Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 July 2019 | 11(9): 14144–14157

 

 

Spiders of Odisha: a preliminary checklist

 

Sudhir Ranjan Choudhury 1, Manju Siliwal 2 & Sanjay Keshari Das 3

 

1,3 University School of Environment Management, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Sector 16-C, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078, India.

2 Wildlife Institute of India, Post Box #18, Chandrabani, Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248001, India.

1 sudhirranjanchoudhury@gmail.com, 2 manjusiliwal@gmail.com, 3 skdasipu@gmail.com (corresponding author)

 

 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3786.11.9.14144-14157  |  ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:74F01EF7-E0CE-4429-8D04-2DBE08E7BEEC

 

Editor: Siddharth Kulkarni, The George Washington University, Washington, USA. Date of publication: 26 July 2019 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: #3786 | Received 27 May 2018 | Final received 10 April 2019 | Finally accepted 20 June 2019

 

Citation: Choudhury, S.R., M. Siliwal & S.K. Das (2019). Spiders of Odisha: a preliminary checklist. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(9): 14144–14157. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3786.11.9.14144-14157

 

Copyright: © Choudhury et al. 2019. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Government of India.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Sudhir Ranjan Choudhury—is working as a senior research fellow. He is working on arachnid fauna of Odisha.  Manju Siliwal—is an arachnologist having more than 20 years of experience on working on spiders. She specializes on mygalomorphs. Her work focuses on systematics, ecology, conservation and molecular phylogeny of mygalomorphs in India.  Sanjay Keshari Das—is working as an Assistant Professor.  His main interest is systematics, ecology and conservation of reptiles and arachnids.

 

Author contribution: SRC did majority of the collection of spiders from the field for the present study.  He processed, photographed and identified spiders in the laboratory. He helped in compilation of this paper.  MS carried out field surveys for collection of mygalomorphs along with SRC and SKD.  She did confirmation of spiders and did help SKD and SRC in writing up this paper.  SKD did major writing of this paper. He also carried out field surveys for spider collection in Odisha with SRC and MS.

 

Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to the following personnel and institutions: Sri Siddhanta Das, Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (Wildlife) & Chief Wildlife Warden, Odisha, Sri S. Samantaray, Deputy Conservator of Forests (WLM) for granting permission to carry out this work (No. 507/4-WL-513/2017/13.01.2017); Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change, Government of India, New Delhi for funding a research project to carry out this work (Project No. 14/259/2015-RE/27.04.2016); Dy Director, Similipal Tiger Reserve, Divisional Forest Officers, Satkosia (WL) Division, Kalahandi South Division and Paralakhemundi Forest Division for their cooperation and logistic help during field surveys; Mr. Narayan Panda, Field Assistant and Mr. Rakesh Mahalik, North Orissa University for assisting in field surveys.; Dean, USEM, GGSIP University, New Delhi for providing necessary facilities and constant encouragement throughout the work; Mrs. Shubhi Malik, Research Scholar, USEM and Mr. Sashi Ranjan Kusum, Lab Assistant, for their help in sorting out and cataloging of specimens; Dr. Pratyush P. Mohapatra, Scientist-D, Zoological Survey of India for his valuable cooperation and support during field surveys.

 

 

 

Abstract: The present checklist of spiders of Odisha is the result of the compilation of all published literature on spiders and primary data collected during the present study carried out from July 2016 to March 2017 in Odisha.  A total of 138 species of spiders belonging to 95 genera and 33 families were recorded in the present study.  Of which, seven families, 36 genera and 80 species of spiders were reported for the first time from Odisha.  Of these 80 species, 78 spider species were exclusively reported from the Eastern Ghats of Odisha. With this study, spider diversity of Odisha comprised of 248 species belonging to 139 genera and 39 families.  Whereas, Eastern Ghats of Odisha comprised of 181 species belonging to 109 genera and 35 families.  Of total spiders from Odisha, 23 species were found to be endemic to southern Asia, 49 species endemic to India and 19 species endemic to Odisha.

 

Keywords: Araneae, araneomorph, diversity, Eastern Ghats, endemic, mygalomorph, new records.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Spiders represent one of the most diversified groups amongst invertebrates and are ranked seventh in the global biodiversity, with 48,143 species under 4,131 genera and 117 families described from the World (Penney et al. 2003; WSC 2019).  About 1,909 species belonging to 488 genera and 64 different families have been reported from India (WSC 2019), of which, about 115 species in 33 genera and eight families are of mygalomorph spiders and the rest of the species are of araneomorph spiders (WSC 2019).  This number is very much underestimated and many more species are waiting to be discovered in the country because till date spider studies in India have been restricted to a few areas in the absence of systematic spider surveys for most of the states in India (Sebastian & Peter 2009).

