Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2018 | 10(6): 11822–11826
New pteridophytic records from Mizoram, northeastern India
Sachin Sharma 1, Amit Kumar 2,Bhupendra Singh Kholia3 & Surendra Singh Bargali4
1,3 Botanical Survey of India, Northern Regional Centre, Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248195, India
2 Wildlife Instituteof India, Chandrabani, Dehradun, Uttarakhand248002, India
4 DSB Campus, KumaunUniversity, Nainital - KaladungiRoad, Nainital, Uttarakhand263001, India
1 email@example.com (corresponding author), 2 firstname.lastname@example.org, 3 email@example.com, 4 firstname.lastname@example.org
The northeastern region of India, well known for its rich biological diversity, constitutes a transitional zone between the Indian, Indo–Malayan and Sino–Himalayan biogeographicalzones (Rao 1994). The region supports a wide vegetation range and has been extensively explored in terms of pteridophyticflora since the British rule. Several publications such as Deb (1981), Baishya& Rao (1982), Jamir& Rao (1988), Kachrooet al. (1989), Vasudeva et al. (1990), Bir et al. (1989, 1990, 1991), Borthakuret al. (2000), Singh & Panigrahi (2005), and Kholia (2010, 2011, 2014) deal with ferns and fern–allies of this region.
Mizoram, one of the northeastern Indian states falls under northeast Hills (9B; Rodgers et al. 2000) and the Indo–Burma Biodiversity Hotspot (Conservation International, 2011). The total geographical area of this hilly state is ca. 21,081km2, which shares international boundaries with Myanmar and Bangladesh. Due to biogeographic, physiognomic and climatic perspectives, the region has ideal habitats for the growth of tropical vegetation. Unlike higher plants, pteridophytic flora had received less attention and there were sporadic reports in the past, viz.: Gage (1901), Fischer (1938), Deb & Dutta (1987), Chandra & Chandra (1983). The studies on this group, however, has accelerated recently due to explorations on different protected areas of Mizoram (Barbhuiya & Singh 2013; Benniamin 2011, 2012; Sharma et al. 2013, 2017; Vanlalpeka & Laha2014; Verma et al. 2014).
During field explorations conducted by one of the authors (SS), four interesting species of pteridophyteswere collected in Murlen National Park, Mizoram (2012–2015). Upon detailed study of different morphological characters, scrutiny of literature and comparison of species with previously housed herbarium specimens at ASSAM and CAL revealed that these species were hitherto unknown from Mizoram. Therefore, the present communication reports these species as new records to the flora of Mizoram State. The plant specimens were processed and prepared following standard herbarium methods (Jain & Rao1977) and deposited in the herbarium of the Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong(ASSAM).
Taxonomic treatment and description
1. Lycopodium casuarinoides
Spring Mono. Lycop. I: 94, 1842; Clarke, Trans. Linn. Soc. II. Bot. 1. 593, 1880;Bak. Handb. Fern Allies 24, 1887; Nessel, Barlappgewachse371, 1939.
Lepidotis casuarinoides (Spring) Rothmaler, Feddes Repert. Sp. Nov. 54: 67, 1944.
Lithophyte, erect when young, hanging on maturity, aerial stem light green when young become straminaceous on age, densely covered by microphylls or leaves; sterile branches ca. 3mm wide, fertile branches ca. 1mm wide, ultimate sterile branchletsspreading, 5–15 cm long, ultimate fertile branchlets2.5–15 cm long; vegetative leaves dimorphic on sterile branches, adnate, free apex of the sterile leaves hyaline, 2–3 mm long, free apex of fertile leaves 1mm long or less. Strobili 8–18 mm long, Sporophylls broadly ovate, acuminate or caudate.
Specimen examined: BSI, ERC 133494 (ASSAM), 20.ix.2014, Tualpui core, MurlenNational Park, Mizoram, India, 1,350m, coll. SachinSharma (Image 1 & 2).
Fertile period: August–December
Threat status: Not evaluated in IUCN Red List. Chandra et al. (2008) mention this species as ‘rare’.
Habitat: Scandenton rocky slopes, edges and boulders between 1200–1500 m elevation.
Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya and Mizoram (present record)), Bhutan, China, Japan, Malay Islands, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, and Taiwan.
2. Pichisermollodes crenatopinnata
(C.B. Clarke) Fraser-Jenk. Indian Fern J. 26(1 & 2): 122, 2010.
Selliguea crenatopinnata (C.B. Clarke) S.G.Lu, Hovenkamp & M.G.Gilbert, Fl. China 2–3: 782, 2013.
