Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 April 2021 | 13(5): 18364–18377

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4126.13.5.18364-18377

#4126 | Received 04 October 2019 | Final received 22 March 2021 | Finally accepted 08 April 2021

 

 

Observations on butterflies of non-protected areas of Titabar, Assam, India

 

Abhijit Konwar 1  & Manashi Bortamuly 2

 

1Department of Wildlife and Biodiversity Conservation, North Orissa University, Baripada, Odisha 757003, India.

2 Department of Zoology, Nanda Nath Saikia College, Titabar, Assam 785630, India.

1 konwar13abhi@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 manashijorhat6@gmail.com

 

 

 

Editor: Monsoon J. Gogoi, Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, India.     Date of publication: 26 April 2021 (online & print)

 

Citation: Konwar, A., M. Bortamuly (2021). Observations on butterflies of non-protected areas of Titabar, Assam, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 13(5): 18364–18377. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4126.13.5.18364-18377

 

Copyright: © Konwar & Bortamuly 2021. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: None.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to the Principal and Head of the Department of Zoology of N.N. Saikia College for their kind permission for the field work. The authors are particularly thankful and grateful to Monsoon Jyoti Gogoi, Bitupan Baruah and Gaurab Nandi Das for their help in identifying the species. Special thanks to Anshuman Gogoi, Alok Phukan, Kalyan Gogoi and Rantu Ranjan Konwar for their constant support during the field work and also to the Coordinator and staff of the Institutional Biotech Hub of N.N. Saikia College, Titabar for providing weather and climate data of the study area. And finally we like to thank Ratnesh Karjee for helping in map preparation.

 

 

Abstract: This paper depicts the result of two years study from 2014 to 2016 in non-protected areas on butterflies of Titabar (26.588 N & 94.187 E), Assam, India.  During the study period, a total of 158 species of butterflies distributed in six families were recorded, out of which 29 belong to the family Hesperiidae, 17 to Pieridae, 11 to Papilionidae, 38 to Lycaenidae, two to Riodinidae, and 61 to Nymphalidae.  Fourteen ‘rare’ species were recorded during the survey as per Evans (1932) such as Athyma ranga, Arhopala paraganesa, Caltoris cormasa, and Appias nero.  This indicates the importance of the study and the need for conservation of butterflies of non-protected area of Titabar subdivision in upper Assam.

           

Keywords: Conservation, diversity, Jorhat District, Lepidoptera, northeastern India, species.

 

 

Upper Assam, a biodiversity rich zone of the northeastern region is well known for butterflies, having over 400 species of which 1/3rd are endemic and 1/7th are protected under various schedules of the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 in India (Singh 2017).  Notable works have been done in Panbari Reserve Forest (RF), Kaziranga-Karbi hills (Gogoi 2013b, 2015), Jeypore RF, Dehing-Patkai (Gogoi 2013), Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary (WS) (Singh et al. 2015), Dangori RF (Boruah & Das 2017), and floodplains of Dibru Soikhuwa NP (Das et al. 2017) in upper Assam.  Along with the protected areas (PA), other non PAs like different forests and village woodlands of Assam also provide habitat for different butterfly species.  But due to anthropogenic pressures these non PAs are declining in number thus affecting tiny creatures like butterflies.

Doubleday (1865) worked on the butterflies of Jorhat District.  Recently, Singh et al. (2015) and Neog (2015) listed the butterflies of Gibbon WS which is the only PA of Titabar subdivision, and Bhuyan et al. (2005) documented the butterflies of the Regional Research Laboratory Campus of Jorhat.  Again Saikia et al. (2014) studied the butterfly diversity of the Sericultural Training Institute Campus of Titabar and Dutta (2013) recorded 40 species from Titabar Town area.  Our study hasn’t included the Gibbon WS.  Emphasis has been made to document the butterfly diversity of non PAs of Titabar subdivision to show the significance of non PAs especially in upper Assam and their importance in butterfly conservation in the region.

