Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 February 2021 | 13(2): 17753–17779

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4625.13.2.17753-17779

#4625 | Received 26 June 2019 | Final received 12 January 2021 | Finally accepted  04 February 2021

 

 

A report on the moth (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) diversity of Kavvai River basin in Kerala, India

 

Chembakassery Jose Alex 1 , Koladyparambil Chinnan Soumya 2 & Thavalathadathil Velayudhan Sajeev 3

 

1–3 Forest Protection Division, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Thrissur, Kerala 680653, India.

1 alexcj37@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 soumyakc09@gmail.com, 3 tvsajeev@gmail.com

 

 

 

Editor: Jatishwor Singh Irungbam, Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre CAS, Czech Republic.      Date of publication: 26 February 2021 (online & print)

 

Citation: Alex, C.J., K.C. Soumya & T.V. Sajeev (2021). A report on the moth (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) diversity of Kavvai River basin in Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 13(2): 17753–17779. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4625.13.2.17753-17779

 

Copyright: © Alex et al. 2021. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: C.J. Alex is currently working as the Senior Project Officer in the biodiversity division of ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability, South Asia.  He holds a Doctoral degree in Landscape ecology from Cochin University of Science and Technology. His research interests include landscape ecology, GIS, remote sensing and conservation biology.   K.C. Soumya is currently working as a government employee in the drugs control department, Govt. of Kerala. She holds her master degree in Zoology. Her research interest includes lepidopteran biology and open green space management.  T.V. Sajeev, Senior Principal Scientist and HOD department of Forest Entomology, Kerala Forest Research Institute has extensive research experience in insect population dynamics, biocontrol, alien invasive species management.  Currently working as the research coordinator of KFRI and also involved in Managing Tree Health Helpline for the State of Kerala.

 

Author contribution: CJA—field work, larval rearing, moth identification, data compilation, manuscript writing, proof reading. KCS—larval rearing, moth identification.  TVS—overall guidance, manuscript editing, proof reading.

 

Acknowledgements: The authors are thankful to the Kerala State Council for Science, Technology, and Environment, Government of Kerala for providing financial support. Thanks to Dr. Sreejith K.A., Dr. George Mathew, Dr. Monalisa Sen, Mr. Sankara Raman, Moths of India facebook group and Indian Moths group of India Biodiversity Portal for their support, species identification help.  Thanks to Mr. Subin K K for layout help.

 

 

 

Abstract: In the present paper, we report the presence of 503 species of moths (343 identified to species, 160 identified to genus) that belong to 371 genera under 42 families.  The study was conducted at Kavvai River basin, northern Kerala, India for three years from 2015 to 2017.  Traditional light trapping method was employed to collect the moths during the night.  Among the families reported, Erebidae was the most dominant family followed by Crambidae, Geometridae, Noctuidae, and Pyraliade.  The study highlights the significance of the riverbasin in conserving rich diversity of invertebrates.

 

Keywords: Crambidae, Geometridae, Lepidoptera, light trap, moths, nocturnal, Noctuidae, Pyraliade, southern India.

 

 

 

Introduction

 

Kavvai (or Kavvayi) river is one among the 15 rivers which originates from the midlands of Kerala, India.  It is located between 12.0840–12.2450N & 75.0820–75.3330E.  The river emerges from the Cheemeni laterite hills at an elevation of 119m.  The river is 31km long and directly flows into the Kavvayi backwater which is connected to the Arabian Sea.  The river basin is a typical laterite biotope of northern Kerala which is a topographically complex, biodiversity-rich, fragmented, and densely populated cultural landscape spread over an area of 164.76km2 falling under nine local administrative bodies in the districts of Kannur and Kasaragode.  Even though the Kavvai River is prominent among the 15 rivers originating from the midlands of Kerala, there is no reserved or protected forest in the river basin which is composed of semi-natural landscapes such as lateritic hillocks, sacred groves, eco-groves (Kaanams), riverine vegetation and mangroves, cultural landscape such as wetland cultivation, plantations, homesteads with mixed cultivation and other agro-eco systems and a small proportion of artificial landscapes (Figure 1).  In the present study, attempts have been made to document the moth diversity of different habitats in the Kavvai River basin.

