Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 July 2020 | 12(10): 16295–16313

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3959.12.10.16295-16313   

#3959 | Received 02 September 2018 | Final received 08 May 2020 | Finally accepted 17 July 2020

 

 

 

Floristic diversity of Anjaneri Hills, Maharashtra, India

 

Sanjay Gajanan Auti 1, Sharad Suresh Kambale 2, Kumar Vinod Chhotupuri Gosavi 3 &

Arun Nivrutti Chandore 4

 

1&3 Department of Botany, HPT Arts & RYK Science College, Nashik, Maharashtra 422005, India.

2 Department of Botany, Maratha Vidya Prasarak Samaj’s Arts, Commerce & Science College, Tryambakeshwar, Nashik, Maharashtra 422212, India.

4 Department of Botany, Abasaheb Marathe Arts and New Commerce, Science College, Rajapur, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra 416702, India.

1 autisanjay66@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 skambalesu@gmail.com, 3 kumarvinodgosavi@gmail.com, 4 arunchandore@gmail.com

 

 

 

Editor: Sanjaykumar R. Rahangdale, PDEA’s A. W. Arts, Science & Commerce College, Pune, India.          Date of publication: 26 July 2020 (online & print)

 

Citation: Auti, S.G., S.S. Kambale, K.V.C. Gosavi & A.N. Chandore (2020). Floristic diversity of Anjaneri Hills, Maharashtra, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(10): 16295–16313. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3959.12.10.16295-16313

 

Copyright: © Auti et al. 2020. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Board of College and University, Development (BCUD), Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Dr. Sanjay G. Auti is an Associate Professor in botany with more than 25 years of teaching experience. His major research areas are phytochemistry, plant genetics and floristics. Dr. Sharad Kambale is an Assistant Professor in botany with post doctoral research experience. His expertise is in the angiosperm systematics, plant nomenclature and biodiversity conservation. Dr. Kumar Vinod Gosavi is an Assistant Professor in botany and well known agrostologist. His expertise is in the cytotaxonomy  and angiosperm systematics. Dr. Arun Chandore is an Assistant Professor in botany and his expertise is floristics and biodiversity conservation.

 

Author contribution: SAG done the preliminary survey of the area, planned the field tours and documented the Plants through Video  Camera, wrote the first raw draft of the MS. SSK analyzed the data, identified the dicotyledonous plants and confirmed their identity. KVCG worked on the monocotyledonous plants especially on the grasses and photographed the plants. ANC documented and confirmed the identities of the monocotyledonous plants especially Cyperaceae.

 

Acknowledgements: Authors thank principals of their respective colleges for the necessary facilities.  SGA thanks Board of College and University Development (BCUD), Savitribai Phule Pune University for financial assistance and Dr. Pramodkumar Hire, HPT Arts & RYK Science College, Nashik for geological details.  We thank authorities of the Maharashtra Forest Department for permission to work in the Anjaneri Hills.  We thank Mr. Sujit Bokade, Mr. Arun Nimbekar, Mr. Dnyaneshwar Shinde and Mr. Haribhau Nimbekar for necessary help in the field.

 

 

 

Abstract: High altitude plateaux are found throughout northern Western Ghats.  These plateaux harbor a great diversity of monsoon flora and endemism but are highly neglected due to the seasonality and harsh climatic conditions.  Anjaneri Hill is an important rock outcrop in northern Western Ghats.  It is the type locality of Ceropegia anjanerica.  As an attempt to make a floristic inventory of an important area, a preliminary study was undertaken.  A total of 385 flowering plants from 68 families have been reported from Anjaneri protected area in the present study, of these 114 are endemics.  Out of these 114 species, 81 are endemic to India while 33 taxa are endemic to the Western Ghats.  Anjaneri rock outcrop shows great floral diversity due to varied microhabitats.  The observations on phenology and adaptive traits were recorded.  The data on geology and geomorphology is presented in order to understand the geological nature of the rock outcrop.  Intensive study on varied microhabitat is needed for the documentation of floral diversity existing on the Anjaneri Hill.

 

Keywords: Ceropegia anjanerica, endemic species, flowering plants, microhabitats, Nashik District, phenology, plateau, protected area,  rock outcrop, Western Ghats.

 

 

Introduction

 

The Western Ghats are amongst well-known global hotspots recognized for its biodiversity and endemism (Daniels & Vencatesan 2008).  Most conservation attention has been focused on the forests of the Western Ghats due to loss of plant species and intense habitat loss (Panigrahy et al. 2010).  Southern Western Ghats shows great diversity of taxa especially trees and shrubs due to heavy rainfall, edaphic heterogeneities, and high mountain ranges, while the northern Western Ghats provides varieties of the unique habitats, e.g., forts, caves, cliffs, slopes, and plateaux which support diversity of herbaceous vegetation.  

Northern Western Ghats also encompass higher plateaux or tablelands that have received less conservation attention (Porembski et al. 1994, 2000; Watve 2013), although studies suggest these ecological subsets of the Western Ghats mega-hotspot provide their own noteworthy and unique biological components.  Many researchers have reported about the floral diversity of plateaux in northern Western Ghats.  Report on two basaltic plateaux of northern Western Ghats has been provided by Rahangdale & Rahangdale (2014, 2018).  Their documentation chiefly focuses on flowering plant diversity from Durgawadi Plateaux (600 taxa) and Naneghat Plateaux (249 taxa).  Uncommon vegetation (Lekhak & Yadav 2012), a new species (Malpure et al. 2006; Malpure & Yadav 2009) and endemism (Joshi & Janarthanam 2004) were reported from lateritic plateaux.