 

Methods

Study Area

Titabar subdivision (26.588 N & 94.187 E) is located in Jorhat District of Upper Assam.  To the north of Titabar lies the Jorhat subdivision, the south is bordered by Nagaland, Sivasagar District is located in the east, and the west is bordered by Golaghat District.  Titabar subdivision consists of two revenue circles: Titabar and Mariani.  The altitude of Titabar is 172m above sea level, while the average temperature ranges from 17–28°C, the average humidity is in the range of 66.5–89.9% and the annual rainfall of the study area is 250cm.  The climate here is humid in summer and dry and cold in winter. Titabar has one wildlife sanctuary, the Hollongapar Gibbon WS under Mariani revenue circle.  The survey was conducted in 10 different places in Titabar-Nanda Nath Saikia College Campus (26.588 N & 94.177 E), Sericultural Training Institute (26.592 N & 94.172 E), Bebejia (26.586 N & 94.173 E), Kachari Gaon (26.595 N & 94.175 E), Kasojan (26.58 N & 94.17 E), Mejenga Grant (26.597 N & 94.164 E), Bekajan (26.384 N & 94.162 E), Panjan (26.495 N & 94.21 E), Jalukonibari (26.645 N & 94.188 E), Rangajan (26.646 N & 94.223 E).

 

Survey methods

The survey of butterfly species was conducted in all the major seasons, i.e., pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter.  The survey involved walking through different sites and visual search and photography were conducted on different forest trails, hill streams, village woodlands, grasslands, croplands, and tea gardens between 08.00 and 14.00 hr from May 2014 to June 2016.  Some species were also recorded in the early mornings and evenings.  The species were photographed with a digital camera whenever possible.

Identification of all encountered butterflies was done to the species level.  Though a few species were identified in the field, most of the species were identified from digital images taken with the camera in the field.  The identification of butterflies was done by using the identification guides of Watson (1897), Evans (1932), Kehimkar (2008), research papers of Gogoi (2013b), Gogoi (2015), and Singh et al. (2015).  No butterflies were caught with net or other equipment for identification.

 

Results and Observations

During the study period, a total of 158 species of butterflies were identified belonging to six families from the non PAs of Titabar subdivision.  Out of the 158 species identified, Nymphalidae showed the maximum species richness, comprising 38.60% with 61 species, followed by Lycaenidae 24.05% with 38, Hesperiidae 18.35% with 29, Pieridae 10.75% with 17, Papilionidae 6.96% with 11, and Riodinidae 1.26% with two species (Table 1, 2).

Twenty species found during the survey are new records for Titabar subdivision as they have not been recorded earlier by either Singh et al. (2015) or Neog (2015) from Gibbon WS.  These are Tirumala septentrionis, Elymnias malelas, Lexias pardalis, Pseudergolis wedah, Eurema brigitta, Appias nero, Curetis saronis, Iraota timoleon, Charana mandarinus, Arhopala paraganesa, Arhopala oenea, Caleta roxus, Taraka hamada, Bibasis jaina, Tagiades menaka, Pseudoborbo bevani, Halpe porus, Potanthus ganda, Telicota colon, and Caltoris cormasa.

The species which have not been recorded by Singh et al. (2017) from eastern Assam found during the survey are Elymnias malelas, Lexias pardalis, Pseudergolis wedah, Eurema brigitta, Appias nero, Charana mandarinus, Iraota timoleon, Arhopala paraganesa, Arhopala oenea, Caleta roxus, Tagiades menaka, and Telicota colon.

Findings like Arhopala oenea, Arhopala paraganesa, Appias nero, and Telicota colon are significant as these species have not been recorded in recent times from the PAs of upper Assam by Gogoi (2013b, 2015), Neog (2015), Singh et al. (2015), Baruah & Das (2017), Singh (2017), and Das et al. (2017).