 

 

Material and Methods

 

The sampling was carried out during three different seasons: pre-monsoon (February–May), monsoon (June–September), and post-monsoon (October–January) seasons at six locations (Table 1) in the Kavvai River basin —sacred groves, eco -groves (Kaanam), lateritic exposed area, wetland, and mixed-cultivation areas—from 2015–2017 (Figure 1).  Sampling of moths was undertaken using a white cloth of 4 x 1.3 m, illuminated with a 20-Watt UV fluorescent tube connected to a portable UPS with a rechargeable battery of 50VA/36W (Image 329).  Moths were collected 18.00–06.00 h for two consecutive nights in each season in all locations.  In addition, immature stages of moths were also collected and reared in the laboratory (Image 330) to confirm the species.  The moths collected were photographed and subsequently identified using the reference collection at Kerala Forest Research Institute (KFRI) and available literature including Hampson (1892–1896), Bell & Scott (1937), Zimmerman (1978), Barlow (1982), Holloway (1983–2011), Robinson et al. (1994), Kendrick (2002), Solovyev & Witt (2009), Mathew (2010), Irungbam et al. (2017), Sondhi et al. (2018), and Subhalaxmi (2018).  Classification of moths at higher taxonomic levels was done based on Van Nieukerken et al. (2011), and for nomenclature aspects at species and genus levels, LEPINDEX (Beccaloni et al. 2003) was consulted.

 

 

Results

 

In the present study, 1,060 specimens (750 adults and 310 larvae) were collected which belonged to 503 species (343 moths were identified to the species level and another 160 to the genus level) under 371 genera belonging to 42 families were recored (Appendix I, Images 1–328).  All the specimens have been deposited in the Insect collection department of Kerala Forest Research Institute.

Among the moths collected, Noctuoidea (195 species of which 45 up to generic level) has the highest diversity followed by Pyraloidea (118 species; 39 up to generic level), Geometroidea (67 species; 20 up to generic level), Gelechioidea (23 species; 13 up to generic level), Bombycoidea (22 species; one up to generic level), Zygaenoidea (18 species; eight up to generic level), Tortricoidea (18 species; 10 up to generic level), Tineioidea (nine species; five up to generic level) Pterophoroidea (six species; five up to generic level), Thyridoidea (six species; five up to generic level), Lasiocampoidea (four species; two up to generic level), Yponomeutoidea (four species; two up to generic level), Drepanoidea (four species; one up to generic level), Cossoidea (three species; one up to generic level), Choreutoidea (two species; two up to generic level), Gracillarioidea (two species; one up to generic level) and Alucitoidea and Hyblaeoideaare represented by single species (Table 3; Figure 2).

Among the families, Erebidae showed the highest number of genera (92) and species (128) followed by Crambidae (66 genera, 94 spp.), Geometridae (43 genera, 60 spp.), Noctuidae (23 genera, 36 spp.), Pyralidae (23 genera, 23 spp.), Nolidae (11 genera, 18 spp.), Tortricidae (12 genera, 18 spp.), Limacodidae (13 genera, 16 spp.), and Gelechiidae (11 genera, 17 spp.).

 

 

Discussion

 

Kavvai River basin is a typical lateritic biotope which holds various ecological units such as lateritic vegetation, sacred groves, eco groves, riverine vegetation, mangroves, wetlands, and agro-ecosystems.  Each of these ecological units have various micro habitats also.  Even though the region is highly fragmented, the diversity of flora, birds, amphibians, and spiders are high in the region (Das et al. 2014; Sreejith et al. 2015).  The butterfly diversity study in the river basin during 2013–2015 recorded 140 species of butterflies belonging to 96 genera of six families (Dhaneesh et al. 2017).  Generally, the diversity of insects and the diversity of angiosperms in a landscape show positive correlation since plants provide food, shelter, sites for mating, and oviposition to insects (Leps et al. 2001).  The result of the present study also supports this hypothesis.  According to landuse or land cover pattern of the study area, the river basin has 78.5% of cultural landscape, 15.4% of semi natural landscape, and 6% of artificial landscapes (Alex 2018).  Moth diversity of several forest patches in Kerala has already been made (Table 2) and the results of the present study indicate a rich and diversified moth fauna in the Kavvai Riven basin.  Lepidoptera species diversity has been shown to be highest in moderately disturbed forests and higher in disturbed forests than the undisturbed natural forest or mature forest (Blair & Launer 1997; Schulze et al. 2004; Brehm & Fiedler 2005; Hilt & Fiedler 2005; Bobo et al. 2006; Nöske et al. 2008; Vu & Vu 2011).  The result of the present study supports the above hypothesis.