Bio-geographically, Odisha (17.802–22.563 0N and 81.383–87.482 0E) is an important region as it has faunal representation from the north-east, the Eastern and Western Ghats (Aditya 2015).  The diverse habitat supports a good faunal diversity in the State (Anon. 1987, 1989, 1990, 1993).  However, spider fauna of Odisha is poorly studied like other parts of India with obscure and sporadic records of this group from various parts of the state.  The first spider reported from Odisha was a mygalomorph spider, Diplothele walshi by O. Pickard-Cambridge (1891), later, Gravely (1921, 1931) added 51 species of spiders to it, which included both araneomorphs and mygalomorphs. Subsequent additions to the list of spiders were by Biswas (1975, 1987), Gajbe (1979), Tikader & Malhotra (1980), Tikader (1982), Majumder & Tikader (1991), Ramakrishna et al. (2006), Molur et al. (2008), Siliwal & Molur (2008), Siliwal et al. (2009a,b, 2010), Panda et al. (2011), Gupta et al. (2013, 2015), and Mohapatra et al. (2014), adding almost 100 species to Gravely’s (1921, 1931) contribution. Considering the shortcomings of previous studies, systematic surveys were carried out to document spider diversity from different parts of Odisha.    

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Study area

The present study was carried out mainly in the Eastern Ghats of Odisha with a few surveys outside the Eastern Ghats (Fig. 1, Table 1).

The Eastern Ghats represent a discontinuous range of mountains (also known as Malyadri) situated along the eastern coast of India and is one of the important physiographic units with great environmental, socio-economic, cultural and spiritual significance in the peninsular region of our country (Sinha 1971).  The Eastern Ghats start in West Bengal and the mountain range continues to pass through Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu.  The Eastern Ghats of Odisha (Fig. 1) represent the northern Eastern Ghats.  Based on geological and tectonic considerations, the Eastern Ghats in Odisha start from north of Similipal in Mayurbhanj District and run through Malkangiri covering 18 districts of Odisha (Dash et al. 2009).  Mountain peaks and foot hills have contrasted weather resulting into a humid habitat in high altitudes to a semiarid habitat in foot hills.  Vegetation of this region comes under the northern tropical moist deciduous forests.  Physio-geographically, this region is divided into five sub regions: 1. the Similipal and Meghasani mountain, 2. the Mankarnacha-Malaygiri and Gandhamardan mountains of the Baitarani and the Brahmani interfluve, 3. the watershed between the Brahmani and the Mahanadi, 4. the common interfluves of the Mahanadi, the Rushikulya and the Vamsadhara, and 5. the Potangi and Chandragiri mountain ranges.  The highest mountain peak is Deomali (1672m), which is situated in the Koraput District of southern Odisha.  It is part of the Chandragiri-Pottangi mountain system that forms part of the Indian Peninsula and was a part of the ancient land mass of Gondwana land.  Being physio-geographically heterogeneous, the Eastern Ghats of Odisha represent one of the biodiversity-important ecoregion.  It is also rich in iron ore and minerals and supports a rich ethnic diversity (Sinha 1971; Dash et al. 2009).     

 

Methods

Spider collection was done from July 2016 to March 2017 covering all seasons (monsoon: July to October; winter: November to February; and summer: March to June).  Various sampling methods, viz., vegetation beating, pitfall trapping, sweep-netting, hand-picking, and leaf litter sampling (Koh & Ming 2013) were used to collect spiders.  Two to four persons were engaged in active searching for spiders and a total of 1,000 man-hours were spent on collecting spiders in the study area during the entire study period.  All possible habitats, viz., dense forest, open forest, wetlands, scrub lands, hill forests, agricultural fields and human settlements were covered in the present study. Specimens, after collecting were preserved in 70% alcohol.  All mygalomorph specimens were deposited at Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society (WILD) museum, Coimbatore and all araneomorph specimens were deposited at Indraprastha University (IPU) museum, Delhi.  Spiders were identified examining the specimens under Olympus SZ10 stereozoom microscope.  For identification, female genitalia were dissected and cleaned in concentrated lactic acid for 15–20 minutes.  Identification was done using different publications by Tikader (1980, 1982, 1987), Tikader & Malhotra (1980), Barrion & Litsinger (1995), Song et al. (1999), Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman (2006), Gajbe (2008), Sebastian & Peter (2009), and Metzner (2017).