Fourteen species found during the survey are “rare” in occurrence as per Evans (1932).  These are Mycalesis malasarida, Athyma ranga, Neptis namba, Euthalia anosia, Appias albino, Appias libythea, Appias nero, Arhopala silhetensis, Arhopala bazaloises, Arhopala paraganesa, Arhopala oenea, Caltoris cormasa, Doleschallia bisaltide, and Iraota timoleon.  Twenty-two species found during the study are protected under various schedules of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (Schedule I—1 species, Schedule II—17 species, Schedule IV—4 species); however, results indicate poor habitat of butterflies in non PAs of Titabar as only 11 papilionids were recorded during the survey whereas 19 species of papilionids were recorded by Singh et al. (2015) from Gibbon WS.

 

Notes on ‘rare’ (Evans 1932) occurrence of the species

 

Plain Bushbrown Mycalesis malsarida Butler, 1868 One individual was encountered in a dense woodland in Bebejia on 28 October 2014 in the morning.  In India, it is found only in the northeastern region.  Except India it is recorded from Bangladesh (Larsen 2004), Bhutan, and Myanmar (Kehimkar 2016).  We also encountered one individual from Gibbon WS in September, 2015.  The species is protected under Schedule II of IWPA, 1972.

Yellow Sailer Neptis namba Moore, 1858: Two individuals were encountered during the study period.  One was recorded from Bebejia on 26 August 2014 in the morning and the other from Rangajan on 10 July 2015 in the afternoon.  Both the individuals were encountered on a village road.

Blackvein Sergeant Athyma ranga Moore, 1858: One individual of this species was encountered from the Sericulture Training Institute campus on 15 March 2015 in the morning.  The species ranges from Nepal to northeastern India, northeastern Bangladesh, and Myanmar.  It is protected under Schedule II of IWPA, 1972.

Grey Baron Euthalia anosia Moore, 1858: One individual was encountered mud puddling on a road surrounded by woodland in Jalukonibari on 28 October 2014.  Protected under Schedule II of IWPA, 1972. In India the species is restricted to the northeastern region only.

Orange Albatross Appias nero Fabricius, 1793: One Individual was encountered on the bank of Kasojan sub-tributary in Kasojan Village on 10 August 2014 in the afternoon.  The right forewing of the individual recorded was worn off (Image 66).  The species is found in northeastern India and Myanmar.  The species was recorded from Lumding, upper Assam by Parsons & Cantile (1948) and protected under Schedule IV of IWPA, 1972.

Common Albatross Appias albina Boisduval, 1836: One individual was encountered in a muddy patch on the boundary between Nanda Nath Saikia College and Kachari Gaon on 11 June 2014 in the morning.  The species is protected under Schedule II of IWPA, 1972.

Striped Albatross Appias libythea Fabricius, 1775: Two individuals were encountered during the study period.  One was from a roadside in Bebejia feeding on the nectar of Lantena camera on 09 July 2014 and the other individual was encountered in the flower garden of Nanda Nath Saikia College on 12 August 2014.  This species is protected under Schedule IV of IWPA, 1972.

Sylhet Oakblue Arhopala silhetensis Hewitson, 1862: Two individuals were encountered on 14 March 2015 and 09 July 2015 in a forest in Rangajan.  This species is distributed in the northeastern region of India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. It is protected under Schedule II of IWPA, 1972.

Tamil Oakblue Arhopala bazaloides Hewitson, 1878: Two individuals were encountered during the study period.  One was encountered from Rangajan on 15 March 2015 and the other from Bebejia on 02 August 2015.  Both the individuals were encountered in a woodland in the morning. The species is protected under Schedule II of IWPA, 1972.

Centaur Oakblue Arhopala centaurus Fabricius, 1775: Two individuals were encountered during the survey, one from Bebejia on 12 June 2015 and the other from Kachari Gaon on 30 May 2016. Both the individuals were encountered from village woodlands.  In India this species is found in Uttarakhand, Western Ghats, north-east, and West Bengal.  The status of occurrence of this species is not rare (Evans 1932).