During the past 10 years or so, the study area has been facing unprecedented levels of conversion from the semi natural landscape and cultural landscape to artificial landscapes with monocultures of agricultural crops leading to depletion of ecologically important and critical terrains such as lateritic hillocks, sacred groves, riverine vegetation, mangroves, marshes, and wetlands.  Land use classification in India which is based mainly on agricultural productivity usually classifies the majority of such semi natural landscapes as ‘waste lands’, which enables easy conversion of land from natural to artificial land use practices (Alex & Sajeev 2015).  Considering the ecological importance of habitats, there is an urgent need to conserve these critical ecosystems along river basins for conserving their rich biodiversity.

 

Table 1. Sampling locations.

Location

Latitude

Longitude

Place name

L1

12.230771

75.225128

Vannathykkanam

L2

12.230078

75.234553

ITP Cheemeni

L3

12.220838

75.227252

Oyolam

L4

12.153555

75.201136

Kuniyan

L5

12.139263

75.155611

Edayilakkad

L6

12.206677

75.255838

Velichamthoodu

 

 

Table 2. Moth diversity in protected forests of Kerala.

 

Protected area

Moth species recorded

Number of families

Reference

1

Silent Valley NP

318

19

Mathew & Rahmathulla 1995

2

Parambikulam NP

277

20

Sudheendrakumar & Mathew 1999

3

Shendurney WS

129

11

Mathew et al. 2004a

4

Peppara WS

87

7

Mathew et al. 2004b

5

PeechiVazhani WS

113

21

Mathew et al. 2005

6

Neyyar WS

90

9

Mathew et al. 2007

NP—National Park | WS—Wildlife Sanctuary

 

 

Table 3. Composition of moths collected from the Kavvai River basin.

 

Super family

Family

Genera

Species

1

Alucitoidea

Alucitidae

1

1

2

Bombycoidea

Bombycidae

1

1

Eupterotidae

2

6

Saturniidae

3

3

Sphingidae

9

12

3

Choreutoidea

Choreutidae

2

2

4

Cossoidea

Brachodidae

1

2

Cossidae

1

1

5

Drepanoidea

Drepanidae

3

4

6

Gelechioidea

Autostichidae

1

1

Blastobasidae

1

1

Cosmopterigidae

4

4

Gelechiidae

7

10

Lecithoceridae

1

1

Oecophoridae

1

1

Scythrididae

1

1

Stathmopodidae

2

3

Symmocidae

1

1

7

Geometroidea

Geometridae

43

60

Uraniidae

6

7

8

Gracillarioidea

Gracillariidae

2

2

9

Hyblaeoidea

Hyblaeidae

1

1

10

Lasiocampoidea

Lasiocampidae

3

4

11

Noctuoidea

Erebidae

92

128

Euteliidae

2

2

Noctuidae

23

36

Nolidae

11

18

Notodontidae

9

11

12

Pterophoroidea

Pterophoridae

6

6

13

Pyraloidea

Crambidae

66

94

Pyralidae

23

24

14

Thyridoidea

Thyrididae

5

6

15

Tineoidea

Eriocottidae

1

1

Psychidae

1

3

Tineidae

3

5

16

Tortricoidea

Tortricidae

12

18

17

Yponomeutoidea

Argyresthiidae

1

1

Attevidae

1

1

Lyonettidae

1

1

Plutellidae

1

1

18

Zygaenoidea

Limacodidae

14

16

Zygaenidae

2

2

 

Total

372

503

 

 

For figures & images - - click here

 

 

References

 

Alex, C.J. & T.V. Sajeev (2015). Experiments in Critical Mapping: Data, Scales and Functionality, pp. 2104–2111. In: Pandiyan, M. (ed.)  Proceedings volume 27th Kerala Science Congress, 27–29 January 2015, Alappuzha, 2158pp.

Alex, C.J. (2018). Ecology of Kavvai River Basin: A Fragmented Landscape in Kerala. PhD Thesis. Department of Environmental Studies, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala, India, 527pp.

Barlow, H.S. (1982). An Introduction to the Moths of South East Asia. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, 307pp.