Checklist of spiders of Odisha was prepared from the present study data and compiling the species from published literature (peer-reviewed journals) from the state on spiders.  Papers published in predatory journals, or unpublished literature like Ph.D. thesis, post-graduation dissertations and newspaper articles were not included in the compilation of the present checklist.  

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

 

Before the present study, 168 species of spiders belonging to 103 genera and 32 families were reported from Odisha and of these, 103 species belonging to 68 genera and 24 families were reported from Eastern Ghats of Odisha (Pickard-Cambridge 1891; Walsh 1891; Gravely 1921, 1931; Biswas 1975, 1987; Gajbe 1979; Tikader & Malhotra 1980; Tikader 1982; Majumder & Tikader 1991; Ramakrishna et al. 2006; Molur et al. 2008; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Siliwal et al. 2009a,b, 2010; Panda et al. 2011; Gupta et al. 2013; Mohapatra et al. 2014) (Table 2, Figs. 2).  Four species—Cheiracanthium inclusum (Hentz, 1847), Oxyopes lineatipes (C.L. Koch, 1847), Oxyopes papuanus Thorell, 1881, and Uloborus barbipes L. Koch, 1872—reported from the state by Panda et al. (2011) and Mohapatra et al. (2014), were probably identified based on photographs and seems to be a clear case of misidentification.  So far, these species are known from outside India only.  Hence, the present checklist did not consider these species in our checklist and these species need further taxonomic verification.

During the present study, 138 species of spiders belonging to 95 genera and 33 families were reported from Odisha.  Of which, seven families, 36 genera and 80 species of spiders were reported for the first time from Odisha. Of these 80 species, 78 spider species were exclusively reported from the Eastern Ghats of Odisha.  Here, we would like to make a note that in the present checklist 77 spiders are identified only up to genus level only (Table 2).

Based on all the compilation of previous reports and data from present study, the spider diversity of Odisha comprises 248 species belonging to 139 genera and 39 families and  Eastern Ghats of Odisha 181 species belonging to 109 genera and 35 families (Table 2; Fig. 2, Image 1A–L).  The study shows that over 72% of spiders reported from Odisha are found in the Eastern Ghats of Odisha (Table 2) and hence, the Eastern Ghats contribute largely to the spider diversity of Odisha.

Among the spiders reported in the present study, Parasteatoda kompirensis (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) was reported for the first time from India (Malik et al. 2018) (Table 2).  The study also reported two rare spiders—Inthaeron spp.—from Odisha, which will be published in different paper.  Amongst these spiders reported in Odisha, species richness of family Araneidae (45 spp.) was found to be highest followed by Salticidae (35 spp.) and Lycosidae (17 spp.) (Table 2; Fig. 2).  Of the total spiders from Odisha, 23 species were found to be endemic to South Asia and 49 species endemic to India.  Of the spiders endemic to India, 19 species are reported from Odisha State only (Table 2).

Though the present study was for a short period and mostly restricted to the Eastern Ghats of Odisha, the findings of this study are significant, as during the study, 80 species for Odisha and one for India were added to the existing list for the first time.  Therefore, there is a need to carry out systematic surveys in the entire state covering all the seasons to get an optimum estimate of spider diversity.

 

Table 1. Sampling sites during the present study.

 

District

Sampling sites

1

Anugul

Satakosia Wildlife Sanctuary

2

Gajapati

Chandragiri, Mahendragiri  

3

Ganjam

Ardheswar Temple, Chilika Lake, Gupteswer Temple (Near Balugaon), Kholikot, Makereswer Temple, Ramchandi Temple, Tampara, Taratarini.  

4

Kalahandi

Ampanighati, Bhawanipatna, Karlapat Wildlife Sanctuary

5

Keonjhar

Kanjipanighati

6

Koraput

Deomali, Gupteswer Temple, Jeypore Ghati, Koraput Town, Semiliguda 

7

Mayurbhanj

Baripada, Similipal National Park

8

Rayagada

Muniguda

 

 

 

Table 2. Checklist of spiders of Odisha

 

 

 

Species

Catalogue no.

Reference

Remarks

MYGALOMORPHAE

Family Barychelidae Simon, 1889 (Trapdoor spiders)

1

Diplothele gravelyi Siliwal et al., 2009

WILD-17-ARA-1482

Siliwal et al. 2009b; PS

#, EO

2

Diplothele sp.

WILD-17-ARA-1463, 1486

PS

#, F3, ESA

3

Diplothele tenebrosus Siliwal et al., 2009

WILD-16-ARA-1380

Siliwal et al. 2009b; PS

#, EO

4

Diplothele walshi O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1891

 

Walsh 1891, Gravely 1921; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Siliwal et al. 2009b

#, EO

5

Sasonichus sp.