Hewitson’s Dull Oakblue Arhopala oenea Hewitson, 1869: The species was encountered four times in a woodland in Bebejia Gaon on 30 May, 02, 09, & 18 June 2016.  One individual was found laying eggs on Castanopsis indica plant and most probably it is the first record of its egg laying on this plant.  The species is distributed from Garhwal to northeastern India (Khasi Hills and Nagaland), northeastern Bangladesh, and Myanmar.  It is protected under Schedule II of IPWA, 1972.

Dusky Bushblue Arhopala paraganesa de Niceville, 1882: Only one individual was encountered in a woodland in Bebejia on 18 June 2016 in the morning.  The species is restricted to the northeastern region in India.  It’s protected under Schedule II of IWPA, 1972.  Except for this species and A. oenea, we observed all other Arhopala spp. recorded during the study period in Gibbon WS.

Autumn Leaf Doleschallia bisaltide Cramer, 1777: This species was encountered two times during the study period.  One individual from Bebejia on 14 July 2015 and the other from Jalukonibari on 13 April 2016.  Both the individuals were encountered near a bamboo patch puddling on stone and sand.

Full Stop Swift Caltoris cormasa Hewitson, 1876: One individual of this species was encountered in Bebejia on 05 April 2016 puddling on bird droppings in a small open area between a bamboo patch and a woodland.  It is restricted to the northeastern region of India.

Silverstreak Blue Iraota timoleon Stoll, 1790: One individual was encountered sitting on a dry leaf of Dioscorea sp. in a vegetable garden surrounded by a woodland in Bebejia on 25 February 2015.

Tabby Pseudergolis wedah Kollar, 1848: Though a common species as per Evans (1932), it was encountered only once in Panjan on 24 December 2014, found puddling on stones near a hill stream.  The species is found in the north-east, Uttarakhand, and Himachal in India.

Forest Pierrot Taraka hamada Druce, 1875: One individual was encountered in a tea garden surrounded by village woodland in Mejenga Grant on 05 January 2015.  The species is distributed from eastern Nepal to northeastern India, southeastern Bangladesh, and Myanmar. It is not rare as per Evans (1932).

Straight Pierrot Caleta roxus Godart, 1824: One individual was encountered near a hill stream in Bekajan on 18 January 2015 in the morning.  The surrounding area of the spot where the individual was encountered was heavily disturbed by illegal coal mining and saw mills.  The species is not rare as per Evans (1932).

Sumatran Dart Potanthus ganda Fruhstorfer, 1911: One individual of this species was encountered in a woodland in Rangajan on 15 March 2015 sitting on a fern in the morning.  The species is considered extralimital in Evans (1932).  It was identified on the basis of subapical spot.  The subapical spot in space 8 is slightly smaller than that of the space 7 and 6 (Corbet et al. 1992; Ek-Amnuay 2012).  It is distributed in the northeastern region in India and in Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Sumatra and Java.

 

Discussion

Titabar subdivision is rich in its biodiversity due to the edge effect of both plain and hilly areas and being located at the foothills of Nagaland.  Gibbon WS is already well known for its floral and faunal diversity including butterflies.  Singh (2015) recorded 211 species of butterflies from the sanctuary.  Our study added 20 more species of butterflies from the non PAs to the total butterfly diversity of Titabar subdivision.  The village woodlands with rich bamboo plantations serve as ideal habitat for the majority of animals, including butterflies.  Though during the present survey a total of 158 species were recorded in the non PAs of Titabar subdivision, the final number of butterfly species occurring in the non PAs is more likely to be between 200–250 as some places of Titabar are still unexplored.