Plateaux in Western Ghats lack proper substrate (soil) and exhibit extreme climatic conditions.  Their environment usually shares a series of stressful characteristics, such as UV exposure, daily thermal variation, constant winds, high evapo-trasnspiration, low water retention, and impermeable soils (Porembski & Barthlott 2000).  Plant communities of the plateaux are edaphically controlled and show adaptation for water accumulation, such as succulence Cyanotis concanensis, Ceropegia lawii, and poikilohydry, carnivory in response to the lack of nutrients (N, P, and S) in the soil and the presence of subterranean organs (bulbs, corms, tubers, and rhizomes) to overcome extreme temperature during summer.  Despite the rich floral diversity and varied microhabitat, these plateaux are highly neglected, due to extreme conditions e.g., high temperature, altitude, and remote locations.  

Watve (2007, 2010) reported that climatic and microclimatic (soil, rock, air, temperature, and humidity) conditions on rocky plateaux and their diurnal variation affected the vegetation on the plateaux.  The microenvironment of the rocky plateaux tend to be extreme, from xeric to water logged, highly acidic (4.5–6.0), and rich in organic carbon.

Soil moisture has been recognized as the primary determinant of plant phenology in the Western Ghats (Joshi & Janarthanam 2004), and the plant diversity on the plateaux is only apparent while monsoon moisture persists.

The present study was carried out to document the diversity of flowering plants of the Anjaneri rock outcrop.  The data generated in this study will help in planning for conservation of endemic and threatened plants.

 

 

Materials and Methods

 

Study area

Anjaneri Hill (19.9190N & 73.5710E) (Fig. 1, 2) is a basalt mesa, a flat-topped hill with steep cliff edges.  It is one of a cluster of five hills, together known as ‘Tryambak Range’ of the northern Western Ghats.  Anjaneri Plateau is located 20km west of Nashik, towards Tryambakeshwar.  Anjaneri Hills is an ancient mountain pass, from the period of Yadava, Satvahana Kings (approximately 700 CE).  Historical references are also found from the regime of Peshava.

The elevations of the adjoining peaks are less than the highest point on the plateau (1,300m). Anjaneri Hill is a reserved forest (RF) area and has been given the status of medicinal plant conservation area (MPCA) in 2009–2010 and reserve area conservation committee has been constituted (April 2017) for the conservation of endemic plants from the plateau. 

 

Data collection

Extensive and repeated field surveys were carried out during 2010 to 2016 to cover all the seasons of the year.  A comprehensive checklist of plants was prepared altitude-wise in order to understand the range of distribution of species, ecological variations, and types of adaptation.  Occurrence of the taxa was recorded based on the visual observations during field work.  During the field surveys, types of vegetation, habit, habitat, morphological characters, associated species, adaptation, and phenology were documented. 

Plant specimens were collected and identified using Flora of Nashik (Lakshminarasimhan & Sharma 1991) and regional floras (Sharma et al. 1996; Singh & Karthikeyan 2000; Singh et al. 2001).  The data on endemism has been taken from Singh et al. (2015).  The species documented are listed in Table 1 as per APG IV (2016).

 

Geology and geomorphological studies

The present study is based on the data collected from primary and secondary sources.  Primary data was procured by visiting the study area.  Secondary data were obtained through Survey of India topographical maps.  In addition to these, quantification of a number of geographical features for the area under study were made possible by means of the analyses of digital elevation model (DEM) of ca. 30m resolution advance space borne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data.  The digital elevation data was used to extract information with the help of standard procedures in ArcGIS 9.3 (Kale & Shejwalkar 2008; Dehbozorgi et al. 2010).

 

Geology

Geologically, the study area is underlain by horizontally bedded Cretaceous-Eocene Deccan volcanic basalts.  It is a part of the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) covering 5×105 km2 area of central and western India, ranks as one of the largest flood basalt provinces on Earth (Brown et al. 2011).  The lava flows of the Anjaneri Plateaux belong to Kalsubai subgroup of DVP, although the details of the lava flows at Anjaneri Plateaux is not known.  The Bramhgiri Hill (1,287m), located close to Anjaneri Plateaux, exposes a 620.5m thick pile of a few compound pahoehoe flows, varying 40–96 m in thickness and one 9m thick flow, which occurs at 716m level.   The area under study is characterized by two prominent dykes, through which basaltic lava was intruded.  The dykes appear in the form of lineaments that are zones of weakness. 

 

Geomorphology

Geomorphologically, the highest point of Anjaneri Plateaux is 1,300m with an area of 5.7km2.   The maximum local relief of the plateaux is 660m to the south-west.  The plateaux are bordered by high cliffs from almost all the sides.  The lower slopes of Anjaneri Plateaux are concave in nature with semi-evergreen vegetative growth particularly in the form of trees.  The profiles reveal that the Anjaneri area maintains the classical characteristics of the plateaux.

