Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 February 2020 | 12(3): 15326–15354

 

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4170.12.3.15326-15354

#4170 | Received 01 April 2019 | Final received 30 January 2020 | Finally accepted 07 February 2020

 

 

Angiosperm diversity in Bhadrak region of Odisha, India

 

Taranisen Panda 1, Bikram Kumar Pradhan 2, Rabindra Kumar Mishra 3, Srusti Dhar Rout 4 & Raj Ballav Mohanty 5

 

1,2 Department of Botany, Chandbali College, Chandbali, Gopalpur Post, Bhadrak District, Odisha 756133, India.

3,4 North Orissa University, Sri Ram Chandra Vihar, Takatpur, Mayurbhanj, Baripada, Odisha 757003, India.

5 Retired Reader in Botany, Plot No. 1311/7628, Satya Bihar, Rasulgarh, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 751010, India.

1 taranisenpanda@yahoo.co.in (corresponding author), 2 bikram.bot@gmail.com, 3 rabikumishra@gmail.com,

4 srusti_d_rout@rediffmail.com, 5 rajballavmohanty@gmail.com

 

 

 

Abstract: We present the information about angiosperm species in Bhadrak District of Odisha, India. In so doing, we assess the state of floristic knowledge across ecoregions of the district and pinpoint our understanding of the district flora. This study is first of its kind conducted in the district showing current status of the angiosperm diversity. A total of 383 species (262 native species and 121 non-native species) belonging to 282 genera under 93 families are recorded as per APG III classification. These taxa are distributed in 12 superorders and 39 orders; 26.7% of the native species were reported from the superorder Fabids, 20.6% from superorder Malvids, 19.8% from superorder Lamids and 15.6% from superorder Commelinids. One hundred and twenty one non-native species were represented in 12 superorders. Native species of the order Fabales (35), Poales and Lamiales (27) each, Malphigiales (18), Malvales (14), Gentianales (13), Carylophyllales and Solanales (12) each and Myrtales and Sapindales (11) each, account for about 68.7% of the species in the district. Eighty one non-native species belong to these orders. The analysis of the plant species based on growth habits showed highest proportion of herbs followed by trees, shrubs and climbers.  Some of the reported species are used for the treatment of various ailments and also for edible purposes. Plant species diversity, distribution and population structure provide baseline information for conservation and sustainable management of available resources.

 

Keywords: Biofencing, floristic inventory, invasive species, medicinal plants, vegetation.

 

 

Editor: P. Lakshminarasimhan, Botanical Survey of India, Pune, India.     Date of publication: 26 February 2020 (online & print)

 

Citation: Panda, T., B.K. Pradhan, R.K. Mishra, S.D. Rout & R.B. Mohanty (2020). Angiosperm diversity in Bhadrak region of Odisha, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(3): 15326–15354. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4170.12.3.15326-15354

 

Copyright: © Panda et al. 2020. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: None.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Taranisen Panda has interest in plant taxonomy, ethnobotany and biodiversity assessment. Bikram Kumar Pradhan has interest in plant taxonomy and ethnobotany.  Rabindra Kumar Mishra has interest in plant taxonomy, ecology and biodiversity assessment.  Srustidhar Rout has interest in plant taxonomy, ethnobotany and biodiversity assessment. Raj Ballav Mohanty has interest in plant taxonomy and ethnobotany.

 

Author contribution: TP carried out the floristic study, collected the data and wrote the manuscript. BKP, SDR, RKM and RBM identified the species, interpreted the data and designed the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

 

Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to the local healers concerned for sharing theirtraditional knowledge for documentation and photography.

 

 

 

Introduction

 

The structure, composition, and vegetative functions are most significant ecological attributes of a particular ecosystem, which show variations in response to environmental as well as anthropogenic variables (Timilsina et al. 2007; Gairola et al. 2008; Shaheen et al. 2012). Major threats to ecosystems and biodiversity are habitat loss &fragmentation, overexploitation, pollution, invasions of alien species, and global climate change (IUCN 2003) with disruption of community structure. The anthropogenic pressures, heavy grazing, and the natural calamities have led to degradation of natural habitats of many species. Such practices are discouraging the native species and promoting the hardy non-native species having little value for the local ecosystem (Pant & Samant 2012).  Floristic inventory and diversity studies help to understand the species composition and diversity status of a region (Phillips et al. 2003), which also offer vital information for conservation (Gordon & Newton 2006). Quantitative inventories, moreover, help identify species that are in different stages of vulnerability (Padalia et al.2004) as well as the various factors that influence the existing vegetation in any region (Parthasarathy 1999). The flowering plants of India comprise about 15,000 species under 2,250 genera and 315 families and represent 6% of the world’s known flowering plants (Nayar 1977). At present there are18,666 species of angiosperms found in India (Mao & Dash 2019). According to Irwin &Narasimhan (2011), 49 angiosperm genera are endemic to India. At present 58 genera & 4,303 taxaof angiosperms are endemic to India (Singh et al. 2015).