The significance of the area from the lepidopteran viewpoint lies in the fact that it harbors one species belonging to Schedule I, 17 species to Schedule II, and four species to Schedule IV of IWPA, 1972.  Fourteen rare species, according to Evans (1932) were also recorded here.  Again, many species listed as common by Evans (1932) were actually found to be uncommon or rare in this survey.  This is probably because of different anthropogenic pressures.  The major threat to the butterfly population in this area is the conversion of village woodlands to small and micro tea gardens.  Pesticides, herbicides, and other chemicals used in these tea gardens may directly affect the number of butterflies by reducing their habitats.  A number of illegal coal mining stations and saw mills in the Titabar-Nagaland border pose a big threat to the biodiversity, as well as the butterfly diversity of this area.

Still more work on the butterflies of this area regarding the host plants, habitat, and ecology are required.  The results of our study form a baseline for future work on the diversity and conservation of butterflies in Titabar subdivision.

 

 

Table 1. Overview of taxonomic diversity of butterflies of the Titabar subdivision.

Family

Number of subfamily

Number of genera

Number of species

Nymphalidae

10 (43.47%)

38 (35.18%)

61 (38.60%)

Papilionidae

1 (4.34%)

4 (3.70%)

11 (6.96%)

Pieridae

2 (8.69%)

9 (8.33%)

17 (10.75%)

Lycaenidae

6 (26.08%)

30 (27.77%)

38 (24.05%)

Riodinidae

1 (4.34%)

2 (1.85%)

2 (1.26%)

Hesperiidae

3 (13.04%)

25 (23.14%)

29 (18.35%)

TOTAL: 6

23 (100%)

108 (100%)

158 (100%)

 

 

Table 2. List of butterflies recorded in Titabar, Jorhat, Assam during the study period (May 2014–June 2016).

Common name

Scientific name

Status (Evans, 1932)

IWPA, 1972

Family Nymphalidae

Subfamily Danainae

1. Striped Tiger

Danaus genutia Cramer, 1779

VC

 

2. Plain Tiger

Danaus chrysippus Linnaeus, 1758

VC

 

3. Glassy Tiger

Parantica aglea Stoll, 1782

C

 

4. Common Crow

Euploea core Cramer, 1780

C

 

5. Dark Blue Tiger

Tirumala septentrionis Butler, 1874

NR

 

6. Striped Blue Crow

Euploea mulciber Cramer, 1777

C

Schedule IV

7. Magpie Crow

Euploea radamanthus Fabricius, 1793

NR

 

Subfamily Morphinae

8. Common Duffer

Discophora sondaica Boisduval, 1836

C

 

9. Common Faun

Faunis canens Huebner, 1826

C

 

10. Jungle Glory

Thaumantis diores Doubleday, 1845

NR

 

Subfamily Charaxinae

11. Tawny Rajah

Charaxes bernardus Fabricius, 1793

C

 

12. Common Nawab

Polyura athamas Drury, 1773

C

 

Subfamily Satyrinae

13. Angled Red Forester

Lethe chandica Moore, 1858

NR

 

14. Bamboo Treebrown

Lethe europa Fabricius, 1775

NR

 

15. Common Fivering

Ypthima baldus Fabricius, 1775

VC

 

16. Common Bushbrown

Mycalesis perseus Fabricius, 1775

VC

 

17. Plain Bushbrown

Mycalesis malsarida Butler, 1868

R

Schedule II

18. Whitebar Bushbrown

Mycalesis anaxias Hewitson, 1862

NR

Schedule II

19. Dark Brand Bushbrown

Mycalesis mineus Linnaeus, 1758

VC

 

20. Common Evening Brown

Melanitis leda Linnaeus, 1758

VC

 

21. Dark Evening Brown

Melanitis phedima Cramer, 1780

C

 

22. Common Palmfly

Elymnias hypermnestra Linnaeus, 1763

C

 

23. Spotted Palmfly

Elymnias malelas Hewitson, 1863

NR

 

24. Tiger Palmfly

Elymnias nesae Linnaeus, 1764

NR

 

Subfamily Heliconinae

25. Common Leopard

Phalanta phalantha Drury, 1773

C

 