WILD-16-ARA-1381

Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

#, EI

6

Sipalolasma arthrapophysis (Gravely, 1915)

 

Gravely 1921; Siliwal & Molur 2008

EO

Family Halonoproctidae Pocock, 1901 (Trapdoor spiders)

7

Conothele varvarti Siliwal et al., 2009

WILD-17-ARA-1472, 1473, 1474

Siliwal et al. 2009a; PS

#, EO

Family Idiopidae Simon, 1889 (Trapdoor spiders)

8

Heligmomerus barkudensis (Gravely, 1921)

WILD-17-ARA-1454, 1455, 1457, 1481

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Siliwal et al. 2010; PS

#, EI

9

Idiops oriya Siliwal, 2013

 

Gupta et al. 2013, 2015.

#, EO

10

Idiops sp.

WILD-16-ARA-1400

PS

#, F3

11

Scalidognathus sp.

WILD-16-ARA-1408; WILD-17-ARA-1453, 1456

PS

#, F3, EO

Family Nemesiidae Simon, 1889 (Wishbone spiders)

12

Damarchus sp.

WILD-16-ARA-1382, 1383; WILD-17-ARA-1468

PS

#, F3

13

Gravelyia excavatus (Gravely, 1921)

WILD-16-ARA-1396, 1397, 1398

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

#, EO

Family Theraphosidae Thorell, 1869 (Tarantula spiders)

14

Chilobrachys hardwickei (Pocock,1896)

 

Panda et al. 2011

#, EI

15

Chilobrachys sp.

WILD-16-ARA-1410, 1411

PS

#, F3

16

Heterophrictus sp.

WILD-16-ARA-1406, 1407, 1413, 1467

PS

#, F3, EI

17

Plesiophrictus sp.

 

Gravely 1921; Siliwal & Molur 2008

 

18

Poecilotheria miranda Pocock, 1900

 

Molur et al. 2008; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Siliwal et al. 2008

#, EI, En

19

Poecilotheria tigrinawesseli Smith, 2006

 

Siliwal & Molur 2008

#, ESA

ARANEOMORPHAE

Family Agelenidae C.L. Koch, 1837 (Funnel web spiders)

20

Agelena sp.

IPU-16-ARA-237

PS

#, F3

Family Amaurobiidae Thorell, 1870 (Funnel web spiders)

21

Amaurobius sp.

 

Gravely 1921

 

Family Araneidae Clerck, 1757 (Orb web or tent web spiders)

22

Anepsion maritatum (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1877)

 

Gravely 1921

 

23

Arachnura sp.

 

Siliwal & Molur 2008

 

24

Araneus bilunifer Pocock, 1900

IPU-16-ARA-189

Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

#, EI

25

Araneus ellipticus (Tikader & Bal, 1981)

IPU-17-ARA-318, 319

Panda et al. 2011; PS

#

26

Araneus mitificus (Simon, 1886)

IPU-16-ARA-250

Mohapatra et.al. 2014; PS

#

27

Araneus viridisomus Gravely, 1921

 

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987

EI

28

Araniella cucurbitina (Clerck, 1757)

 

Siliwal & Molur 2008

 

29

Argiope aemula (Walckenaer, 1842)

IPU-16-ARA-108

Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

#

30

Argiope anasuja Thorell, 1887

IPU-16-ARA-58, 349, 350; IPU-17-ARA-362

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

31

Argiope catenulata (Doleschall, 1859)

 

Biswas 1987; Ramakrishna et al. 2006

#

32

Argiope minuta Karsch, 1879

 

Siliwal & Molur 2008

 

33

Argiope pulchella Thorell, 1881

IPU-16-ARA-307

Tikader 1982; Biswas 1987; Ramakrishna et al. 2006; Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

#

34

Cyclosa bifida Doleschall, 1859

IPU-16-ARA-211, 212

Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

#

35

Cyclosa confraga (Thorell, 1892)

 

Siliwal & Molur 2008

 

36

Cyclosa hexatuberculata Tikader, 1982

IPU-17-ARA-357

Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

#, ESA

37

Cyclosa insulana (Costa, 1834)

 

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008

 

38

Cyclosa sp.

IPU-16-ARA-150, IPU-17-ARA-400

Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

39

Cyclosa spirifera Simon, 1889

 

Siliwal & Molur 2008

ESA

40

Cyrtarachne sp.

