Natural forest, plantation and vayal) of WS II area of Wayanad WS in Kerala State.  The plant species diversity and the structural composition of flora found in these ecosystems were distinctly different.  As expected, the highest species richness was found in NF and the least was in vayal.  All the three ecosystems had their unique set of representative plant species.  Chromolaena odorata, which is an invasive alien plant species (IAPS), however, was one of the dominant species in all three ecosystems.  Besides the tree species, Terminalia eliptica and Tectona grandis, WS II of Wayanad WS was also observed to be largely invaded by Chromolaena odorata, Lantana camara, and Mimosa pudica, which are also invasive in nature.

 

 

Table 1. Vegetation-type-wise distribution of species, genera, and families.

 

Herb

Shrub

Tree

Climber

Total no. of plant species

Family

Genus

Natural forest

17

21

46

9

96

46

84

Plantation

15

16

30

6

70

36

59

Vayal

26

10

24

3

66

31

60

 

Table 2. List of all plant species in the WS II of sanctuary.

 

Binomial

Category

Family

NF

Plantation

Vayal

1

Ageratum conyzoides L.*

Herb

Asteraceae

+

-

+

2

Ailanthus triphysa (Dennst.) Alston

Tree

Simaboubaceae

-

+

-

3

Annona squamosa L.*                                

Tree

Annonaceae

+

-

+

4

Anogeissus latifolia Wall

Tree

Combretaceae

+

+

+

5

Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr.

Tree

Euphorbiaceae

+

-

-

6

Arundinella leptochloa Hook.f.

Herb

Poaceae

-

-

+

7

Axonopus compressus P. Beauv.

Herb

Poaceae

-

-

+

8

Barleria mysorensis Heyne

Shrub

Acanthaceae

+

+

-

9

Bauhinia malabarica Roxb.

Tree

Caesalpiniaceae

-

-

+

10

Bauhinia racemosa Lam.

Tree

Caesalpiniaceae

+

+

-

11

Biophytum reinwardtii (Zucc.) Klotzsch

Herb

Oxalidaceae

+

+

+

12

Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub.

Tree

Fabaceae

+

+

+

13

Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

Climber

Caesalpiniaceae

+

-

-

14

Calotropis gigantea (L.) W.T. Aiton

Shrub

Asclepiadaceae

-

-

+

15

Calycopteris floribunda (Roxb.) Lam.

Climber

Combretaceae

+

+

-

16

Canthium coromandelicum (Burm.f.) Alston

Shrub

Rubiaceae

+

-

-

17

Carallia brachiata Lour. Merr.

Tree

Rhizophoraceae

+

-

-

18

Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

Climber

Sapindaceae

+

+

-

19

Careya arborea Roxb.

Tree

Lecythidaceae

-

-

+

20

Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masamune*

Shrub

Boraginaceae

+

+

-

21

Caryota urens L.

Tree

Palmae

+

+

-

22

Cassia fistula L.

Tree

Caesalpiniaceae

+

+

+

23

Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng.

Shrub

Rubiaceae

+

+

+

24

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

Herb

Umbelliferae

+

-

-

25

Chamaecrista absus (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby

Herb

Caesalpiniaceae

+

-

-

26

Chonemorpha fragrans (Moon) Alst.

Climber

Apocynaceae

-

-

+

27

Chromolaena odora (L.) King & Rob.*

Shrub

Asteraceae

+

+

+

28

Cinnamomum verum J.Presl

Tree

Lauraceae

+

+

-

29

Cipadessa baccifera Miq.

Shrub

Meliaceae

+

+

-

30

Clerodendrum infortunatum L.

Shrub

Verbenaceae

+

-

-

31

Cosmostigma racemosum Wight

Climber

Asclepiadaceae

+

-

-

32

Crassocephalum crepidioides S.Moore*

Herb

Asteraceae

+

+

+

33

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.                   

Herb

Hypoxidaceae

+

+

+

34

Curcuma neilgherrensis Wight

Herb

Zingiberaceae

+

+

+

35

Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thoms.