Climate: The Anjaneri Plateaux do not have any official or unofficial weather station. Therefore, it is not possible to describe the climate of the study area, however, some information is available for Tryambakeshwar, which is located close to the study area.  The region experiences extreme weather, i.e., very hot summers and very cold winters.  Summer and monsoon is a feature of the area.  Therefore, the climate of the area is divided into three distinct seasons, namely, (a) summer season (March to May) are hot with a maximum average temperature reaching up to 40°C, (b)  monsoon season (June to October) is likely to offer average annual rainfall around 2,000mm particularly on Anjaneri Plateaux, and (c) winter season (November to February) is mostly pleasant with a minimum and maximum temperature between 7°C and 34°C, respectively.  It is likely to have higher temperatures on the top of the plateaux than the surrounding region particularly in the summer season.  It is evident by occurrence of succulents like Ceropegia anjanerica, Drimia polyantha, Euphorbia khandallensis and the spinescent Lepidagathis cuspidata.

 

Ecosystem services

The steep hill slopes give rise to many cascades and streams that supply water to major dams like Vaitarana Dam and three minor reservoirs.  At the end of monsoon, the plateaux have grass cover providing stuff for local cattle.  Natural and man-made ponds are also present on the plateaux. The area has medicinal plant species and local people regularly collect these species.  It has been declared as a medicinal plant conservation area (MPCA) by the forest department and special protection has been provided against exploitation.

 

Floristic composition

A total of 385 species are recorded from the Anjaneri Hills.  These plants are distributed in 68 families: Poaceae (59), Leguminosae (48), Asteraceae (40), Acanthaceae (21), and Lamiaceae (15) are dominant families.  These five families represent 183 species of the total flora. In comparison with lateritic plateaux like Kaas, Satara (41 endemics) (3.26km2) and Barki, Kolhapur (six endemics) (3.75km2) (Lekhak & Yadav 2012 and Shenai et al. 2013), and basaltic rock outcrops Durgawadi, Pune (150 endemics) (2.8793km2) (Rahangdale & Rahangdale 2018) and Naneghat, Junnar (seven endemics) (0.7524km2) (Rahangdale & Rahangdale 2014) Anjaneri outcrop (5. 6963km2) harbors 385 flowering plants of which 114 are endemic species.  Endemism given for Kaas and Barki are restricted to the plateaux and not the whole area, while the endemics from Durgawadi, Naneghat, and Anjaneri are from entire area.

Anjaneri outcrop shows high endemism and commonly shared taxa are relatively low (31.21%) indicating that the Anjaneri outcrop is floristically and in terms of habitats is very   diverse.  It is the type locality of Ceropegeia anjanerica (Malpure et al., 2006) and supports varied habitats for many endemic plants (Table 1).  The reason for the species richness and high endemism of Anjaneri outcrop might be in its geographical location, climatic conditions, specific basaltic nature, and high altitude.  A few species which occur on Kaas, Barki, Dugarwadi, and Naneghat plateau, e.g., Dipcadi ursulae, Aponogeton satarensis, Ceropegia jainii, and Eriocaulon epedunculatum were not found in the present study area may be due to lack of required specific habitats.

Anjaneri rock outcrop shows three levels (flat areas) at 800–850 m, 1,150–1,200 m and 1,300m and large slopes.  Each level and slope is unique in terms of soil deposition and water content.  Basal level (800–850 m) has a good amount of soil and water, supported species from  Lamiaceae (Colebrookea oppositifolia, Pogostemon deccanensis), Solanaceae (Solanum anguivi), and Asteraceae (Senecio bombayensis) and trees like Mangifera indica, Terminalia tomentosa, Bridelia retusa, Syzygium cumini, Sterculia guttata, Schleichera oleosa, and Falconeria insignis.  Good populations of Gloriosa superba and Paracalyx scariosus were recorded.

Middle level (1,150–1,200 m) contains 1–1.5 cm of soil dominated by grasses like Chrysopogon fulvus, Cymbopogon martini, and Dichanthium assimile.  A number of shallow water bodies are formed during the monsoon season which provide habitat for Lindernia parviflora, Rotala rosea, Ammannia baccifera, and Hygrophila serpyllum.  At 1,100–1,150 m small tree cover occurs on the soil-rich areas of the plateaux.  This cover includes plants like Elaeagnus conferta, Ziziphus rugosa, Terminalia chebula, Trema orientalis, Acacia pennata, and Kydia calycina.  Little above the middle plateau (1,200m), a small natural pond exists.  It supports hydrophytes like Persicaria glabra.

Uppermost level (1,250–1,300 m) shows large number of herbaceous, ephemeral flush and grasses.  In some areas of this level little soil deposition occur, this area shows a large population of Strobilanthes reticulata and Curcuma neilgherrensis.  Various taxa like Polygala arvensis, Habenaria brachyphylla, and Haplanthodes verticellata were associated with Strobilanthes population.  The species like Impatiens dalzellii (Image 3H) (above 1,150m), Drosera indica (1,250m), Crinum latifolium (1,300m), Ceropegia anjanerica (1,300m), Euphorbia khandallensis (1,275m), Sonerila scapigera (Image 4G) (1,175m), Cyathocline lutea (1,300m) were reported.  During monsoon a large number of small shallow puddles are formed, supporting herbaceous plants like Pogostemon deccanensis, Eriocaulon tuberiferum, Exacum lawii, and Utricularia praeterita.  Apart from above habitats, rocky outcrops provide various habitats like boulders, exposed rock surfaces, small ephemeral pool, and soil covered areas.