Odisha, a state of ancient land and temples lying between 17.49N to 22.34N latitude and 81.27E to 87.29E longitude is situated on the eastern coast of the Indian peninsula. Bordered on the north by Jharkhand, on the west by Chhattisgarh, on the south by Andhra Pradesh, on the north-east by West Bengal and on the south-east by Bay of Bengal with a coastline of 482km, the state covers an area of 155,707km2. This state is a land of rich floral diversity. More than 2,630 species of angiosperms under 194 families (Sahoo et al. 1999) have been recorded in the state. These include trees of commercial significance and plants with medicinal properties. Many botanists have documented the plant diversity of Odisha for nearly two centuries. Roxburgh (1819) was the first to include some plants of southern Odisha. Dunlop (1844) published a list of plants in the garden of the branch Agri-Horticultural Society of Cuttack. Some account of vegetation of Odisha is found in Hooker &Thomson’s Flora Indica (1855). Hooker (1897) refers to the stray collections from Odisha.Haines’ The Botany of Bihar and Orissa (1925) and its supplement by Mooney (1950) and Gamble’s Flora of the Presidency of Madras (1936) are the pioneer works before independence. After independence, many floristic works have been published, thus contributing significantly to the floristic diversity of Odisha. Numerous publications (Jain et al. 1975; Saxena 1976, 1978; Behera et al. 1979; Brahmam & Saxena 1980; Mishra et al. 1983; Choudhury 1984; Choudhury & Pattanaik 1985; Dubey & Panigrahi 1986; Das et al. 1994) either as district floras or checklists of plants of different areas in the state have been brought out. Saxena and Brahmam’s The Flora of Orissa published in 1996 is the most comprehensive and authentic work on the floristic diversity of this region. Recently, Reddy et al. (2007) and Sahu et al. (2007) made significant contribution to the flora of Odisha. A perusal of literature, however, reveals that there is a lack of base line information on the floristic composition of Bhadrak District of Odisha. Hence this study was undertaken to explore the angiospermic diversity of the region along with its multifarious uses in rural areas. This study will allow further evaluation of district’s current conservation status and contribute to the flora of coastal Odisha.

 

 

Materials and Methods

 

Study site

Odisha is the ninth largest state of India by area and the eleventh largest by population. With the Eastern Ghats range of hills almost passing through the heart of the state, high Similipala hills on its north and around 482km of coast line on its east, Odisha has varied ecosystems from marine to semi-arid on the west, which provides ‘niches’ for diverse animal and plant communities (Patnaik 1996). The vegetation found in this region is tropical moist deciduous forest type (Champion &Seth 1968).

Bhadrak District (21.0660N & 86.50E) is located in northeastern Odisha. It spreads over 2,505km2 having 1.507 million inhabitants (2011 Census). Four other districts namely Balasore, Kendrapara, Jajpur and Koenjher surround Bhadrak District while a part is bounded by the Bay of Bengal (Figure 1). The district covers about 1.61% of the total land area of the state and contributes 3.59% of the state’s population. About 86.66% of the inhabitants are villagers and the people are engaged in agricultural practices as their primary occupation. Being situated in close proximity to Bay of Bengal, the district is characterized by periodic earth tremors, thunder storms in the rains and dust storms in April and May.

 

Data collection

Extensive field surveys (July 2014 to June 2016) were carried out fortnightly to document and enlist the angiospermic floras in different seasons and diverse habitats, i.e., cultivated fields, waste lands, river banks, roadsides, water bodies, marshes, pathways, parks, private gardens and other relevant localities of the district following established and standard procedures (Jain 1987; Martin 1995). The information was obtained through a combination of tools and techniques of structured questionnaires, complemented by free interviews and informal conversations (Martin 1995; Huntington 2000). The information regarding the plant species has been gathered mostly from local farmers, elderly and knowledgeable persons, who were considered by their communities as having exceptional knowledge about plants.One-hundred-and-fifty-three (128 men and 25 women) persons were interviewed. Among the interviewees, 10% were of ages 21-40 years, 40% were 61 years old or more, and 50% were of ages of 41–60 years. Personal interviews and group discussions carried out in the local language revealed specific information about the plants, which were further compared and authenticated by crosschecking (Cunningham 2001). During field study, some of the field characters like habit, habitat, flowering period and local names if any were collected and recorded from the informants.The economic uses of these species if any were discussed with the local people. Plant samples were identified or confirmed with available regional floras (Haines 1925; Saxena & Brahmam 1996). Collected literatures by other scholars concerning nativity of species (Negi & Hajra 2007; Reddy 2008; Singh et al. 2010; Khuroo et al. 2012) were consulted.The plant species are enumerated and arranged as per Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III Classification (APG III 2009). The voucher specimens were deposited in the herbarium of the Department of Botany, Chandbali College, Chandbali.