 

Siliwal & Molur 2008; Mohapatra et.al. 2014

 

41

Cyrtophora cicatrosa (Stoliczka, 1869)

 

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008

 

42

Cyrtophora citricola (Forskal, 1775)

 

Biswas 1987; Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014

#

43

Eriovixia excelsa (Simon, 1889)

IPU-16-ARA-28

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

#

44

Eriovixia laglaizei (Simon, 1877)

IPU-16-ARA-294

PS

#, F3

45

Eriovixia poonaensis (Tikader & Bal, 1981)

 

Ramakrishna et al. 2006

#

46

Gasteracantha geminata (Fabricius, 1798)

IPU-16-ARA-185, 186

PS

#, F3, ESA

47

Gasteracantha hasselti C.L. Koch, 1837

IPU-16-ARA-204, IPU-16-ARA-205

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Panda et al. 2011; PS

48

Gasteracantha kuhli C.L. Koch, 1837

 

Biswas 1987

 

49

Gasteracantha unguifera Simon, 1889

IPU-17-ARA-325

Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

50

Gea spinipes C.L. Koch, 1843

IPU-16-ARA-155

PS

#, F3

51

Herennia multipuncta (Doleschall, 1859)

 

Siliwal & Molur 2008

 

52

Larinia phthisica (L. Koch, 1871)

 

Biswas 1987; Mohapatra et.al. 2014

 

53

Neoscona bengalensis Tikader & Bal, 1981

 

Mohapatra et al. 2014

ESA

54

Neoscona molemensis Tikader & Bal, 1981

 

Biswas 1987

 

55

Neoscona mukerjei Tikader, 1980

IPU-16-ARA-13, 94, 97; IPU-17-ARA-445

Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Panda et al. 2011; PS

#, ESA

56

Neoscona nautica (L. Koch, 1875)

 

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014

#

57

Neoscona sp.

IPU-16-ARA-293

Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

#

58

Neoscona theisi (Walckenaer, 1841)

IPU-16-ARA-80

Tikader 1982; Biswas 1987; PS

#

59

Neoscona vigilans (Blackwall, 1865)

 

Tikader 1982; Biswas 1987; Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014

#

60

Nephila kuhli (Doleschall, 1859)

IPU-16-ARA-115

Panda et al. 2011; PS

#

61

Nephila pilipes (Fabricius, 1793)

IPU-16-ARA-257, 258, 259

Biswas 1987; Ramakrishna et al 2006; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

#

62

Parawixia dehaani (Doleschall, 1859)

 

Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014

63

Phonognatha sp.

 

Siliwal & Molur 2008

 

64

Plebs himalayaensis (Tikader, 1975)

IPU-17-ARA-384, 385

PS

#, F3, ESA

65

Poltys nagpurensis Tikader, 1982

IPU-17-ARA-429

PS

#, F3, EI

66

Thelacantha brevispina (Doleschall, 1857)

IPU-16-ARA-116, 187

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

Family Cheiracanthiidae Wagner, 1887 (Sac or tube spiders)

67

Cheiracanthium danieli Tikader, 1975

 IPU-17-ARA-417

Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

#, EI

68

Cheiracanthium melanostomum (Thorell, 1895)

 

Biswas 1987; Majumder & Tikader 1991

 

Family Cithaeronidae Simon, 1893 (Curly legged spiders)

69

Inthaeron sp. (1)

IPU-16-ARA-111

PS

#, F3, EO

70

Inthaeron sp. (2)

IPU-17-ARA-388

PS

#, F3, EI

Family Clubionidae Wagner, 1887 (Sac or tube spiders)                         

71

Clubiona sp.

IPU-16-ARA-225, 227

Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

#

Family Corinnidae Karsch, 1880 (Antmimic spiders)

72

Castianeira zetes Simon, 1897

 

Biswas 1987; Majumder & Tikader 1991; Mohapatra et al. 2014

ESA

73

Cambalida flavipes (Gravely, 1931)

 

Biswas 1987; Majumder & Tikader 1991

EI

74

Cambalida sp.

IPU-17-ARA-395

PS

#, F3

75

Corinnomma sp.

 

Gravely 1921

 

Family Ctenidae Keyserling, 1877 (Wandering spiders)

76

Anahita smythiesi (Simon, 1897)

IPU-16-ARA-89

PS

#, F3, EI

77

Ctenus narashinhai Patel & Reddy, 1988

IPU-16-ARA-241

PS

#, F3, EI

78

Ctenus sp.

IPU-16-ARA-134

PS

#, F3

Family Dictynidae O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871 (Mesh web spiders)

79

Dictyna sp.

 

Gravely 1921

 

80

Nigma sp.