Beccaloni, G.W., M.J. Scoble, G.S. Robinson & B. Pitkin (2003). The global lepidoptera names index (LepIndex). http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex. Accessed 20 Mar 2018.

Bell, T.R.D. & F.B. Scott (1937). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Moths-Volume 5, Sphingidae. 537pp+15pls.

Blair, R.B. & A.E. Launer, (1997). Butterfly diversity and human land use: Species assemblages along an urban grandient. Biological conservation 80(1): 113–125.

Bobo, K. S., M. Waltert, H. Fermon, J. Njokagbor & M. Mühlenberg (2006). From Forest to farmland: Butterfly Diversity and Habitat Associations Along a Gradient of Forest Conversion in Southwestern Cameroon. Journal of Insect Conservation 10(1): 29–42.

Brehm, G. & K. Fiedler (2005). Diversity and community structure of geometrid moths of disturbed habitat in a montane area in the Ecuadorian Andes. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 38: 1–14.

Das, S., M.P. Prejith, K.P.R. Kumar, C.J. Alex, T.A. Prasad & K.A. Sreejith (2014). Amphibian diversity of Laterite hills of Kavvayi river basin, Kerala India. Malabar Trogon 12(13): 31–34.

Dhaneesh, B., M.P. Prajith, C.J. Alex & K.A. Sreejith (2017). Butterfly diversity of Laterite biotope of Kavvai river basin, Kerala. Current World Environment 12(1): 132–141

Hampson, G. (1892). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Moths-Volume 1, Saturniidae to Hypsidae. Taylor and Francis, London, 527pp+333figs.

Hampson, G. (1894). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Moths-Volume 2, Arctiidae, Agrostidae, Noctuidae. Taylor and Francis, London, 609pp+325figs.

Hampson, G. (1895). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Moths-Volume 3, Noctuidae (cont.) to Geometridae. Taylor and Francis, London, 546pp+226figs.

Hampson, G. (1896). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Moths-Volume 4. Pyralidae. Taylor and Francis, London, 594pp+287 figs.

Hilt, N.&K. Fiedler (2005). Diversity and composition of Arctiidae moth ensembles along a successional gradient in the Ecuadorian Andes. Diversity and Distributions 11(5): 387–398. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1366-9516.2005.00167.x 

Holloway, J.D. (1983). The moths of Borneo (part 4); Family Notodontidae. Malayan Nature Journal 37: 1–107.

Holloway, J.D. (1985). The moths of Borneo (part 14); Family Noctuidae: Subfamilies Euteliinae, Stictopterinae, Plusiinae, Pantheinae. Malayan Nature Journal 38: 157–317.

Holloway, J.D. (1986). The moths of Borneo (part 1); Key to families; Cossidae, Metarbelidae, Ratardidae, Dudgeoneidae, Epipyropidae and Limacodidae. Malayan Nature Journal 40: 1–165.

Holloway, J.D. (1987). The Moths of Borneo (part 3); Families Lasiocampidae, Eupterotidae, Bombycidae, Brahmaeidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae. Southdene Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 199pp+163figs+20pls.

Holloway, J.D. (1988). The Moths of Borneo (part 6); Family Arctiidae: Subfamilies Arctiinae, Syntominae, Aganainae (to Noctuidae). Southdene Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 101pp+168fig+6pls.

Holloway, J.D. (1989). The moths of Borneo (part 12); Family Noctuidae: Subfamilies Noctuinae, Heliothinae, Hadeninae, Acronictinae, Amphipyrinae, Agaristinae. Malayan Nature Journal 43: 57–226.

Holloway, J.D. (1993). The moths of Borneo (part 11); Family Geometridae: Subfamilies Ennominae. Malayan Nature Journal 47: 1–309.

Holloway, J.D. (1996). The moths of Borneo (part 9); Family Geometridae: Subfamilies Oenochrominae, Desmobathrinae, Geometrinae. Malayan Nature Journal 49: 147–326.

Holloway, J.D. (1997). The moths of Borneo (part 10); Family Geometridae: Subfamilies Sterrhinae, Larentiinae, Addenda to other subfamilies. Malayan Nature Journal 51: 1–242.

Holloway, J.D. (1999). The moths of Borneo (part 5); Family Lymantriidae. Malayan Nature Journal 53: 1–188.

Holloway, J.D. (2011). The moths of Borneo (part 2). Families Phaudidae, Himantopteridae and Zygaenidae; revised and annotated checklist. Malayan Nature Journal 63: 1–548.