Climber

Menispermaceae

+

+

-

36

Cyperus pilosus Vahl

Herb

Cyperaceae

-

-

+

37

Dalbergia lanceolaria L.f.

Tree

Fabaceae

+

-

-

38

Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.

Tree

Fabaceae

-

+

+

39

Dendrocalamus strictus Nees

Shrub

Graminae

+

+

+

40

Desmodium gangeticum Blanco

Herb

Fabaceae

-

+

-

41

Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC.

Shrub

Fabaceae

+

+

-

42

Desmodium laxiflorum DC.

Herb

Fabaceae

+

+

-

43

Desmodium pulchellum (L.) Benth.

Shrub

Fabaceae

+

+

-

44

Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC.

Herb

Fabaceae

-

-

+

45

Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler

Herb

Graminae

-

-

+

46

Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb.

Tree

Ebenaceae

+

-

-

47

Elaeagnus kologa Schltdl.

Climber

Elaeagnaceae

+

-

-

48

Elaeocarpus tuberculatus Roxb.

Tree

Elaeocarpaceae

-

+

-

49

Elaeocarpus variabilis Zmarzty

Tree

Elaeocarpaceae

+

-

-

50

Elephantopus scaber L.

Herb

Asteraceae

+

+

+

51

Eleutheranthera ruderalis (Sw.) Sch.Bip.*

Herb

Asteraceae

+

+

+

52

Eragrostis tenella (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.

Herb

Poaceae

-

-

+

53

Eucalyptus globulus Labill.*

Tree

Myrtaceae

-

+

+

54

Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr.

Shrub

Flacourtiaceae

+

-

-

55

Flemingia strobilifera (L.) W.T.Aiton

Shrub

Fabaceae

-

-

+

56

Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC.                           

Shrub

Rutaceae

+

+

+

57

Gmelina arborea Roxb.

Tree

Verbenaceae

+

-

-

58

Gomphrena celosioides Mart.*

Herb

Amaranthaceae

-

+

-

59

Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poir.

Herb

Asteraceae

-

-

+

60

Grewia tiliifolia Vahl.

Tree

Tiliaceae

+

+

-

61

Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsdale.

Tree

Rubiaceae

+

-

+

62

Helicteres isora L.                                

Shrub

Sterculiaceae

+

+

-

63

Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br.

Climber

Periplocaceae

+

+

+

64

Hydnocarpus pentandra (Buch.-Ham.) Oken

Tree

Flacourtiaceae

+

-

-

65

Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.*

Herb

Lamiaceae

+

+

-

66

Jansenella griffithiana (Müll.Hal.) Bor

Herb

Poaceae

-

-

+

67

Kyllinga nemoralis (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) Dandy

Herb

Cyperaceae

-

-

+

68

Lagerstroemia microcarpa Wight.

Tree

Lythraceae

+

+

+

69

Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers.

Tree

Lythraceae

+

-

-

70

Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.

Tree

Anacardiaceae

+

+

+

71

Lantana camara L.*

Shrub

Verbenaceae

+

+

+

72

Lepidagathis incurva Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don

Herb

Acanthaceae

+

+

+

73

Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit*

Herb

Mimosaceae

+

-

-

74

Leucas aspera Link

Herb

Lamiaceae

+

-

+

75

Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.*

Herb

Scrophulariaceae

+

-

-

76

Ludwigia peruviana (L.) H.Hara*

Shrub

Onagraceae

-

-

+

77

Mallotus tetracoccus Kurz

Tree

Euphorbiaceae

-

+

-

78

Mangifera indica Wall.

Tree

Anacardiaceae

+

-

-

79

Melastoma malabathricum L.

Shrub

Melastomataceae

+

-

+

80

Melia azedarach L.*

Tree

Meliaceae

+

+

-

81

Melia dubia Cav.

Tree

Meliaceae

+

+

-

82

Mikania micrantha Kunth*

Climber

Asteraceae

-

+

-

83

Miliusa tomentosa (Roxb.) Finet & Gagnep.