IPU-16-ARA-179

PS

#, F3

Family Eresidae C. L. Koch, 1845 (Velvet spiders)

81

Stegodyphus sarasinorum Karsch, 1891

IPU-16-ARA-71, 72

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Panda et al. 2011; PS

Family Filistatidae Ausserer, 1867 (Crevice weaver spiders)

82

Filistata sp.

 

Gravely 1921

 

Family Gnaphosidae Pocock, 1898 (Ground spiders)

83

Drassodes astrologus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1874)

IPU-17-ARA-399, 413

PS

#, F3, EI

84

Drassodes pashanensis Tikader & Gajbe, 1977

 

Biswas 1987

EI

85

Gnaphosa pauriensis Tikader & Gajbe, 1977

 

Biswas 1987

#, EI

86

Gnaphosa sp.

IPU-17-ARA-366

PS

#, F3

87

Sosticus dherikanalensis Gajbe, 1979

 

Gajbe 1979; Tikader 1982; Biswas 1987

#, EO

88

Sosticus sundargarhensis Gajbe, 1979

 

Gajbe 1979; Tikader 1982; Biswas 1987

EO

89

Setaphis parvula (Lucas, 1846)

IPU-16-ARA-15

PS

#, F3

90

Setaphis subtilis (Simon, 1897)

 

Biswas 1987

 

91

Zelotes sataraensis Tikader & Gajbe, 1979

IPU-17-ARA-398

PS

#, F3, EI

92

Zelotes sp.

IPU-17-ARA-378, 403

PS

#, F3

Family Hersiliidae Thorell, 1870 (Two-tailed spiders)

93

Hersilia savignyi Lucas, 1836

IPU-16-ARA-33, 48; IPU-17-ARA-420, 422

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Ramakrishna et al. 2006; Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

#

Family Liocranidae Simon, 1897 (Spiny-legged sac spiders)

94

Oedignatha microscutata Reimoser, 1934

 

Majumder & Tikader 1991; Biswas 1987; Ramakrishna et al. 2006

#, EI

95

Oedignatha scrobiculata Thorell, 1881

 

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Majumder & Tikader 1991

 

96

Oedignatha sp.

IPU-16-ARA-243, 282; IPU-17-ARA-390

Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

#

97

Sphingius barkudensis Gravely, 1931

 

Biswas 1987; Gravely 1931; Majumder & Tikader 1991

ESA

98

Sphingius sp.

 

Gravely 1921

 

Family Lycosidae Sundevall, 1833 (Wolf spiders)

99

Arctosa sp.

 

Siliwal & Molur 2008

 

100

Draposa atropalpis (Gravely, 1924)

IPU-16-ARA-106

Gravely 1924; Tikader & Malhotra 1980; Biswas 1987; PS

#, ESA

101

Draposa lyrivulva (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906)

 

Gravely 1924; Tikader & Malhotra 1980; Biswas 1987

ESA

102

Draposa oakleyi (Gravely, 1924)

IPU-16-ARA-135

PS

#, F3

103

Evippa sp.

IPU-16-ARA-147

PS

#, F3

104

Hippasa agelenoides (Simon,1884)

 

Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014

105

Hippasa greenalliae (Blackwall, 1867)

IPU-16-ARA-158

Gravely 1921; Tikader & Malhotra 1980; Biswas 1987; Panda et al. 2011; PS

#, ESA

106

Hippasa sp.

IPU-16-ARA-264

Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

107

Lycosa iranii Pocock, 1901

IPU-17-ARA-424, 425

PS

#, F3, EI

108

Lycosa mackenziei Gravely, 1924

 

Panda et al. 2011

#, ESA

109

Lycosa madani Pocock, 1901

 

Biswas 1987

EI

110

Lycosa prolifica Pocock, 1901

IPU-16-ARA-50

PS

#, F3, EI

111

Ocyale pilosa (Roewer, 1960)

 

Biswas 1987; Tikader & Malhotra 1980

 

112

Pardosa birmanica Simon, 1884

 

Tikader & Malhotra 1980; Biswas 1987; Panda et al. 2011

#

113

Pardosa mukundi Tikader & Malhotra, 1980

IPU-16-ARA-84

PS

 #, F3, EI

114

Pardosa pseudoannulata (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906)

 

Mohapatra et al. 2014

 

115

Pardosa sumatrana (Thorell, 1890)

IPU-16-ARA-110

PS

#, F3

Family Mimetidae Simon, 1881 (Pirate spiders)

116

Mimetus sp.

IPU-16-ARA-206

PS

#, F3

Family Miturgidae Simon, 1886 (Prowling spiders)

117

Systaria barkudensis (Gravely, 1931)

 

Gravely 1931; Biswas 1987

 EO

Family Oonopidae Simon, 1890 (Goblin spiders)

118

Brignolia sp.