Slopes of all three levels show variation in their species composition.  Slope from middle to upper level were covered with a huge population of Strobilanthes callosa, Chlorophytum glaucum, Pimpinella wallichiana, Lepidagathis cuspidata, Gynura bicolor, Alysicarpus bupleurifolius, Desmodiastrum racemosum var. rotundifolium, Smithia species and middle slope with various herbaceous plants like Commelina species, Neanotis foetida, Neanotis montholonii, Cynarospermum, and Canscora diffusa.

Study area shows dominance of lithophytes due to their greater ability to survive under disadvantageous environmental conditions (Porembski & Barthlott 2000).  Due to their short life-cycle and high reproduction rate, they are well-adapted to extreme environments and high levels of disturbances.  Most of the plants survive the dry spell as dormant seeds or tuber. 

Due to the absence of large accumulations of soil over the plateaux little rainwater is stored, but most of the water is lost as runoff.  The loss of water due to run-off is due to steep slopes.

 

Seasonal succession and phenology

Plant communities on the Anjaneri outcrop are gradually changing temporally with specific interval (approximately 10 days) due to changing environmental conditions.  The growing season starts with the dominance of ephemerals and this is later replaced by perennials.  Both the number of species and the number of individuals declined after a peak at the beginning of the growing season. Such seasonal or phenological phenomena with respect to basaltic plateaux in northern Western Ghats have been studied by Rahangdale & Rahangdale (2014, 2018) and lateritic plateaux by Joshi & Janarthanam (2004), Bhattarai et al. (2012) and Lekhak & Yadav (2012).  Similar pattern to the one seen on the Anjaneri outcrop was observed by Lekhak & Yadav (2012) and Rahangdale & Rahangdale (2014).  Based on the phenology of the plants four phases can be recognized: 1. The pre-monsoon phase (June–July) is characterized by the growth of grasses and ground orchids on the plateaux.  The grass species which are quite common are Eragrostis unioloides, Isachne elegans, and Paspalum canarae var. fimbriatum along with Curculigo orchioides, Ceropegia lawii, Habenaria grandifloriformis, Arisaema murrayi, Crinum latifolium, and Curcuma neilgherrensis; 2. The monsoon phase (August–September) mainly geophytes such as Ceropegia anjanerica, C. media, Eriocaulon tuberiferum, Habenaria suaveolens, H. grandifloriformis, Hypoxis aurea, and members of the ephemeral vegetation such as Glyphochloa maharashtraensis, Fimbristylis lawiana, Utricularia spp., Murdannia nimmoniana,  Eriocaulon spp., and Smithia hirsuta come in flowering.  This is the peak flowering period on the plateau; 3. In the post monsoon phase (October–December) Arundinella ciliata, Indopoa paupercula, Dimeria spp., and Striga gesnerioides come in flowering; 4. The fourth phase (January–May) is the dry period during which only a few species such as Blumea eriantha, Blumea malcolmii, Lepidgathis cuspidata flower in January–February. Drimia polyantha, Euphorbia khandallensis, and Pancratium nairii flowers in March.  Observations on the phenology of the plants revealed that maximum number of species complete their reproductive cycle between July and December.

Middle slopes of Anjaneri Hill exhibit small patch of evergreen trees, shrubs, and herbaceous flora  due to retention of  some amount  of soil.  Surrounding plants also affected the climatic condition of the plateaux, which favors the herbaceous flora, e.g., the forest undergrowth. 

 

Threats

Anjaneri Hill is utilized for grazing, resource extraction, and tourism.  Relatively easy road access, trampling, trails, and tourist services, could have direct or indirect impacts on floristic diversity.  We have reported the shifting of few plant species and decrease in population from middle level e.g., Pinda concanensis, Pancratium nairii, Drimia polyantha, Polygala arvensis, and few species of Smithia to upper plateaux due to drastic seasonal changes in moisture content, amount and time of rainfall.  Heavy rainfall for longer duration causes vegetative growth and delay in initiation of flowering in Pogostemon deccanensis. 

 

Adaptive traits

Plants on this plateau experience harsh environmental conditions, e.g., drought, high temperature and light intensities and nutrient deficiency, which cause development of certain traits in plants of plateaux, which allow them to overcome environmental adversities.  A detailed account on the adaptation/eco-physiology of vascular plants of rock outcrops is provided by Kluge & Brulfert (2000).  Some well-known adaptive traits that have been observed in the vascular plants on the plateaux are mentioned below (modified after Biedinger et al. 2000).

1. Carnivory: It is a means to overcome the scarcity of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Sulphur in the soil.  Carnivorous plants are extremely calcifuge and need acidic and wet soils (Kluge & Brulfert 2000).  Drosera indica, Utricularia prateirata are the common carnivores on the plateaux.  These species comprise ephemeral vegetation where soil deposition is negligible.