Tree

Annonaceae

+

-

-

84

Mimosa pudica L.*

Herb

Fabaceae

+

+

+

85

Mimusops elengi Wight

Tree

Sapotacea

+

+

-

86

Mitracarpus hirtus DC.*

Herb

Rubiaceae

+

+

+

87

Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicolson

Tree

Rutaceae

+

+

+

88

Olea dioica Roxb.

Tree

Oleacea

+

+

+

89

Osbeckia aspera Blume

Shrub

Melastomataceae

+

-

-

90

Panicum trypheron Schult.

Herb

Poaceae

-

-

+

91

Persea macrantha (Nees) Kosterm.

Tree

Lauraceae

+

+

-

92

Phyllanthus emblica L.                             

Tree

Euphorbiaceae

+

-

+

93

Piper nigrum L.

Climber

Piperaceae

+

-

-

94

Pogostemon purpurascens Dalzell

Herb

Lamiaceae

-

+

-

95

Pongamia pinnata (L.) Merr.                               

Tree

Fabaceae

+

-

-

96

Premna tomentosa Wild.

Tree

Verbenaceae

+

-

-

97

Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.                           

Tree

Fabaceae

+

+

+

98

Rauvolfia serpentina Jacq.

Shrub

Apocynaceae

+

-

-

99

Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton

Herb

Cyperaceae

-

-

+

100

Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase*

Herb

Poaceae

-

-

+

101

Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken

Tree

Sapindaceae

+

+

-

102

Schrebera swietenioides Roxb.

Tree

Oleacea

+

-

-

103

Semecarpus anacardium Roxb.

Tree

Anacardiaceae

-

+

-

104

Senna spectabilis (DC.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby*

Tree

Fabaceae

+

+

+

105

Senna tora Roxb.*

Herb

Caesalpiniaceae

+

+

+

106

Shorea roxburghii G. Don.

Tree

Dipterocarpaceae

+

+

+

107

Sida acuta burm. F.

Shrub

Malvaceae

+

+

+

108

Sida alnifolia L.

Shrub

Malvaceae

+

+

+

109

Sida rhombifolia L.

Shrub

Malvaceae

-

+

-

110

Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.*

Shrub

Solanaceae

+

+

+

111

Spathodea campanulata  Buch.-Ham. ex DC.*

Tree

Bignoniaceae

+

-

-

112

Sporobolus tenuissimus Kuntze

Herb

Poaceae

-

-

+

113

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl*

Shrub

Verbenaceae

+

+

-

114

Streblus asper Lour.

Tree

Moraceae

+

-

-

115

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

Tree

Myrtaceae

+

+

+

116

Tabernamontana alternifolia Roxb.

Tree

Apocynaceae

+

+

+

117

Tamilnadia uliginosa (Retz.) Tirveng. & Sastre                             

Tree

Rubiaceae

+

-

+

118

Tectona grandis L.f.

Tree

Verbenaceae

+

+

+

119

Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.                            

Tree

Combretaceae

+

+

+

120

Terminalia cuneata Roth

Tree

Combretaceae

+

-

+

121

Terminalia elliptica Willd.

Tree

Combretaceae

+

+

+

122

Terminalia paniculata Roth

Tree

Combretaceae

+

-

-

123

Themeda triandra Forssk.

Herb

Poaceae

-

-

+

124

Trewia nudiflora Wight

Tree

Euphorbiaceae

-

-

+

125

Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.

Shrub

Tiliaceae

+

+

-

126

Vitex altissima L.f.

Tree

Verbenaceae

+

-

-

127

Ziziphus glabrata B. Heyne ex Roth

Tree

Rhamnaceae

+

-

-

128

Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.

Tree

Rhamnaceae

-

+

-

129

Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill.

Climber

Rhamnaceae

+

+

+

*indicates non-native species

 

 

Table 3. Phytosociological analysis of vegetation in natural forest.

 

Binomial

F

RF

D

RD

A

RBA

IVI

1

Ageratum conyzoides*

11.76

1.14

61.18

0.60

5.20

1.14

2.88