 

 

Results

 

The present study documents a total of 383 species (262 native species and 121 non-native species) distributed in 282 genera, representing 93 families as per APG III classification (Table 1; Images 1–9). These taxa are distributed in 12 superorders (Figure 2) and 39 orders; 26.7% of the native species were reported from the superorder Fabids, 20.6% from superorder Malvids, 19.8% from superorder Lamids and 15.6% from superorder Commelinids. One hundred and twenty one non-native species were represented in 12 superorders. Native species of the order Fabales (35), Poales and Lamiales (27) each, Malphigiales (18), Malvales (14), Gentianales (13), Carylophyllales and Solanales (12) each and Myrtales and Sapindales (11) each, account for about 68.7% of the species in the district (Figure 3). Eighty one non-native species belong to these orders. The top 10 families are depicted in Figure 4. Family Fabaceae contributed the largest number of species (35 sp.), followed by Poaceae (21 sp.), Malvaceae (14 sp.), Convolvulaceae (12sp.) and Euphorbiaceae (9sp.). Twenty seven families of the native and 10 families of non-native were represented by one species, contributing 10.3% and 8.3% respectively of the total number families in the inventory. It is demonstrated that native species represented a higher proportion (262 species; 68.4%) than the non-natives (121 species; 31.6%). The genus Ipomoea ranked highest with six species followed by Euphorbia, Clerodendrum, Ficus, and Terminalia each with four species. The analysis of the recorded plant species based on growth habits showed highest proportion of herbs followed by trees, shrubs and climbers (Figure 5).

The economic use of different plant species is represented in Figure 6. Prominent species used for the treatment of various ailments were Abrus precatorius L., Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet, Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile, Justicia adhatoda L.,Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex. Nees, Asparagus racemosus Willd.,Azadirachta indica A.Juss., Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell, Boerhavia diffusa L., Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub., Calophyllum inophyllum L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don., Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., Cissus quadrangularis L., Curcuma longa L., Cynodon dactylon (L.)Pers., Cyperus rotundus L., Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., Enydra fluctuans Lour., Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L., Glinus oppositifolius (L.) A.DC., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br.ex Schult., Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G. Don., Ipomoea aquatica Forssk., Jatropha curcas L., Lawsonia inermis L., Macrotyloma uniflorum (L.) Verdc., Moringa oleifera Lam., Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng., Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L., Ocimum sanctum L., Oxalis corniculata L., Phyllanthus emblica L., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.,Punica granatum L.,Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth.ex Kurz, Ricinus communis L., Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De Wilde, Sesamum indicum L., Solanum surattense Burm. f.,Streblus asper Lour., Strychnos nux-vomica L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.ex DC.) Wight &Arn., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook.f. & Thomson, Tridax procumbens L., Vitex negundo L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. These plants are used for the treatment of variety of diseases such as diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, fever, gynaecology, cardiovascular disorders, skin diseases, urinary disorders, rheumatism, jaundice, respiratory disorders and dental caries.Similarly, some of the of the reported plant species are used for edible purposes, for example Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don, Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br., Amaranthus viridis L., Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson, Anacardium occidentale L., .Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb., Averrhoa carambola L., Basella albaL., Boerhavia diffusa L., Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dillenia indica L., Enydra fluctuans Lour., Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle, Glinus oppositifolius (L.) A. DC., Ipomoea aquatica Forssk., Macrotyloma uniflorum (L.) Verdc., Mangifera indica L., Mimusops elengi L., Oxalis corniculata L., Sonneratia apetala Buch. Ham., Trapa natans L. and Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. are used as vegetables. A number of edible plants like Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br., Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell, Boerhavia diffusa L., Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., Enydra fluctuans Lour., Hygrophila auriculata Schum.(Heine), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk., Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. and Oxalis corniculata L. are reported to have both therapeutic and dietary functions and hence are used as medicinal food remedy.

Plant species like Aeschynomene aspera L., Borassus flabellifer L., Cyperus alopecuroides Rottb., Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. and Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty in the present study is used for various household articles. Similarly, the leaves of Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. are used in many religious and socio-cultural functions in the district. The important timber and fuel yielding plant species recorded in our study are Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth., Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br., Bambusa vulgaris L., Casuarina equisetifolia L., Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Rob, Mangifera indica L., Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thwaites, Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre, Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.,Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr., Syzygium cumuni(L.) Skeels and Tamarindus indica L.Similarly, a variety of plant species are used for biofencing pupose. Examples include, Bambusa vulgaris L., Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd., Calotropis gigantea R.Br., Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn., Duranta repens L., Euphorbia tirucalli L., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp., Ipomoea carnea Jacq., Jatropha curcas L., Pandanus fascicularis Lam. and Vitex negundo L. Some of the plants like Areca catechu L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Desmostachya bipinnata (L) Stapf, Mangifera indica L., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and Piper betel L. are used for various rituals by the inhabitants of the district.