2. Succulence: Succulence is a ‘desiccation avoidance strategy’ in xeric habitats.  Typical leaf succulents of the plateau are Cyanotis concanensis Hassk. and Euphorbia khandallensis.

3. Poikilohydry: These are plants in which water content varies with the varying humidity in the environment.  Desiccation tolerance is mainly a protoplasmic property, e.g., Tripogon lisboae.

4. Subterranean perennating organs: This is yet another adaptive strategy of the plants of the

plateau in the form of underground perennation organs like corms, rhizomes, bulbs, and tubers, e.g., geophytes like Ceropegia anjanerica, C. lawii, Curcuma neilgherrensis, Cyanotis fasciculata, C. concanensis, Eriocaulon tuberiferum, Euphorbia khandallensis, Habenaria spp., and Hypoxis aurea.  

5. Vegetative propagation: Vegetative propagules such as bulbs and bulbils formed at the leaf tips are an adaptation of some plants of the plateaux, e.g., Curculigo orchioides

 

 

Conclusions

 

Anjaneri a basaltic outcrop is unique due to great diversity (385 species), high endemism (114 taxa) and as type locality of Ceropegia anjanerica.  Outcrop exhibited different habitats due to its distinct geographical location, climatic condition and edaphic nature.  Due to adverse climatic conditions and extreme micro-environments, plants have developed unique morphological, physiological and life cycle adaptations.   

The environmental uniqueness, high diversity, IUCN assessment studies, high anthropogenic activities and rapid destruction of these ecosystems make Anjaneri outcrop a “hotspeck”. Systematic approaches are required to conserve various unique habitats, which supported great diversity of existing plant species and for the conservation of Ceropegia anjanerica.  

 

 

Table 1.  Plants of Anjaneri Hill.

 

Plant species

Family

Location

1*

Amorphophallus commutatus (Schott) Engl.

Araceae

MP, UP

2

Ariopsis peltata Nimmo

Araceae

UP

3$

Arisaema murrayi (J.Graham) Hook.

Araceae

MP,UP

4

Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott

Araceae

MP,UP

5

Remusatia vivipara (Roxb.) Schott

Araceae

Slope between MP and UP

6

Sauromatum venosum (Dryand. ex Aiton) Kunth

Araceae

UP

7

Dioscorea bulbifera L.

Dioscoreaceae

Slope UP

8

Dioscorea pentaphylla L.

Dioscoreaceae

Slope UP

9

Gloriosa superba L.

Colchicaceae

BP

10*

Dendrobium barbatulum Lindl.

Orchidaceae

MP

11

Dendrobium herbaceum Lindl.

Orchidaceae

MP

12$

Dendrobium microbulbon A.Rich.

Orchidaceae

MP

13$

Habenaria brachyphylla (Lindl.) Aitch.

Orchidaceae

UP

14$

Habenaria foetida (Geyer ex Hook.) S.Watson

Orchidaceae

UP

15$

Habenaria foliosa A.Rich.

Orchidaceae

MP,UP

16$

Habenaria grandifloriformis Blatt. & McCann

Orchidaceae

UP, MP

17$

Habenaria heyneana Lindl.

Orchidaceae

BP, UP

18$

Habenaria suaveolens Dalzell

Orchidaceae

UP

19

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.

Hypoxidaceae

MP

20

Hypoxis aurea Lour.

Hypoxidaceae

MP

21

Crinum latifolium L.

Amaryllidaceae

UP

22*

Pancratium nairii Sasikala & Reema Kumari

Amaryllidaceae

UP

23

Agave americana L.

Asparagaceae

MP

24$

Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & R.R.Fern.

Asparagaceae

Slopes of foot hills

25$

Chlorophytum glaucum Dalzell

Asparagaceae

UP

26*

Drimia polyantha (Blatt. & McCann) Stearn

Asparagaceae

UP

27

Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb.

Arecaceae

BP

28

Commelina benghalensis L.

Commelinaceae

MP,UP, Slope MP,UP

29*

Commelina paleata Hassk.

Commelinaceae

In shady places along slopes

30*

Cyanotis concanensis Hassk.

Commelinaceae

Slope MP,UP

31

Cyanotis fasciculata (B.Heyne ex Roth) Schult. & Schult.f.

Comelinaceae

Slope MP,UP

32

Murdannia nimmoniana (J.Graham) Bole & M.R.Almeida

Commelinaceae

UP

33*

Murdannia nimmoniana var. sahyadrica (Ancy & Nampy) Nandikar

Commelinaceae

In shady places along slopes

34$

Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman

Musaceae

MP

35$

Curcuma neilgherrensis Wight

Zingiberaceae

UP

36

Eriocaulon heterolepis Steud.

Eriocaulaceae

UP

37$

Eriocaulon sedgwickii Fyson

Eriocaulaceae

UP

38*

Eriocaulon tuberiferum A.R.Kulk. & Desai

Eriocaulaceae

UP

39

Cyperus difformis L.

Cyperaceae

MP,UP

40

Eleocharis atropurpurea (Retz.) J.Presl & C.Presl

Cyperaceae

MP,UP

41$

Fimbristylis lawiana (Boeckeler) J.Kern

Cyperaceae

MP,UP

42

Kyllinga bulbosa P.Beauv.