IPU-17-ARA-511, 513, 514

PS

#, F3, EO

119

Gamasomorpha sp.

IPU-17-ARA-324, 374, 375, 500

PS

#, F3, EO

120

Pelicinus sp.

IPU-17-ARA-512

PS

#, F3, EO

Family Oxyopidae Thorell, 1870 (Lynx spiders)

121

Hamadruas sp.

IPU-16-ARA-6

PS

#, F3

122

Oxyopes bharatae Gajbe, 1999

IPU-16-ARA-5, 24

PS

#, F3, EI

123

Oxyopes birmanicus Thorell, 1887

 

Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014

124

Oxyopes javanus Thorell, 1887

 

Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014

125

Oxyopes shweta Tikader, 1970

IPU-16-ARA-25

Siliwal & Molur 2008; Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

126

Oxyopes sunandae Tikader, 1970

 

Panda et al. 2011

#, ESA

127

Peucetia harishankarensis Biswas, 1975

 

Biswas 1975; Biswas 1987

#, EO

128

Peucetia sp.

IPU-16-ARA-19, 230

Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

129

Peucetia viridana (Stoliczka, 1869)

 

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014

Family Palpimanidae Thorell, 1870 (Palp-footed spiders)

130

Sarascelis raffrayi Simon, 1893

 

Gravely 1921

 

Family Pholcidae C.L. Koch, 1850 (Cellar spiders)

131

Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837

 

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987

 

132

Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall, 1867)

IPU-16-ARA-20, 88

Siliwal & Molur 2008; Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

133

Pholcus fragillimus Strand, 1907

IPU-16-ARA-249, 272, 273

PS

#, F3

134

Pholcus sp.

IPU-16-ARA-274

Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

135

Smeringopus sp.

 

Gravely 1921

 

Family Pisauridae Simon, 1890 (Nursery web spiders)

136

Dendrolycosa gitae (Tikader, 1970)

 

Siliwal & Molur 2008

EI

137

Nilus albocinctus (Doleschall, 1859)

 

Panda et al. 2011

138

Perenethis venusta L. Koch, 1878

 

Mohapatra et al. 2014

 

Family Salticidae Blackwall, 1841 (Jumping spiders)

139

Bianor narmadaensis (Tikader, 1975)

 

Biswas 1987; Ramakrishna et al. 2006

#, EI

140

Bianor pashanensis (Tikader, 1975)

 

Biswas 1987

#, EI

141

Carrhotus sp.

IPU-17-ARA-402

PS

#, F3

142

Carrhotus viduus (C.L. Koch, 1846)

 

Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014

143

Epeus sp.

 

Panda et al. 2011

#

144

Epocilla sp.

IPU-16-ARA-196

PS

#, F3

145

Habrocestoides sp.

IPU-17-ARA-372

PS

#, F3, ESA

146

Harmochirus brachiatus (Thorell, 1877)

IPU-16-ARA-59

PS

#, F3

147

Hasarius adansoni (Audouin, 1826)

IPU-16-ARA-21

Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

148

Hyllus semicupreus (Simon, 1885)

IPU-16-ARA-81, 148

Biswas 1987; Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

#, ESA

149

Hyllus sp.

IPU-16-ARA-203

PS

#, F3

150

Marpissa decorata Tikader, 1974

 

Biswas 1987

#, EI

151

Menemerus bivittatus (Dufour, 1831)

IPU-17-ARA-360

Panda et al. 2011; PS

152

Menemerus fulvus (L. Koch, 1878)

IPU-17-ARA-423

PS

#, F3

153

Myrmaplata plataleoides (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869)

IPU-16-ARA-218, 222

Biswas 1987; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

154

Myrmarachne melanocephala MacLeay, 1839

 

Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014

155

Myrmarachne ramunni Narayan, 1915

IPU-17-ARA-356

PS

F2, ESA

156

Myrmarachne sp.