A good number of plant species are used as tooth stick for general brushing. Examples include Acacia nilotica (L.)Willd., Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Bambusa vulgaris L., Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub., Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton, Cinnamomum tamala Nees, Jatropha curcas L., Lantana camara L., Mimusops elengi L., Pandanus fascicularis Lam., Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb., Pongamia pinnata (L)Pierre, Psidium guajava L., Streblus asper Lour., Syzygium cumuni (L.) Skeels and Vitex negundo L. Besides, bark, leaf and rhizome as such or being processed are used as tooth powder. Also raw leaf, bark, root flower bud and pericarp are chewed to remove the bad breath and infection. In few cases the latex, juice or oil extracted from seeds are either directly applied on the effected tooth and gums or gurgled for relief. Moreover, these plant species are exclusively for toothache due to caries, gum diseases and pyorrhea. Oils extracted from seeds of some plants like Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., Helianthus annuus L. and Sesamum indicum L. are either gurgled or applied as lotion on inflammatory gums. And the seeds of Solanum virginianum L. are burnt and smoked like cigarette for relief from toothache. Moreover, the leaves of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa and Ocimun sanctum L. are chewed to prevent bad breath from mouth.Invasive species such as Ageratum conyzoides L., Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Lantana camara L., Mikania micrantha Kunth and Parthenium hysterophorus L. are causing great concern in many parts of the district.

 

 

Discussion

 

Plants in all ecosystems play a dominant role in determining the life histories of millions of animal species, serve as the foundation of most food webs, and perform a crucial role in human welfare and economic development.  The result on the angiosperm diversity of Bhadrak District shows a total of 383 species (262 native species and 121 non-native species) distributed in varied habitats. The general trends of plant species collected in this study are concordant with previous studies in India. For example, a total of 277 plant species belonging to 72 families have been reported in Karnal District, Haryana (Kumar & Singh 2013).  A total of 110 species belonging to 82 genera and 40 families are recorded in Khammam District, Telangana State (Rao et al. 2015).  A total of total of 252 species belonging to 197 genera distributed in 64 families are recorded in an estuarian ecosystem, Tamil Nadu (Karthigeyan et al. 2013). A total of 138 angiosperm taxa under 120 genera and 50 families are recorded in Dhanbad District, Jharkhand (Rahul & Jain 2014). Samanta & Panda (2016) recorded a total of 80 families, 226 genera, and 270 species at Digha, West Bengal.  No published information recorded on the diversity of angiosperm plant species of Bhadrak District, Odisha. The richest families are: Fabaceae (35 sp.), Poaceae (21 sp.), Malvaceae (14 sp.), Convolvulaceae (12sp.), Acanthaceae (10sp.) and Euphorbiaceae (9 sp.). The predominance of family Fabaceae is supported by studies from Víctor et al. (2009), Irwin & Narasimhan (2011), Ramasamy et al. (2012), Anaclara et al. (2013), Ferreira et al. (2013), Jayanthi & Jalal (2015), and Parthian et al. (2016).  The growth forms found are trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs, with the herbaceous component representing the largest number of species.The dominance of herbaceous communities is reported in other parts of world (Víctor et al. 2009; Anaclara et al. 2013; Ferreira et al. 2013), and also in India (Irwin and Narasimhan 2011; Ramasamy et al. 2012; Jayanthi & Jalal 2015; Parthipan et al. 2016).  In the present investigation, about 54% of the documented plant species have medicinal utility for a variety of ailments. For instance, the most cited plant species to cure skin disorders in the current investigation are, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., followed by Senna obtusfolia (L.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Annona squamosa L., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, Lantana camara L., Tridax procumbens L., Argemone mexicana L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., Andrographis paniculata Nees, Amaranthus spinosus L.,  Bauhinia variegata L., Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. Similar plant use is recorded earlier in different parts of India (Sharma et al. 2003; Saikia et al. 2006; Jeeva et al. 2007; Kingston et al. 2009; Madhu  & Yarra 2011), indicating the importance of traditional medicine in the treatment of skin disorders. Furthermore, various workers have investigated the herbal remedy of the reported plant species used for treatment of different ailment in India (Jeeva et al. 2007; Kar & Borthakur 2008; Binu 2009; Das et al. 2015) and Odisha (Girach et al. 1998; Misra et al. 2012; Pani et al. 2014; Satapathy 2015).