Cyperaceae

MP,UP

43

Pycreus flavidus (Retz.) T.Koyama

Cyperaceae

MP,UP

44

Apluda mutica L.

Poaceae

Slopes

45

Arthraxon hispidus var. hispidus (Thunb.)  Makino

Poaceae

MP

46*

Arthraxon jubatus Hack.

Poaceae

MP

47

Arthraxon lanceolatus var. lanceolatus (Roxb.) Hochst.

Poaceae

UP,MP

48*

Arthraxon lanceolatus var. meeboldii (Stapf) Welzen

Poaceae

MP

49

Arthraxon lancifolius (Trin.) Hochst.

Poaceae

MP

50$

Arundinella ciliata (Roxb.) Nees ex Miq.

Poaceae

UP

51

Arundinella pumila (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Steud.

Poaceae

UP, MP

52

Chloris virgata Swartz

Poaceae

UP, MP

53

Chrysopogon fulvus (Spreng.) Chiov.

Poaceae

UP,MP

54

Coix gigantea Koen. ex Roxb.

Poaceae

MP

55

Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) Wats.

Poaceae

MP, UP

56

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

Poaceae

MP,UP

57

Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees

Poaceae

MP

58

Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L) P. Beauv.

Poaceae

MP, UP

59*

Dicanthium paranjapyeanum (Bhide) Clayton

Poaceae

UP

60

Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf

Poaceae

MP, UP

61*

Dichanthium armatum (Hook.f.) Blatt. & McCann

Poaceae

MP

62

Dichanthium assimile (Steud.) Deshpande

Poaceae

MP,UP

63

Dichanthium caricosum (L.) A.Camus

Poaceae

MP, UP

64

Dichanthium odoratum Jain & Deshpande

Poaceae

UP

65*

Dichanthium oliganthum (Hochst. ex Steud.) T.A.Cope

Poaceae

UP

66

Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel.

Poaceae

UP

67

Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link

Poaceae

MP

68

Eragrostiella bifaria (Vahl) Bor

Poaceae

MP

69

Eragrostis unioloides (Retz.) Nees ex Steud

Poaceae

MP

70

Eragrostis viscosa (Retz.) Trin.

Poaceae

MP

71

Euclasta clarkei (Hack.) T.A.Cope

Poaceae

MP

72

Eulalia trispicata (Schult.) Henr.

Poaceae

MP,UP

73$

Garnotia arborum Stapf ex T.Cooke

Poaceae

MP, UP

74

Garnotia tenella (Arn. ex Miq.) Jan.

Poaceae

UP

75*

Glyphochloa  maharashtraensis Potdar & S.R.Yadav

Poaceae

UP

76$

Glyphochloa forficulata (C.E.C.Fischer) W.D.Clayton

Poaceae

UP

77

Heteropogon contortus (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.

Poaceae

UP

78$

Indopoa paupercula (Stapf) Bor

Poaceae

UP

79$

Isachne elegans Dalzell

Poaceae

UP

80$

Isachne gracilis C.E.Hubb.

Poaceae

UP

81

Ischaemum impressum Hack.

Poaceae

UP

82

Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr.

Poaceae

MP

83$

Ischaemum raizadae Hemadri & Billore

Poaceae

UP, MP

84

Jansenella griffithiana (C.Muell.) Bor

Poaceae

MP,UP

85*

Jansenella neglecta S.R.Yadav, Chivalkar & Gosavi

Poaceae

MP,UP

86

Oplismenus burmannii f. cristata (J.Presl) Hier. ex Peter

Poaceae

MP

87

Oplismenus compositus (L.) P.Beauv.

Poaceae

MP

88$

Paspalum canarae var. fimbriatum (Bor) Veldk.

Poaceae

UP

89

Pennisetum pedicellatum Trin.

Poaceae

MP

90*

Pogonachne racemosa Bor

Poaceae

UP

91$

Pseudanthistiria heteroclita (Roxb.) Hook.f.

Poaceae

UP

92*

Pseudodichanthium serrafalcoides (T.Cooke & Stapf) Bor

Poaceae

UP

93

Sehima nervosum (Rottl.) Stapf

Poaceae

UP

94

Setaria pumila Roem. & Schult.

Poaceae

UP, MP

95$

Spodiopogon rhizophorus (Steud.) Pilger

Poaceae

MP, UP

96

Sporobolus indicus (Buse) Baaijens

Poaceae

MP

97

Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) O.Ktze.

Poaceae

MP, UP

98$

Triplopogon ramosissimus (Hack.) Bor

Poaceae

MP,UP

99

Tripogon bromoides Roth

Poaceae

UP

100

Tripogon capillatus Jaub. & Spach.

Poaceae

MP

101$

Tripogon jacquemontii Stapf

Poaceae

MP

102$

Tripogon lisboae Stapf

Poaceae

MP, UP

103

Cocculus hirsutus (L.) W.Theob.

Menispermaceae

MP, UP

104

Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson

Menispermaceae

UP

105

Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC.

Ranunculaceae

UP

106$

Clematis hedysarifolia DC.

Ranunculaceae

UP

107

Acacia auriculiformis Benth.

Leguminosae

MP

108

Acacia pennata (L.) Willd.

Leguminosae

MP

109

Acacia nilotica ssp. indica (Benth.) Brenan

Leguminosae

MP

110

Aeschynomene indica L.