IPU-16-ARA-303

Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

#

157

Phidippus bengalensis Tikader, 1977

 

Biswas 1987

EI

158

Phintella bifurcata Prószyński, 1992

IPU-17-ARA-408

PS

#, F3, EI

159

Phintella vittata (C.L. Koch, 1846)

IPU-16-ARA-31, 32, 51, 87

Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

#

160

Phlegra dhakuriensis (Tikader, 1974)

 

Biswas 1987

#, ESA

161

Plexippus paykulli (Audouin, 1826)

IPU-16-ARA-8, 86; IPU-17-ARA-317

Biswas 1987; Ramakrishna et al. 2006; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

#

162

Plexippus petersi (Karsch, 1878)

 

Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014

163

Portia sp. (1)

IPU-16-ARA-219

PS

#, F3

164

Portia sp. (2)

IPU-16-ARA-157

Gravely 1921; Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

165

Rhene danieli Tikader, 1973

 

Biswas 1987; Panda et al. 2011

#, EI

166

Rhene indica Tikader, 1973

 

Biswas 1987

 

167

Siler semiglaucus Simon, 1901

 

Panda et al. 2011

168

Stenaelurillus gabrieli Prajapati et al., 2016

IPU-17-ARA-428

PS

#, F3, EI

169

Stenaelurillus arambagensis (Biswas & Biswas, 1992)

IPU-17-ARA-421

PS

#, F3, EI

170

Stenaelurillus sp.

IPU-16-ARA-82, 238

PS

#, F3, EI

171

Telamonia dimidiata (Simon, 1899)

IPU-16-ARA-143

Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

172

Thiania bhamoensis Thorell, 1887

 

Biswas 1987

173

Thyene imperialis (Rossi, 1846)

IPU-16-ARA-99

PS

#, F3

Family Scytodidae Blackwall, 1864 (Spitting spiders)

174

Scytodes pallida Doleschall, 1859

 

Gravely 1921, Panda et al. 2011

175

Scytodes thoracica Latreille, 1802

 

Panda et al. 2011

#

Family Segestriidae Simon, 1893 (Tube-dwelling spiders)

176

Ariadna nebulosa Simon, 1906

 

Gravely 1921

EI

177

Ariadna sp. (1)

IPU-17-ARA-447, 448

PS

#, F3, EO

178

Ariadna sp. (2)

IPU-17-ARA-455, 456

PS

#, F3, EO

Family Selenopidae Simon, 1897 (Giant wall crab spiders)

179

Makdiops sp.

IPU-17-ARA-430

PS

#, F3, EI

180

Selenops radiatus Latreille, 1819

 

Biswas 1987

 

Family Sparassidae Bertkau, 1872 (Giant crab spiders)

181

Heteropoda hampsoni Pocock, 1901

IPU-16-ARA-145

PS

#, F3, EI

182

Heteropoda kandiana Pocock, 1899

 

Biswas 1987

ESA

183

Heteropoda phasma Simon, 1897

IPU-16-ARA-305, 312

PS

#, F3, EI

184

Heteropoda sexpunctata Simon, 1885

IPU-16-ARA-90

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; PS

185

Heteropoda venatoria (Linnaeus, 1767)

 

Gravely 1921; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Mohapatra et al. 2014; Panda et al. 2011

186

Olios iranii (Pocock, 1901)

IPU-16-ARA-301

PS

F2

187

Olios lamarcki (Latreille, 1806)

 

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987

 

188

Olios milleti (Pocock, 1901)

 

Gravely 1931; Biswas 1987; Mohapatra et al. 2014; Panda et al. 2011

#, ESA

189

Olios punctipes Simon, 1884

 

Biswas 1987

 

190

Olios sp.

IPU-16-ARA-191

Siliwal & Molur 2008; PS

191

Palystes flavidus Simon, 1897

 

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987

EI

192

Spariolenus tigris Simon, 1880

 

Biswas 1987

#

Family Stenochilidae Thorell, 1873 (Diamond-headed. Spiders)

193

Stenochilus hobsoni O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871

IPU-16-ARA-575

PS

#, F3, EI

Family Tetragnathidae Menge, 1866 (Long jawed spiders)

194

Guizygiella melanocrania (Thorell, 1887)

 

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987

 

195

Guizygiella sp.

IPU-17-ARA-329

Panda et al. 2011; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

196

Leucauge celebesiana (Walckenaer, 1841)

 

Biswas 1987

197

Leucauge decorata (Blackwall, 1864)

IPU-16-ARA-120

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008; Mohapatra et al. 2014; PS

198

Leucauge sp.

IPU-16-ARA-55

PS

#, F3

199

Leucauge tessellata (Thorell, 1887)

IPU-16-ARA-121, 122

PS

#, F3

200

Opadometa fastigata (Simon, 1877)

 

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987; Siliwal & Molur 2008

 

201

Tetragnatha ceylonica O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869

 

Gravely 1921; Biswas 1987

 

202

Tetragnatha cochinensis Gravely, 1921

 

Panda et al. 2011

#, EI

203

Tetragnatha hasselti Thorell, 1890

IPU-17-ARA-336

PS

#, F3

204

Tetragnatha javana (Thorell, 1890)

 

Biswas 1987