Traditional foods are those which indigenous peoples have access to locally, without having to purchase them and within traditional knowledge and the natural environment from farming or wild harvesting (Kuhnlein et al. 2009). Wild food plants occupy an important place in the rural dietary habits and their consumption particularly during periods of food scarcity and famine is practiced in various regions of the world. Some studies have shown that these plants often provide better nutrition and may be responsible for good health (Grivetti & Ogle 2000; Johns & Eyzaguirre 2006).  In Bhadrak District, about 16% plant species are used as subsidiary food and vegetable by indigenous people.  Some of the edible plants like Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson, Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. and Trapa natans L. are domesticated by local people in their individual land/pond but  are also available in the wild.  Some plant species reported in the present study such as Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, Enydra fluctuans Lour., Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.,Trapa natans L. and Nymphaea pubescens Willd. are reported from other places (Daniel 2007; Panda & Misra 2011; Swapna et al. 2011; Misra et al. 2012).  Some of the reported wild edible plants such as Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.and Trapa natans L. are found to be sold in the local markets particularly by poor and economically marginalised families, thereby generating a supplementary income. Some of the plant species in the present study are reported from other places (Daniel 2007; Panda & Misra 2011; Swapna et al. 2011; Misra et al. 2012).  A number of edible plants like Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br., Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell, Boerhavia diffusa L., Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., Enydra fluctuans Lour., Hygrophila auriculata Schum. (Heine), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk., Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.and Oxalis corniculata L. are reported to have both therapeutic and dietary functions and hence are used as medicinal food remedy.  This overlap between food and medicines is well known in traditional societies (Panda & Misra 2011; Swapna et al. 2011; Misra et al. 2012).

A good number of artifact items are prepared from Aeschynomene aspera L.and Chrysopogon zizanioides L. Roberty by the artisans of the district.  Similar observations have also been made in earlier studies (Mohanty et al. 2012; Tripathy et al. 2014). Trees are the main source of fuel wood in the study area. The local people cut trees and use them as a fuel wood. Mostly women are engaged in searching for twigs and some branches from the surrounding forests. Most of the people walk long distances in search for fuel wood. And some of them use their own trees for their fuel wood purpose. According to the study results people use many tree species for fuel wood. Some species are more preferred than others. The most preferred species of trees for their fuel wood value are Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth., Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br., Bambusa vulgaris L., Casuarina equisetifolia L., Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Rob., Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thwaites, Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre, Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr. and Tamarindus indica L. The most common parts of a tree species used for fuel wood in Bhadrak District are the branches and twigs. The local people use the wood from different species for constructing house, to prepare some household utensils, farm equipment and construct fences. The study results reveal that the people are dependent on wood tree species for all the above mentioned activities.The use of trees as a source of construction wood is an old activity in Bhadrak District. The stem of Borassus flabellifer L. provides strong timber material useful for construction (Kovoor 1983; Depommier 2003). The leaves are used in a variety of artifact construction. For example, for making mats, umbrellas, toys, huts and other household utility products (Kovoor 1983). The pulp is mixed with flour and used to make several edible preparations (Davis & Johnson 1987).The most valuable tree species used for construction purpose by the people are Acacia sp., Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., Gmelina arborea Roxb., and Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.  Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. and Albizia lebbeck(L.) Benth. is used for agricultural equipments.Phoenix sylvestris (L.)  Roxb. plant provides a multitude of useful products such as handicrafts and mats, screens, thatching and fencing materials, baskets, crates, fuel wood, brooms and is the main subsistence resource for the poorest people (Rana & Islam 2010).

Live fences are frequent in Bhadrak District separating crop fields, pastures, households, and farm boundaries and forming intricate networks of plant cover across rural landscapes.The local people use the different plant species for biofencing. The most important species used for biofencing purpose are Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd., Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth., Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.)Willd., Bambusa vulgaris L., Duranta repens L., Euphorbia tirucalli L., Jatropha curcas L., Lantana camara L., Pandanus fascicularis Lam., Pilosocereus arrabidae (Lem.) Byles & G.D.Rowley and Vitex negundo L. The respondents mentioned that Areca catechu L.,Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Desmostachya bipinnata (L) Stapf, Mangifera indica L., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and Piper betel L. are the mostly utilized for ritual purpose.

The present report on the use of plants for dental care draws support from earlier studies (Singh & Narain 2007; Saxena & Roy 2007; Wabale & Kharde 2008; Khan et al. 2009; Jain & Chauhan 2009) in different parts of India. Moreover, when the modern mouthwash solutions do nothing more than camouflaging the unpleasant breath for a limited period (Dhilon 1994), the plant species reported in this study are claimed to remove the foul smell from the mouth along with their other medicinal actions. The higher population explosion and limited resources in India demand that some alternative means of organizing oral health and care be examined and implemented (Anonymous 1994). In this context, phytotherapy resources for oral health care appear relevant as it requires no special resources, sophistication or expertise in production, preparation and usage.