Irungbam, J.S., M.S. Chib & A.V. Solovyev (2017). Moths of the family Limacodidae Duponchel, 1845 (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea) from Bhutan with six new generic and 12 new species records. Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(2): 9795–9813. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2443.9.2.9795-9813

Kendrick, R.C. (2002). Moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of Hong Kong. PhD Thesis. Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, xvi+660pp+47pls.

Leps, J., V. Novotny & Y. Basset (2001). Habitat and successional status of plants in relation to the communities of their leaf chewing herbivores in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Ecology 89(2): 186–199. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.2001.00540.x

Mathew, G. (2010). Report ofthe Taxonomy of Microlepedoptera, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Thrissur, India, 100pp+28fig+6pls.

Mathew, G. & V.K. Rahmathulla (1995). Biodiversity in the Western Ghats-A study with reference to moths (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) in the silent valley National Park, India. Entomon 20: 25–34.

Mathew, G., R. Chandran, C.M. Brijesh & R.S. Shamsudeen (2004a). Insect fauna of Shendurny Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala. Zoos’ Print Journal 19(1): 1321–1327. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.19.1.1321-7

Mathew, G., R.S.M. Shamsudeen & C.M Brijesh (2007). Insect fauna of Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. Zoos’ Print Journal 22(12): 2930–2933. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.1575.2930-3

Mathew, G., R.S.M. Shamsudeen & R. Chandran (2005). Insect fauna of Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. Zoos’ Print Journal 20(8): 1955–1960. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.1280.1955-60

Mathew, G., R.S.M. Shamsudeen, R. Chandran & C.M. Brijesh (2004b). Insect fauna of Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. Zoos’ Print Journal 19(11): 1680–1683. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.1063.1680-3

Nöske, N.M., N. Hilt, F.A. Werner, G. Brehm, K. Fiedler, H.J. Sipman & S.R. Gradstein (2008). Disturbance effects on diversity of epiphytes and moths in a montane forest in Ecuador. Basic and Applied Ecology 9(1): 4–12.

Robinson, G.S., K.R. Tuck & M. Shaffer (1994). A field guide to smaller moths of South East Asia. Malaysian Nature Society, Malaysia, 309pp.

Schulze, C.H., I. Steffan-Dewenter & T. Tscharntke (2004). Effects of land use on butterfly communities at the rain forest margin: a case study from Central Sulawesi, pp. 281–297. In: Gerold, G. & M. Fremerey (eds.). Land Use, Nature Conservation and the Stability of Rainforest Margins in Southeast Asia. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XXXI+533pp. 

Sondhi, S., Y. Sondhi, P. Roy & K. Kunte (2018). Moths of India, v. 1.81. Indian Foundation for Butterflies.https://www.mothsofindia.org Accessed 15 March 2018.

Sreejith, K.A, M.P. Prejith, V.B. Sreekumar & C.J. Alex (2015). Eco -Grove: A Conservation Concept beyond ‘Sacred Grove’. In Proceedings of International Conference on Biodiversity and Evaluation, December 2015, Sreesankara College, Kalady, 2015: 254–256

Subhalaxmi, V. (2018). Field Guide to Indian Moths, Birdwing Publishers, India, 461pp.

Sudheendrakumar, V.V. & G. Mathew (1999). Reports on the Studies on the diversity of selected groups of insects in the Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Thrissur, India 247: 79pp.

Solovyev, A.V. & T.J. Witt (2009). The Limacodidae of Vietnam. Entomofauna, Supplement. 16: 33–321.

van Nieukerken E.J., L. Kaila, I.J. Kitching, N.P. Kristensen, D.C. Lees, J. Minet, C. Mitter, M. Mutanen, J.C. Regier, T.J. Simonsen, N. Wahlberg, S.-H. Yen, R. Zahiri, D. Adamski, J. Baixeras, D. Bartsch, B.A. Bengtsson, J.W. Brown, S.R. Bucheli, D.R. Davis, J.D. Prins, W.D. Prins, M.E. Epstein, P. Gentili-Poole, C. Gielis, P. Hättenschwiler, A. Hausmann, J.D. Holloway, A. Kallies, O. Karsholt, A.Y. Kawahara, S. Koster, M.V. Kozlov, J.D. Lafontaine, G. Lamas, J.F. Landry, S. Lee, M. Nuss, K.-T. Park, C. Penz, J. Rota, A. Schintlmeister, B.C. Schmidt, J.-C. Sohn, M.A. Solis, G.M. Tarmann, A.D. Warren, S. Weller, R.V. Yakovlev, V.V. Zolotuhin & A. Zwick (2011). Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148(1): 212–221. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3148.1.41