Leguminosae

UP

111

Albizia lebbek (L.) Benth.

Leguminosae

BP

112

Albizia odoratissima (L.f.) Benth.

Leguminosae

BP

113

Alysicarpus bupleurifolius (L.) DC.

Leguminosae

Slope UP

114

Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC.

Leguminosae

Slope UP

115

Bauhinia racemosa Lam.

Leguminosae

BP

116

Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub.

Leguminosae

BP

117$

Cajanus sericeus (Benth. ex Baker) Maesen

Leguminosae

Slope MP

118

Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC.

Leguminosae

Slope MP

119

Cassia fistula L.

Leguminosae

Slope MP

120

Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene

Leguminosae

MP

121$

Clitoria annua J.Graham

Leguminosae

MP

122$

Crotalaria filipes Benth.

Leguminosae

Slope UP, UP

123

Crotalaria hebecarpa (DC.) Rudd

Leguminosae

Slope UP

124

Crotalaria medicangea Lam.

Leguminosae

Slope UP

125

Crotalaria mysorensis Roth

Leguminosae

Slope UP

126

Crotalaria nana Burm.f.

Leguminosae

Slope UP

127

Crotalaria pallida Aiton

Leguminosae

Slope UP

128

Crotalaria retuse L.

Leguminosae

Slope UP

129

Crotalaria triquetra Dalzell

Leguminosae

Slope UP

130

Crotalaria vestita Baker

Leguminosae

Slope UP

131$

Desmodiastrum belgaumense (Wight) A.Pramanik & Thoth.

Leguminosae

Slope UP

132$

Desmodiastrum racemosum var. rotundifolium (Baker) A.Pramanik & Thoth.

Leguminosae

Slope MP

133

Desmodium laxiflorum DC.

Leguminosae

Slope UP

134

Dolichos robustus Bolus

Leguminosae

MP

135

Dolichos trilobus L.

Leguminosae

Slope UP

136

Erythrina stricta Roxb.

Leguminosae

MP

137

Flemingia strobilifera (L.) W.T.Aiton

Leguminosae

MP

138

Geisaspis cristata Wight & Arn.

Leguminosae

Slope UP

139*

Geissaspis tenella Benth.

Leguminosae

Slope UP

140

Indigofera cordifolia B.Heyne ex Roth

Leguminosae

Slope MP

141

Indigofera linifolia L.f. Retz.

Leguminosae

Slope MP

142*

Indigofera santapaui Sanjappa

Leguminosae

MP

143

Indigofera trifoliata L.

Leguminosae

Slope MP

144

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.

Leguminosae

Slope MP

145

Paracalyx scariosus (Roxb.) Ali (as ‘scariosa’)

Leguminosae

Slope MP

146

Smithia bigemina Dalzell

Leguminosae

MP, UP

147$

Smithia hirsuta Dalzell

Leguminosae

MP, UP

148$

Smithia purpurea Hook.

Leguminosae

UP

149

Smithia sensitiva Aiton

Leguminosae

MP, UP

150*

Smithia setulosa Dalzell

Leguminosae

MP, UP

151

Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng.

Leguminosae

Slope UP

152

Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc.

Leguminosae

Slope UP

153$

Vigna khandalensis (Santapau) Sundararagh. & Wadhwa

Leguminosae

Slope UP

154*

Vigna sahyadriana Aitwade, K.V. Bhat & S.R.Yadav

Leguminosae

Slopes MP

155

Polygala arvensis Willd.

Polygalaceae

Slopes

156

Polygala persicariifolia DC.

Polygalaceae

Slopes

157

Elaeagnus conferta Roxb.

Elaeagnaceae

MP

158

Ziziphus rugosa Lam.

Rhamnaceae

MP

159

Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.

Rhamnaceae

MP

160

Trema orientalis (L.) Blume

Ulmaceae

MP

161

Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq.

Moraceae

MP

162

Ficus exasperata Vahl

Moraceae

MP

163

Ficus racemosa L.

Moraceae

MP

164

Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa (Blume) Corner

Moraceae

MP

165

Boehmeria macrophylla Hornem.

Urticaceae

Slope MP

166

Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis

Urticaceae

Slope MP

167

Laportea interrupta (L.) Chew

Urticaceae

MP

168

Lecanthus peduncularis (Wall. ex Royle) Wedd.

Urticaceae

UP

169

Pouzolzia zeylanica (L.) Benn.

Urticaceae

MP

170$

Cucumis setosus Cogn.

Cucurbitaceae

MP

171

Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C.Jeffrey

Cucurbitaceae

Slope MP,UP

172

Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl ex Naudin

Cucurbitaceae

Slope UP

173

Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd.

Cucurbitaceae

Slope UP

174$

Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi

Cucurbitaceae

Slope UP

175

Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour.

Cucurbitaceae

MP

176

Zehneria perpusilla (Blume) Bole & M.R.Almeida

Cucurbitaceae

MP

177

Begonia crenata Dryand.

Begoniaceae

BP,MP

178

Celastrus paniculatus Willd.

Celastraceae

Slope MP

179

Maytenus rothiana Lobr.-Callen

Celastraceae

MP, Slope UP

180

Oxalis corniculata L.