The history of invasive alien plants in Bhadrak District revealed that many species were introduced for economic purposes like timber, ornamental, and green coverage plantation of barren land and some were migrated to this region by transport of food grains from other regions. Climatic conditions of the region became suitable for them and they showed rapid proliferation to spread all over the district. Most of the weeds were reported in the locality for a very long period of time. A questionnaire survey among the informants revealed that there were hardly any management programmes to control invasive alien plants such as Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms,Lantana camara L., Mikania micrantha Kunth, Ageratum conyzoides L. and Parthenium hysterophorus L.  Ageratum conyzoides L. is expanding at an alarming rate, especially in agricultural fields, road sides and even gardens. The weed is harmful to native species and has become a problem in agro-ecosystems (Negi & Hajra 2007). Freshwater species like Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms is of most nuisance as it causes hindrance by choking all possible water bodies and reducing their utility. Similarly Lantana camara L. as one of the most ubiquitous invasive land species, is spreading fast all over the district due to its better competitive ability and allelopathic effect (Sundaram & Hiremath 2012). The perennial Mikania micrantha Kunth which is a fast growing species, is covering the habitats of the district and suppressing the growth of agricultural crops as well as natural vegetation through competition and allelopathic effects (Sankaran & Srinivasan 2001; Huang et al. 2009). Parthenium hysterophorus L. a dominant weed of the study area, especially wastelands, roadsides, railway tracks and foot paths. This noxious weed is an aggressive colonizer spreading rapidly suppressing native herbaceous flora.  The spread of these obnoxious invasive weeds should be controlled and they should be removed from the habitat.  The results of preference ranking for four selected threats against the availability of plant species in the study area shows that agricultural expansion is the first ranking threat (most detrimental), followed by urbanization, fuel wood collection and overgrazing. In addition to the above mentioned threats the respondents mentioned that limited government support for species conservation and the gradual waning of the existing traditional systems and coping mechanisms due to external intervention are among the main reasons behind the neglecting of local knowledge and tree management and conservation systems.

 

 

Conclusion

 

The present inventory of angiosperm plant resources provides a comprehensive and updated checklist of the floristic diversity of the district which can be utilized in the context of species conservation. Currently different habitats of the district are prone to various anthropogenic activities, such as encroachment and conversion of forest areas into agricultural lands and construction of dams and roads, fragmentation and over exploitation of biological resources, pose threat to the existing biodiversity of the district. Fragmentation process shows effect on species, especially on unique, rare and endemic, threatening their survival and resulting in the extinction of species. The present study in the Bhadrak District is preliminary, and subsequent re-census and monitoring will provide additional data on species composition and diversity changes due to various disturbance regimes, which will be useful in resource management and conservation efforts.

 

 

Table 1. List of angiosperm taxa recorded from Bhadrak District, arranged according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Classification III.

 

Superorder/ Order

Family & Species

Common name

Habit

Nativity

Early Angiosperms

 

 

 

 

Nymphaeales

Nymphaeaceae

 

             

 

 

Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.

Kain

Herb

Native

 

Nymphaea pubescens Willd.

Rangakain

Herb

Native

 

Euryale ferox Salisb.

Kanta Padma

Herb

Native

MAGNOLIIDS

 

 

 

 

Piperales

Aristolachiaceae

 

 

 

 

Aristolochia indica L.

Balbolena

Climber

Native

 

Piperaceae

 

 

 

 

Piper betel L.

Pana

Climber

Native

 

Piper longum L.

Pipal

Climber

Native

 

Piper nigrum L.

Golmaricha

Climber

Native

 

Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth

 

Herb

Invasive/SAM

Laurales

Lauraceae

 

 

 

 

Cassytha filiformis L.

Nirmuli

Climber

Native

 

Cinnamomum tamala Nees.

Tejpatra

Tree

Native

 

Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume

Dalchini

Tree

Native

Magnoliales

Annonaceae

 

 

 

 

Annona squamosa L.

Neuwa

Tree

Native

 

Annona reticulata L.

Atta

Tree

Invasive/TAM

 

Artabotrys hexapetalous  (L.f.) Bhandari

Chinichampa

Shrub

Native

 

Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thwaites

Debdaru

Tree

Exotic/SR

 

Magnoliaceae

 

 

 

 

Magnolia champaca (L.) Baill.ex Pierre

Champa

Tree

Native

MONOCOTS

 

 

 

 

Alismatales

Aponogetonaceae

 

 

 

 

Aponogeton natans (L.) Engl. &Krause

Jhechu

Herb

Native

 

Aponogeton undulatus Roxb.