26. Cruiser

Vindula erota Fabricius, 1793

NR

 

27. Large Yeoman

Cirrochroa aoris Doubleday, 1847

NR

 

28. Vagrant

Vagrans egista Cramer, 1780

NR

 

Subfamily Acraeinae

29. Leopard Lacewing

Cethosia cyane Drury, 1773

NR

 

30. Tawny Coster

Acraea violae Fabricius, 1793

C

 

Subfamily Limenitinae

31. Common Sailer

Neptis hylas Linnaeus, 1758

VC

 

32. Yellow Sailer

Neptis namba Tytler, 1915

R

 

33. Grey Count

Tanaecia lepidea Butler, 1868

NR

Schedule II

34. Commander

Moduza procris Cramer, 1777

NR

 

35. Knight

Lebadea martha Fabricius, 1787

NR

 

36. Common Sergeant

Athyma perius Linnaeus, 1758

C

 

37. Blackvein Sergeant

Athyma ranga Moore, 1858

R

Schedule II

38. Staff Sergeant

Athyma selenophora Kollar, 1844

NR

 

39. Colour Sergeant

Athyma nefte Cramer, 1780

NR

 

40. Common Lascar

Pantoporia hordonia Stoll, 1790

C

 

41. Archduke

Lexias pardalis Moore, 1878

NR

 

42. Dark Archduke

Lexias dirtea Fabricius, 1793

NR

Schedule II

43. Gaudy Baron

Euthalia lubentina Cramer, 1777

C

Schedule IV

44. Powdered Baron

Euthalia monina Fabricius, 1787

NR

 

45. Common Baron

Euthalia aconthea Cramer, 1777

NR

Schedule II

46. Grey Baron

Euthalia anosia Moore, 1858

R

Schedule II

47. Common Earl

Tanaecia julii Lesson, 1837

C

 

Subfamily Cyrestinae

48. Common Map

Cyrestis thyodamas Boisduval, 1846

C

 

49. Common Maplet

Chersonesia risa Doubleday, 1848

NR

 

50. Tabby

Pseudergolis wedah Kollar, 1848

C

 

Subfamily Biblidinae

51. Common Castor

Ariadne merione Cramer, 1777

C

 

52. Angled Castor

Ariadne ariadne Linnaeus, 1763

C

 

Subfamily Nymphalinae

53. Peacock Pansy

Junonia almana Linnaeus, 1758

C

 

54. Yellow Pansy

Junonia hierta Fabricius, 1798

C

 

55. Grey Pansy

Junonia atlites Linnaeus, 1763

NR

 

56. Lemon Pansy

Junonia lemonias Linnaeus, 1758

C

 

57. Chocolate Pansy

Junonia iphita Cramer, 1779

C

 

58. Great Eggfly

Hypolimnas bolina Linnaeus, 1758

C

 

59. Orange Oakleaf

Kallima inachus Boisduval, 1846

NR

 

60. Common Jester

Symbrenthia lilaea Moore, 1875

C

 

61. Autumn Leaf

Doleschallia bisaltide Cramer, 1777

R

 

Family Papilionidae

Subfamily Papilioninae

62. Common Jay

Graphium doson C.&R. Felder, 1864

C

 

63. Tailed Jay

Graphium agamemnon Linnaeus, 1758

C

 

64. Common Mormon

Papilio polytes Linnaeus, 1758

VC

 

65. Great Mormon

Papilio memnon Linnaeus, 1758

C

 

66. Lime Butterfly

Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758

VC

 

67. Common Bluebottle

Graphium sarpedon Linnaeus, 1758

C

Schedule II

68. Common Mime

Papilio clytia Linnaeus, 1758

NR

 

69. Yellow Helen

Papilio nephelus Boisduval, 1836

NR

Schedule II

70. Red Helen

Papilio helenus Linneaus, 1758

C

 

71. Common Raven

Papilio castor Westwood, 1842

NR

 