Oxalidaceae

MP

181$

Euphorbia khandallensis Blatt. & Hallb.

Euphorbiaceae

MP, UP

182

Euphorbia ligularia Roxb.

Euphorbiaceae

UP

183*

Euphorbia pycnostegia Boiss.

Euphorbiaceae

Slope UP

184

Falconeria insignis Royle

Euphorbiaceae

Along slopes of BP

185

Jatropha curcas L.

Euphorbiaceae

MP

186

Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll.Arg.

Euphorbiaceae

MP, Slope UP

187

Securinega leucopyrus (Willd.) Muell.-Arg.

Euphorbiaceae

MP

188

Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss.

Phyllanthaceae

BP, MP

189$

Glochidion hohenackeri (Müll.Arg.) Bedd.

Phyllanthaceae

MP

190

Phyllanthus urinaria L.

Phyllanthaceae

MP

191

Linum mysorense B.Heyne ex Wall.

Linaceae

Slope MP

192

Terminalia chebula Retz.

Combretaceae

BP , MP

193

Terminalia tomentosa Wight & Arn.

Combretaceae

BP

194

Ammannia baccifera L.

Lythraceae

UP

195$

Lagerstroemia microcarpa Wight

Lythraceae

Foothills

196*

Rotala malampuzhensis R.V.Nair ex C.D.K.Cook

Lythraceae

UP,MP

197

Rotala rosea (Poir.) C.D.K.Cook

Lythraceae

UP, MP

198

Rotala serpyllifolia (Roth) Bremek.

Lythraceae

UP

199

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz

Lythraceae

BP

200

Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P.H.Raven

Onagraceae

UP

201

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

Myrtaceae

BP

202*

Sonerila scapigera Dalzell

Melastomataceae

UP

203

Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.

Anacardiaceae

UP

204

Mangifera indica L.

Anacardiaceae -

BP , MP

205

Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken

Sapindaceae

MP

206

Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik.

Malvaceae

MP

207

Abutilon persicum (Burm.f.) Merr.

Malvaceae

MP

208$

Eriolaena quinquelocularis (Wight & Arn.) Wight

Malvaceae

MP

209

Helicteres isora L.

Malvaceae

BP

210

Kydia calycina Roxb.

Malvaceae

MP

211

Sida acuta Burm.f.

Malvaceae

BP

212

Sida cordata (Burm.f.) Borss.Waalk.           

Malvaceae

BP

213

Sida rhomboidea Roxb. ex Fleming

Malvaceae

BP

214

Sterculia guttata Roxb. ex G.Don

Malvaceae

Slope MP

215

Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalzell

Malvaceae

MP

216

Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Correa           

Malvaceae

Foothills

217

Triumfetta annua L.

Malvaceae

MP

218

Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.

Malvaceae

MP

219$

Cleome simplicifolia Hook.f. & Thomson

Cleomaceae

Slope UP

220

Cardamine trichocarpa Hochst. ex A.Rich.

Brassicaceae

Slope MP

221

Roripa indica (L.) Hiern

Brassicaceae

MP

222

Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettingsh.

Loranthaceae

MP

223

Persicaria glabra (Willd.) M.Gomez

Polygonaceae

MP

224

Polygonum plebeium R.Br.

Polygonaceae

MP

225

Drosera indica L.

Droserceae

UP

226

Achyranthes aspera L.

Amaranthaceae

MP

227

Alternanthera ficoidea (L.) Sm.

Amaranthaceae

BP

228

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC.

Amaranthaceae

Bp

229

Celosia argentea L.

Amaranthaceae

BP

230

Gomphrena celosioides Mart.

Amaranthaceae

MP

231

Nothosaerva brachiata (L.) Wight

Amaranthaceae-

Slope between MP and UP

232

Glinus lotoides L.

Aizoaceae

MP

233

Impatiens balsamina L.

Balsaminaceae

Slopes

234*

Impatiens dalzellii Hook.f. & Thomson

Balsaminaceae

Slopes along UP

235

Impatiens minor (DC.) Bennet

Balsaminaceae

MP

236

Impatiens oppositifolia L.

Balsaminaceae

MP

237

Careya arborea Roxb.

Lecythidaceae

MP

238

Diospyros montana Roxb.

Ebenaceae

MP

239

Anagallis arvensis L.

Primulaceae

MP

240

Anagallis pumila Sw.

Primulaceae

MP

241

Embelia tsjeriam-cottam (Roem. & Schult.) A.DC.

Primulaceae

MP

242

Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng.

Rubiaceae

MP

243

Meyna laxiflora Robyns

Rubiaceae

MP

244$

Neanotis foetida (Dalzell) W.H.Lewis

Rubiaceae

Slope, UP, UP

245

Neanotis montholonii (Hook.f.) W.H.Lewis

Rubiaceae

MP

246

Oldenlandia corymbosa L.

Rubiaceae

UP

247

Pavetta indica L.

Rubiaceae

MP

248

Spermadictyon suaveolens Roxb.

Rubiaceae

MP

249

Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult.

Gentianaceae

Slopes MP

250

Canscora pauciflora Dalzell

Gentianaceae

Slope UP

251$

Centaurium meyeri (Bunge) Druce

Gentianaceae

MP

252$

Exacum lawii C.B.Clarke