Kesarkanda

Herb

Native

 

Araceae

 

 

 

 

Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don

Badasaru

Herb

Native

 

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.)Nicolson

Olua

Herb

Native

 

Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent.

 

Herb

Native

 

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott

Saru

Herb

Native

 

Pistia stratiotes L.

Borajhanji

Herb

Invasive/TAM

 

Hydrocharitaceae

 

 

 

 

Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle

Chingudiadala

Herb

Native

 

Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers.

Panikundri

Herb

Native

Dioscoreales

Dioscoreaceae

 

 

 

 

Dioscorea alata L.

Khamba-alu

Climber

Invasive/ SEA

 

Dioscorea pentaphylla L.

Tungialu

Climber

Native

Pandanales

Pandanaceae

 

 

 

 

Pandanus fascicularis Lam.

Kia

Shrub

Native

 

Pandanus foetidus Roxb.

Lunikia

Shrub

Native

Liliales

Colchicaceae

 

 

 

 

Gloriosa superba L.

Ognisikha

Climber

Native

Asparagales

Amaryillidaceae

 

 

 

 

Crinum asiaticum L.

Arsa

Herb

Native

 

Scadoxus multiflorus (Matyn) Raf.

 

Herb

Exotic/TAF

 

Asparagaceae

 

 

 

 

Agave americana L.

Baramasi

Shrub

Exotic/AM

 

Asparagus racemosus Willd.

Satabari

Climber

Native

 

Sansevieria roxburghiana Schult. & Schult.f.

Muruga

Herb

Native

 

Xanthorrhoeaceae

 

 

 

 

Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.

Gheekunwari

Herb

Native

COMMELINIDS

 

 

 

 

Arecales

Arecaceae

 

 

 

 

Areca catechu L.

Gua

Tree

Native

 

Borassus flabellifer L.

Tala

Tree

Invasive/TAF

 

Calamus rotang L.

Betta

Shrub

Native

 

Cocos nucifera L.

Nadia

Tree

Native

 

Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb.

Khajuri

Tree

Native

 

Phoenix paludosa Roxb.

Hental

Tree

Native

Commelinales

Commelinaceae

 

 

 

 

Commelina benghalensis L.

Kansiri

Herb

Native

 

Tradescantia spathacea Sw.

 

Herb

Native

 

Pontederiaceae

 

 

 

 

Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

Bilatidala

Herb

Invasive/TAM

Poales

Bromeliaceae

 

 

 

 

Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.

Sapuri

Herb

Native

 

Poaceae

 

 

 

 

Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.)Willd.

Kantabaunsa

Tree

Native

 

Bambusa vulgaris Schrad.

Baunsa

Tree

Native

 

Chloris barbata Sw.

 

Herb

Invasive/TAM

 

Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin.

Guguchia

Herb

Native

 

Coix lacryma-jobi L.

Grgara

Shrub

Exotic/TAS

 

Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Wats.

Dhanatwari

Herb

Native

 

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

Duba

Herb

Invasive/TAF

 

Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd.

 

Herb

Native

 

Desmostachya bipinnata (L) Stapf

Kusa

Herb

Native

 

Digitaria sanguinalis (L) Scop.

 

Herb

Native

 

Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler

 

Herb

Native

 

Echinochloa colona (L.) Link

Swanghas

Herb

Invasive/SAM

 

Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) P. Beauv.

Dhera

Herb

Invasive/SAM

 

Eragrostis gangetica (Roxb.) Steud.

 

Herb

Native

 

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

Anamandia

Herb

Native

 

Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv.

 

Herb

Native

 

Oplismensus burmanii (Retz.) P. Beauv.

 

Herb

Native

 

Oryza rufipogon Griff.

Balunga

Herb

Native

 

Paspalidium flavidum (Retz.) A. Camus

 

Herb

Native

 

Pennisetum alopecuros Steud.

 

Herb

Native

 

Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin.ex Steud.

 

Shrub

Native

 

Saccharum officinarum L.

Akhu

Herb

Native

 

Saccharum spontaneum L.

Kashatundi

Herb

Invasive/TWA

 

Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.

 

Herb

Native

 

Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv.

 

Herb

Native

 

Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br.

 

Herb

Native

 

Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty [=Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash]

Bena

Herb

Native

 

Cyperaceae

 

 

 

 

Cyperus alopecuroides (Rottb. Descr.)

Hensuati

Herb

Native

 

Cyperus difformis L.

Swonli

Herb

Exotic/TAM

 

Cyperus rotundus L.

Mthaghas

Herb

Invasive/ER

 

Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roem.& Schult.

 

Herb

Native

 

Kyllinga nemoralis (J.R. & G. Forst.) Dandy ex Hutch. & Dalziel

 

Herb

Native

 

Scirpus articulatus L.