72. Golden Birdwing

Troides aeacus C.&R. Felder, 1860

NR

 

Family Pieridae

Subfamily Coliadinae

73. Small Grass Yellow

Eurema brigitta Stoll, 1780

VC

 

74. Common Grass Yellow

Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, 1758

VC

 

75. Three Spot Grass Yellow

Eurema blanda Boisduval, 1836

C

 

76. Tree yellow

Gandaca harina Horsfield, 1829

NR

 

77. Common Emigrant

Catopsilia pomona Fabricius, 1775

C

 

78. Mottled Emigrant

Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus, 1758

C

 

Subfamily Pierinae

79. Indian Cabbage White

Pieris canidia Linnaeus, 1768

VC

 

80. Green Veined White

Pieris melete Menetries, 1857

NR

 

81. Common Albatross

Appias albina Boisduval, 1836

R

Schedule II

82. Chocolate Albatross

Appias lyncida Cramer, 1777

C

 

83. Striped Albatross

Appias libythea Fabricius, 1775

R

Schedule IV

84. Orange Albatross

Appias nero Fabricius, 1793

R

Schedule IV

85. Red-Base Jezebel

Delias pasithoe Linnaeus, 1767

NR

 

86. Red-Spot Jezebel

Delias descombesi Boisduval, 1836

NR

 

87. Lesser Gull

Cepora nadina Lucas, 1852

NR

 

88. Great Orange Tip

Hebomoia glaucippe Linnaeus, 1758

C

 

89. Psyche

Leptosia nina Fabricius, 1793

C

 

Family Lycaenidae

Subfamily Poritiinae

90. Common Gem

Poritia hewitsoni Moore, 1866

NR

Schedule II

Subfamily Miletinae

91. Apefly

Spalgis epius Westwood, 1852

NR

 

Subfamily Curetinae

92. Burmese Sunbeam

Curetis saronis Moore, 1877

NR

 

Subfamily Lycaeninae

93. Purple Saphire

Heliophorus epicles Godart, 1824

C

 

Subfamily Theclinae

94. Fluffy Tit

Zeltus amasa Hewitson, 1865

NR

 

95. Common Tit

Hypolycaena erylus Godart, 1824

C

 

96. Orchid Tit

Chliaria othona Hewitson, 1865

NR

Schedule I

97. Yamfly

Loxura atymnus Stoll, 1780

C

 

98. Common Imperial

Cheritra freja Fabricius, 1793

NR

 

99. Common Acacia Blue

Surendra quercetorum Moore, 1858

C

 

100. Common Onyx

Horaga onyx Moore, 1858

NR

Schedule II

101. Copper Flash

Rapala pheretima Hewitson, 1863

NR

 

102. Sylhet Oakblue

Arhopala silhetensis Hewitson, 1862

R

Schedule II

103. Tamil Oakblue

Arhopala bazaloides Hewitson, 1878

R

Schedule II

104. Yellow Disc Tailless Oakblue

Arhopala perimuta Moore, 1858

NR

 

105. Silverstreak Blue

Iraota timoleon Stoll, 1790

R

 

106. Mandarin Blue

Charana mandarinus Hewitson, 1863

NR

 

107. Dusky Bush Blue

Arhopala paraganesa de Niceville, 1882

R

Schedule II

108. Centaur Oakblue

Arhopala centaurus Fabricius, 1775

NR

 

109. Hewitson’s Dull Oakblue

Arhopala oenea Hewitson, 1869

R

Schedule II

Subfamily Polyommatinae

110. Common Hedge Blue

Acytolepis puspa Horsfield, 1828

C

 

111. Plain Hedge Blue

Celastrina lavendularis Moore, 1877

NR

 

112. Malayan

Megisba malaya Horsfield, 1828

NR

 

113. Common Cerulean

Jamides celeno Cramer, 1775

C

 

114. Dark Cerulean

Jamides bochus Stoll, 1782

C

 