Polypodium crenatopinnatum C.B. Clarke, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 25(165–169): 99, pl. 42. 1888. Pichisermollia crenatopinnata(C.B. Clarke) Fraser-Jenk.,Taxon. Revis. Indian Subcontinental Pteridophytes 52, 2008.
Terrestrial, rhizome thin, creeping, densely clothed with small, lanceolate, scales; stipes 5–12 cm long, slender, glabrous; fronds elongate–deltoid, 8–25 cm long, pinnatifidclose to the rachis, glabrous, lobes 4–5 pairs, 1.5– 5 cm long, 0.5–1.5 cm wide, apex acute, margin undulate–crenate, costa distinct, costule inconspicuous; sorione row in between the main veins and in one row on either side of midrib, small, brown.
Specimen examined: BSI, ERC 131483 (ASSAM), 17.ix.2014, Ngur forest, MurlenNational Park, Mizoram, India, 1,485m, coll. SachinSharma (Image 3 & 4).
Fertile period: August–November
Threat status: Not evaluated in IUCN Red List. Chandra et al. (2008) mention this species as ‘rare’.
Habitat: Grows on calcareous sandy slopes between 1400–1600 m elevation.
Distribution: India (Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram (present record) and Nagaland), China.
3. Belvisia henryi
(Hieron. ex C.Chr.) Raymond, Mém.Jard. Bot. Montréal 55: 32, 1962. Hymenolepis henryi Hieron. ex C.Chr., Dansk Bot. Arkiv 6(3): 67, f. 1d, 1929.
Macroplethus henryi (Hieron. ex C.Chr.)Tagawa, Act. Phytotax. Geobot. 11(3): 234, 1942.
Rhizome short–creeping, scaly at apex, scales ovate–oblong–lanceolate, 0.22–0.44 × 0.06–0.12 linear, 4–15 × 0.1–0.3 cm. sori linear, in two rows along the rachis, but in well developed forms seems completely covering the spike, margins curved; spores hyaline, brown. Stipes0.5–2 cm long; lamina 7–27 × 1.5–5 cm, tufted, lanceolate or elongate, simple, subcoriaceousand brattle, base gradually narrowed or sometimes irregularly truncate, margins entire to undulate, apex acuminate-caudate forming a narrow fertile spike.
Specimen examined: BSI, ERC 128498 (ASSAM), 13.ix.2014, Vapar forest, Murlen National Park, Mizoram, India, 1,260m, coll. Sachin Sharma (Image 5 & 6).
Fertile period: September–April
Threat status: Not evaluated in IUCN Red List. Chandra et al. (2008) mention this species as ‘near threatened’.
Habitat: Epiphyte on broad-leaved trees like Elaeocarpus sp. and Engelhardtia spicatain dense and moist forests.
Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram (present record), Sikkim and West Bengal), Bhutan, China (Yunnan), and Nepal.
4. Acystopteris tenuisecta
(Blume) Tagawa, Act. Phytotax. Geobot. 7(2): 73, 1938.
Aspidium tenuisectum Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae 2: 170, 1828.
Athyrium tenuisectum (Blume) T.Moore, Index Fil. (Moore) 188, 1860.
Cystopteris tenuisecta (Blume) Mett., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1(8): 241, 1864. Acystopteris tenuisecta (Blume)Ching, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 11(2): 52, 1941. Cornopteris tenuisecta (Blume) Tardieu, Amer. Fern J. 48(1): 32, 1958.
Rhizome creeping, densely scaly scales light-brown, 0.2–0.6 cm long, 0.17–0.5 cm broad, ovate-lanceolate, entire; stipes16–45 cm long, stramineous, scaly, scales as on rhizome, rachis stramineous, scaly; lamina tripinnate, 18–55 × 12–32 cm, deltate, herbaceous, sparsely hairy; pinnae 10–20 pairs, 12–25 × 2–9 cm, triangular lanceolate; pinnules 9–20 pairs, 2–4 × 0.8 – 2 cm, lanceolate, asymmetrical, alternate, sub sessile or sessile; costae and costules stramineous, scaly and hairy, Sori indusiate.
Specimen examined: BSI, ERC 128164 (ASSAM), 15.i.2013, Near Bear lodge, Murlen National Park, Mizoram, India, 1,427m, coll. Sachin Sharma (Image 7 & 8).
Fertile period: November–April.
Threat status: Not evaluated in IUCN Red List.
Habitat: Grows along streams.
Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh, Darjeeling (West Bengal), Meghalaya, Mizoram (present record), Sikkim and Uttarakhand), Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, and Vietnam.
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