 

Herb

Native

 

Scirpus grossus L.

Santara

Herb

Native

 

Typhaceae

 

 

 

 

Typha  angustifolia  L.

Hangla

Herb

Invasive/TAM

Zingiberales

Musaceae

 

 

 

 

Musa paradisiaca  L.

Kadali

Herb

Native

 

Zingiberaceae

 

 

 

 

Hellenia speciosa (J.Koenig) S.R.Dutta [= Costus speciosus (J.Koenig)

Sm.

Kokola

Herb

Native

 

Curcuma amada Roxb.

Amada

Herb

Native

 

Curcuma aromatica Salisb.

Palua

Herb

Native

 

Curcuma longa L.

Haldi

Herb

Native

 

Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton

Gujurati

Herb

Native

 

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Ada

Herb

Native

BASAL EUDICOTS

 

 

 

 

Proteales

Nelumbonaceae

 

 

 

 

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.

Padma

Herb

Native

CORE EUDICOTS

 

 

 

 

Dilleniales

Dilleniaceae

 

 

 

 

Dillenia indica L.

Awoo

Tree

Native

Ranunculales

Menispermaceae

 

 

 

 

Cissampelos pareira L.

Akanbindi

Climber

Exotic/SAM

 

Tiliacora racemosa Colebr.

Kalajati noi

Climber

Native

 

Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.)Hook.f. & Thomson

Guluchilata

Climber

Native

 

Papaveraceae

 

 

 

 

Argemone mexicana L.

Kantakusuma

Herb

Invasive/CAM & SAM

ROSIDS

 

 

 

 

Vitales

Vitaceae

 

 

 

 

Cissus quadrangularis L.

Hadabhanga

Shrub

Native

FABIDS

 

 

 

 

Zygophyllales

Zygophyllaceae

 

 

 

 

Tribulus terrestris L.

Gokhara

Herb

Invasive/TAM

Celastrales

Celastraceae

 

 

 

 

Celastrus paniculata Willd.

Leibeheda

Shrub

Native

Oxalidales

Oxalidaceae

 

 

 

 

Averrhoa carambola L.

Karmanga

Tree

Native

 

Oxalis corniculata L.

Ambiliti

Herb

Invasive/ER

Malpighiales

Euphorbiaceae

 

 

 

 

Acalypha hipsidaBurm. f.

Sibajata

Herb

Native

 

Acalypha indica L.

 

Herb

Native

 

Euphorbia hirta L.

[=Chamaesyce hirta (L.)Millsp.]

 

Herb

Invasive/TAM

 

Croton sparsiflorus Morong

Nandababuli

Herb

Invasive/SAM

 

Euphorbia antiquorum L.

Deuliasiju

Shrub

Native

 

Euphorbia hirta L.

Harharika

Herb

Invasive/TAM

 

Euphorbia heterophyla L.

 

Herb

Invasive/TAM

 

Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham

Bad siju

Tree

Native

 

Euphorbia thymifolia L.

Patrasiju

Shrub

Native

 

Euphorbia tirucalli L.

Dangulisiju

Shrub

Exotic/KEN

 

Euphorbia tithymaloides L.

 

Shrub

Native

 

Excoecaria agallochaL.

Guan

Tree

Native

 

Jatropha curcas L.

Jara

Shrub

Exotic/TAM

 

Jatropha gossypiifolia L.

 

Baigaba

Shrub

Exotic/TAM

 

Ricinus communis L.

Jada

Shrub

Exotic/SAF

 

Synadenium grantii Hook f.

 

Shrub

Invasive/TAM

 

Tragia involucrata L.

Bichhuati

Herb

Native

 

Trewia nudiflora L.

Panigambhari

Tree

Native

 

Linaceae

 

 

 

 

Linum usitissimum L.

Pesu

Herb

Native

 

Passifloraceae

 

 

 

 

Passiflora foetidaL.

Jhumkalata

Climber

Invasive/SAM

 

Calophyllaceae

 

 

 

 

Calophyllum inophyllum L.

Polang

Tree

Native

 

Phyllanthaceae

 

 

 

 

Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm. f.) C.E.C. Fisch.

Pohalakuli

Shrub

Exotic/WI

 

Phyllanthus emblica L.

Anola

Tree

Native

 

Phyllanthus fraternus Webster

Bhuianla

Herb

Native

 

Rhizophoraceae

 

 

 

 

Bruguiera cylindrica (L.) Blume

Kaliachua

Tree

Native

 

Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb.) Wright & Arn. ex Griff.

Dot

Tree

Native

 

Kandelia candel (L.) Druce

Rasunia

Tree

Native

 

Rhizophora mucronata Poir.

Rai

Tree

Native

 

Violaceae

 

 

 

 

Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell.

 

Herb

Native