Vu, L.V. & C.Q. Vu (2011). Diversity pattern of butterfly communities (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidae) in different habitat types in a tropical rain forest of Southern Vietnam. ISRN Zoology 2011: 1–8

Zimmerman, E.C. (1978). Insects of Hawaii. Volume 9, Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, 1,903pp.

 

 

Appendix 1. Checklist of the moths recorded from Kavvai River basin.

 

Scientific name

Author & description year

I

ALUCITOIDEAE

Leach, 1815

I.1

Alucitidae

Leach, 1815

1

Alucita sp.

 

II

BOMBYCOIDEA

Latreille, 1802

II.1

Bombycidae

Latreille, 1802

II.1.a

Bombycinae

 

2

Trilocha varians

Walker,1855

II.2

Eupterotidae

Swinhoe. 1892

II.2.a

Eupterotinae

 

3

Eupterote bifasciata

Kishida, 1994

4

Eupterote hibisci

Fabricius, 1775

5

Eupterote lineosa

Walker,1855

6

Eupterote undata

Blanchard, 1844

7

Ganisa postica

Walker,1855

8

Ganisa sp.1

 

II.3

Saturniidae

Boisduval, 1837

II.3.a

Saturniinae

Boisduval, 1837

9

Actias selene

Hübner, 1806

10

Antheraea paphia

Linnaeus 1758

11

Attacus atlas 

Linnaeus, 1758

II.4

Sphingidae

Latreille, 1802

II.4.a

Macroglossinae

 

12

Acosmeryx anceus

Stoll, 1781

13

Angonyx krishna

Eitschberger & Haxaire, 2006

14

Cephonodes hylas

Linnaeus, 1771

15

Daphnis nerii

Linnaeus, 1758

16

Hippotion boerhaviae

Fabricius, 1775

17

Macroglossum affictitia

Butler, 1875

18

Macroglossum aquila

Boisduval, [1875]

19

Theretra clotho

Moore, 1872

20

Theretra suffusa

Walker,1856

II.4. b

Sphinginae

 

21

Acherontia lachesis

Fabricius, 1798

22

Psilogramma increta

Walker, [1865]

23

Psilogramma menephron

Cramer, 1780

III

CHOREUTOIDEA

Stainton, 1858

III.1

Choreutidae

Stainton, 1858

III.1. a

Brenthiinae

 

24

Brenthiasp.

 

III.1.b

Choreutinae

 

25

Choreutis sp.

 

IV

COSSIOIDEA

Leach, 1815

IV.1

Brachodidae

Agenjo, 1966

26

Phycodes minor

Moore, 1881

27

Phycodes radiata

Ochsenheimer, 1808

IV.2

Cossidae

Leach, 1815

IV.2.a

Zeuzerinae

 

28

Phragmataecia sp.1

 

V

DREPANOIDEA

Boisdual, 1828

V.1

Drepanidae

Boisdual, 1828

V.1.a

Drepaninae

 

29

Callidrepana patrana

Moore, 1865

30

Callidrepana sp.1

 

31

Phalacra vidhisara

Walker,1960

32

Tridrepana albonotata

Moore, 1879

VI

GELECHIOIDEA

Stainton, 1854

VI.1

Autostichidae

Le Merchant, 1947

VI.1.a

Autostichinae

 

33

Autosticha cf. kyotensis

 

VI.2

Blastobasidae

Meyrick 1894

34

Blastobasis sp.

 

VI.3

Cosmopterigidae

Heinemann &Wocke, 1876

35

Anatrachyntis sp. 

 

36

Cosmopterix sp.

 

VI.3.a

Cosmopteriginae

 

37

Labdia semicoccinea

Stainton,1859

38

Limnaecia peronodes

Meyrick, 1915

VI.4

Gelechiidae

Stainton, 1854

39

Helcystogramma sp.

 

40

Helcystogramma hibisci

Stainton, 1859

VI.4.a

Anacampsinae

 

41

Idiophantis sp.