115. Pale Grass Blue

Pseudozizeeria maha Kollar, 1844

VC

 

116. Lesser Grass Blue

Zizina otis Fabricius, 1787

C

 

117. Lime Blue

Chilades lajus Stoll, 1780

C

 

118. Tailless Lineblue

Prosotas dubiosa Semper, 1879

C

 

119. Common Lineblue

Prosotas nora C.Felder, 1860

C

 

120. Common Ciliate Blue

Anthene emolus Godart, 1824

C

 

121. Zebra Blue

Leptotes plinius Fabricius, 1793

C

 

122. Pea Blue

Lampides boeticus Linnaeus, 1767

C

Schedule II

123. Common Pierrot

Castalius rosimon Fabricius, 1775

C

 

124. Elbowed Pierrot

Caleta elna Hewitson, 1876

NR

 

125. Straight Pierrot

Caleta roxus Godart, 1824

NR

 

126. Forest Pierrot

Taraka hamada Druce, 1875

NR

 

127. Quaker

Nepoithecops zalmora Butler, 1870

C

 

Family Riodinidae

Subfamily Riodininae

128. Punchinello

Zemeros flegyas Cramer, 1780

VC

 

129. Tailed Judy

Abisara neophron Hewiton, 1861

NR

 

Family Hesperiidae

Subfamily Coeliadinae

130. Common Awl

Hasora badra Moore, 1858

NR

 

131. Common Banded Awl

Hasora chromus Cramer, 1780

NR

 

132. Orange Awlet

Bibasis jaina Moore, 1866

NR

 

Subfamily Pyrginae

133. Common Small Flat

Sarangesa dasahara Moore, 1866

C

 

134. Fulvous Pied Flat

Pseudocoladenia dan Fabricius, 1787

C

 

135. Indian Skipper

Spialia galba Fabricius, 1793

C

 

136. Common Spotted Flat

Celaenorrhinus leucocera Kollar, 1844

C

 

137. Suffused Snow Flat

Tagiades japetus Stoll, 1781

NR

 

138. Spotted Snow Flat

Tagiades menaka Moore, 1866

C

 

139. Common Snow Flat

Tagiades parra Fruhstorfer, 1910

C

 

Subfamily Hesperiinae

140. Tiger Hopper

Ochus subvittatus Moore, 1878

C

 

141. Common Redeye

Matapa aria Moore, 1866

C

 

142. Giant Redeye

Gangara thyrsis Fabricius, 1775

NR

 

143. Grass Demon

Udaspes folus Cramer, 1775

C

 

144. Chocolate Demon

Ancistroides nigrita Latreille, 1824

C

 

145. Restricted Demon

Notocrypta curvifascia C.&R. Felder, 1862

C

 

146. Bevan’s Swift

Pseudoborbo bevani Moore, 1878

NR

 

147. Small Branded Swift

Pelopidas mathias Fabricius, 1798

C

 

148. Moore’s Ace

Halpe porus Mabille, 1877

NR

 

149. Pigmy Scrub Hopper

Aeromachus pygmaeus Fabricius, 1775

NR

 

150. Tufted Swift

Caltoris plebeian de Niceville, 1887

NR

 

151. Grass Bob

Suada swerga de Niceville, 1884

NR

 

152. Sumatran Dart

Potanthus ganda Fruhstorfer, 1911

_

 

153. Common Dartlet

Oriens gola Moore, 1877

NR

 

154. Common Palm Dart

Telicota colon Linnaeus, 1763

NR

 

155. Chestnut Bob

Iambrix salsala Moore, 1866

C

 

156. Coon

Psolos fuligo Mabille, 1876

C

 

157. Bush Hopper

Ampittia dioscorides Fabricius, 1793

C

 

158. Full Stop Swift

Caltoris cormasa Hewitson, 1876

R

 

VC—Very Common | C—Common | NR—Not Rare | R—Rare | IWPA—Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

 

 

For figure & images - - click here

 

 

References

 

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