 

42

Thiotricha sp.

 

VI.4.b

Chelariinae

 

43

Anarsia epotias

Meyrick, 1916

44

Anarsia sp.1

Park, 1995

45

Hypatima haligramma

Meyrick, 1926

VI.4.c

Dichomeridinae

 

46

Dichomeris harmonias

Meyrick, 1922

47

Dichomeris sp.1

 

VI.4.d

Gelechiinae

 

48

Stegasta sp.

 

VI.5

Lecithoceridae

Le Merchant, 1947

49

Lecithocera concinna

Turner, 1919

VI.6

Oecophoridae

Bruant, 1850

VI.6.a

Oecophorinae

 

50

Promalactis sp.

 

VI.7

Scythrididae

Rebel, 1901

51

Eretmocera sp.

 

VI.8

Stathmopodidae

Janse, 1917

52

Hieromantis sp.

 

53

Stathmopoda gemmiconsuta

Terada, 2012

54

Stathmopodas sp.1

 

VI.9

Symmocidae

Gozmany, 1957

55

Symmoca signatella

Herrich-Schäffer, 1854

VII

GEOMETROIDEA

Leach, 1815

VII.1

Geometridae

Leach, 1815

VII.1.a

Desmobathrinae

 

56

Derambila sp.

 

57

Ozola minor 

Moore, 1888

58

Ozola sp.1

 

VII.1.b

Ennominae

 

59

Achrosis intexta

Swinhoe, 1891

60

Achrosis rondelaria

Fabricius, 1775

61

Amraica cf. superans

Butler, 1878

62

Ascotis imparata

Walker,1860

63

Biston suppressaria

Guenée, [1858]

64

Borbacha pardaria

Guenée, [1858]

65

Chiasmia eleonora

Cramer, [1780]

66

Chiasmia honoria

Hampson, 1912

67

Chiasmia nora

Walker,1861

68

Chiasmia sp.1

 

69

Comibaena sp.1

 

70

Ectropis bhurmitra

Walker,1860

71

Gonodontis sp.

 

72

Heterostegane urbica

Swinhoe, 1886

73

Hyperythra lutea

Stoll, [1781]

74

Hyperythra sp.

 

75

Hypomecis infixaria

Walker,1860

76

Hypomecis punctinalis

Scopoli, 1763

77

Hypomecis transcissa

Walker,1860

78

Hyposidra talaca

Walker, 1860

79

Menophra sp.

 

80

Oenospila flavifusata

Walker,1861

81

Parapholodes fuliginea

Hampson, 1891

82

Petelia cf. rivulosa

Butler, 1881

83

Ruttellerona cessaria

Walker 1860

VII.1.c

Geometrinae

 

84

Aporandria specularia

Guenée, [1858]

85

Argyrocosma cf. inductaria

Guenée, 1857

86

Comostola meritaria

Walker 1861

87

Comostola laesaria

Walker,1861

88

Comostola rubripunctata

Warren, 1909

89

Dysphania percota

Swinhoe, 1891

90

Hemistola sp.

 

91

Hemistola tenuilinea

Alphéraky, 1897

92

Hemithea cf. tritonaria

Walker 1863

93

Jodis sp.

 

94

Ornithospila avicularia 

Guenée 1857

95

Orothalassodes falsaria

Prout, 1912

96

Pelagodes sp.

 

97

Pingasa cf. ruginaria

Guenee 1857

VII.1.d

Larentiinae

 

98

Eois grataria

Walker,1861

99

Eupithecia sp.

 

100

Gymnoscelis cf. rubricata

de Joannis, 1932

101

Gymnoscelis cf. rufifasciata

Haworth, 1809

102

Sauris sp.

 

VII.1.e

Oenochrominae

 

103

Noreia sp.

 

VII.1.f

Orthostixinae

 

104

Naxa seriaria

Motschulsky, 1866

105

Naxa textilis

Walker,1856

VII.1.g

Sterrhinae

 

106

Anisephyra sp.

 

107

Perixera sp.

 

108

Problepsis vulgaris

Butler, 1889

109

Scopula emissaria

Walker,1861

110

Scopula minorata

Boisduval, 1833

111

Scopula sp.1

 

112

Scopula sp.2

 

113

Somatina cf. ioscia

Prout, 1932

114

Traminda aventiaria

Guenée, [1858]

115

Traminda mundissima

Walker, 1861

VII.2

Uraniidae

Leach, 1815

VII.2.a

Epipleminae

 

116

Dysaethria sp.

 

117

Epiplema bicaudata

Moore, 1867

118

Orudiza protheclaria

Walker,1861

119

Phazaca sp.1

 

120

Phazaca sp.2

 

121

Rhombophylla edentata

Hampson, 1895

VII.2.b

Microniinae

 

122

Micronia aculeata

Guenée, 1857

VIII

GRACILLARIOIDEA

Stainton, 1854

VIII.1

Gracillariidae

Stainton, 1854

VIII.1.a

Gracillariinae

 

123

Acrocercops syngramma

Meyrick, 1914

124

Epicephala sp.

 

IX

HYBLAEOIDEA

Hampson, 1903

IX.1

Hyblaeidea

Hampson, 1903

125

Hyblaea puera

Cramer, 1777

X

LASIOCAMPOIDEA

Harris, 1841

X.1

Lasiocampidae

Harris, 1841

X.1.a

Lasiocampinae

 

126

Gastropacha sp.1

 

127

Gastropacha pardale

Walker 1855

128

Odonestis sp.

 

129

Trabala vishnou

Lefèbvre, 1827

XI

NOCTUOIDEA

Latreille, 1809

XI.1

Erebidae

Leach, 1815

130

Aloa lactinea

Cramer, 1777

131

Diacrisia sp.

 

132

Nygmia sp.

 

XI.1.a

Aganainae

 

133

Asota caricae

Fabricius, 1775

134

Asota plaginota

Butler, 1875

135

Asota plana

Walker, 1854

136

Asota producta

Butler, 1875

137

Neochera dominia

Cramer, [1780]

XI.1.b

Arctiinae

 

138

Barsine defecta

Walker 1854

139

Brunia antica

Walker, 1854

140

Brunia griseola

Hübner, 1827

141

Ceryx sp.

 

142

Eressa confinis

Walker,1854

143

Eressa sp.1

 

144

Olepa ricini

Fabricius, 1775

145

Syntomoide simaon

Cramer, 1780

146

Syntomoides sp.1

 

147

Aemene sp.1

 

148

Aemene taprobanis

Walker, 1854

149

Amerila astreus

Drury, 1773

150

Argina astrea

Drury, 1773

151

Creatonotos gangis

Linnaeus, 1763

152

Creatonotos transiens

Walker,1855

153

Curoba sangarida

Cramer, 1781

154

Euchromia polymena

Linnaeus, 1758

155

Margina argus

Kollar, 1844

156

Pangora matherana

Moore, 1879

157

Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata

Barros, 1956

158

Spilarctia luteum 

Hufnagel, 1766

159

Spilarctia mona

Swinhoe, 1885

160

Spilarctia obliqua

Walker, 1855

161

Spilosoma urticae

Esper, 1789

162

Utetheisa pulchella

Linnaeus, 1758

163

Cyana hamata

Walker,1854

164

Cyana peregrina

Walker,1854

165

Cyana sp.1

 

166

Hemonia orbiferana

Walker, 1863

167

Hemonias sp.2

 

168

Lyclene cf. obsoleta

Moore, 1878

169

Lyclene sp.1

 

170

Macrobrochis gigas

Walker,1854

171

Miltochrista gratiosa

Guérin-Méneville, 1843

172

Miltochrista sp.1

 

173

Nepita conferta

Walker,1854

174

Nepita rubricosa

Moore, 1878

175

Pseudoblabes oophora

Zeller, 1853

176

Schistophleps sp.

 

177

Trischalis sp.

 

178

Amata bicincta

Kollar, 1844

179

Amata cyssea

Stoll 1782

XI.1.c

Aventiinae

 

180

Zurobata vacillans

Walker,1864

XI.1.d

Calpinae

 

181

Colobochyla sp.

 

182

Cyclodes omma

Hoeven, 1840

183

Daddala sp.

 

184

Diomea cf. discisigna

Sugi, 1963

185

Donda eurychlora

Walker,1858

186

Egnasia ephyrodalis

Walker,1858

187

Ericeia inangulata

Guenée, 1852

188

Ericeia sp.1

 

189

Eudocima homaena

Hübner, [1823]

190

Eudocima materna

Linnaeus, 1767

191

Eudocima phalonia