The genus Lentinus (Basidiomycetes) from India - an annotated checklist

 

Sapan Kumar Sharma 1 & Narender Singh Atri 2

 

1,2 Centre for Mushroom Research and Training, Department of Plant Pathology, CSK Himachal Pradesh Agriculture University, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh 176062, India

1 sapan.84.sharma@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 fungalbio2007@rediffmail.com

 

 

 

 

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3864.7843-8

 

Editor: R.K. Verma, Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, India. Date of publication: 26 September 2015 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: Ms # o3864 | Received 22 November 2013 | Final received 19 April 2015 | Finally accepted 27 August 2015

 

Citation: Sharma, S.K. & N.S. Atri (2015). The genus Lentinus (Basidiomycetes) from India - an annotated checklist. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(11): 78437848; http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3864.7843-8

 

Copyright: © Sharma & Atri 2015. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Work was supported by UGC grant under ASIST and DRS  (SAP III Programme).

 

Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Acknowledgements Authors are highly thankful to Professor T.N. Lakhanpal for reviewing the present article as part of the PhD research work of the corresponding author.

 

 

Genus Lentinus Fr. belongs to class Agaricomycetes, family Polyporaceae and recognized by 40 species the world over (Kirk et al. 2008). Recent molecular studies have shown that many genera and families belonging to the Polyporales are poly- and/or paraphyletic (Hibbett & Vilgalys 1991; Justo & Hibbett 2011; Miettinen et al. 2011; Sjökvist et al. 2012; Binder et al. 2013). Genus Lentinus is characterized by xeromorphic tough carpophores having gills with serrated margins (Pegler 1977; Singer 1986). The fruit bodies of Lentinus are typically lignicolous and have a widespread distribution, especially in subtropical regions (Pegler 1977). The genus can be distinguished by its dimitichyphal system with either skeletal or binding hyphae along with generative hyphae and firm and persistent texture. Hyphal pegs, fascicles of sterile hyphae coming out from the hymenium surface, are some of the common features present in some genera of the Polyporaceae and in Lentinus subgenus. This genus also shares these features with other genera of the family Polyporaceae (Corner 1981; Pegler 1983; Singer 1986). From India 40 species have been documented from time to time (Butler & Bisby 1931; Vasudeva 1960; Bilgrami et al. 1979; 1991; Purkayastha & Chandra 1985; Manimohan & Leelavathy 1995; Sarbhoy et al. 1996; Jamaluddin et al. 2004; Manimohan et al. 2004; Kumar & Manimohan 2005; Natarajan et al. 2005). However, several species placed in the previous checklists are synonyms and do not exist as independent species. A revised checklist of valid species and species recommended for exclusion from the Indian record of Lentinus is given in this paper.

Materials and Methods: The present checklist has been prepared by consulting authenticated literature and monographs (Pegler 1983; Singer 1986), previous checklists (Manjula, 1983), MycoBank records and Index Fungorum.

Results and Discussion: List of included species:

Lentinus alopecinus Fr. Systema Orbis Vegetabilis 1: 9 (1825).

Fries (1838) documented its occurrence from India. As pointed out by Pegler (1983), it was the earliest species described from Oriental India with a very brief original description for which neither type nor any other material is available. It is a valid species in MycoBank.

Lentinus connatus Berk. Hooker Journ. Bot. 1(3): 145 (1842).

Bose (1920) documented this species on dead wood from Howrah (West Bengal). It is a valid species and was also documented from time to time from different localities including Dehradun in Uttar Pradesh (now Uttarakhand), Maharashtra and Assam by different workers (Manjula 1983; Pegler 1983).

Lentinus badius Berk. Lon. Journ. Bot. 6: 491 (1847).

Pegler (1983) has listed the collection of L. badius (Berk.) Berk. from Darjeeling (West Bengal), Khasia Hills (Sikkim) and Manipur in India which accounts for its valid documentation. This is a valid species in MycoBank.

Lentinus lepideus (Fr.:Fr.) Fr. Syst. Orb. Veg. 78 (1825).

Its occurrence has been reported from Chakrata (Deoban, Kanam) in Uttar Pradesh (now Uttrakhand) and Kullu (Munaki and Bushahar Division) in Himachal Pradesh (Bakshi 1955; Pegler 1983). It exists as a legitimate species in MycoBank.

Lentinus sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr. Epicrisis Syst. Mycol. 393 (1838).

Pegler (1983) in his World monograph on Lentinus has listed its occurrence from seram in West Bengal and Assam. Bose (1920) documented it on dead wood from Hoogly District of West Bengal. Butler & Bisby (1960) in Fungi of India have also reported its occurrence from southern Andaman Islands (Cooke described it as L. exilis Klotzsch from Annamalai in Kerala) (Image 1).

 

 

241206.jpg

 

 

Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 18: 21 (1842).

It is one of the most widely distributed species in India which has been documented from a number of localities including Madras (Natarajan & Manjula 1978) (now Chennai), Khandala, Maharashtra by Theissen (1911) as L. subnudus Berk., Calcutta (Kolkatta) in West Bengal by Bose (1920) as L. subnudus Berk. and Banerjee (1947) as Lentinus curreyanus Sacc. & Cub.

Lentinus subdulics Berk. Hooker Journ. Bot. and Kew Misc.3: 46 (1851).

Pegler (1983) in his World monograph of Lentinus has listed its occurrence from Darjeeling (West Bengal). There is no record for this species in MycoBank, although it is a validly described species (Pegler 1983).

Lentinus tigrinus (Bull.) Fr. Syst. Orb. Veg. 78 (1825).

Lloyd (1904–1919) listed its occurrence from India. Other reports of its occurrence are by Watling & Gregory (1980) from Sarband & Abraham (1991) from Anant Nag and Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir. It exists as a valid species in MycoBank.

Lentinus velutinus Fr. Linn.5 : 510 (1830).

Currey (1874) and Lloyd (1904–1919) documented the occurrence of this species from Bengal in India. Pegler (1983) in his World monograph on Lentinus reported its occurrence from Dehradun in Uttar Pradesh (now Uttarakhand) and Kodaikanal in Tamil Nadu. Berkeley (1851) described this species as L. hookerianus Berk. from Darjeeling in West Bengal, Banerjee (1943) described it as L. blepharodes Berk. from Calcutta (now Kolkatta) and Hennings (1900) as L. melanophyllus Lév from Bilaspur in Madhya Pradesh. It exists as valid species in the MycoBank.

Lentinus villosus Klotzsch Linn.8: 479 (1833).

This species was reported by Lloyd (1904–1919) for the first time from India. Manjula (1983) listed it as synonym of L. crinitus Berk. and recommended the exclusion of L. vellosus Klotzsch from the Indian records. However, L. crinitus Berk. has been listed as synonym of L. swartzii Berk. by Pegler (1983). L. vellosus Klotzsch being a valid species stands restored to the list of Indian species of Lentinus Fr. It exists as a legitimate species in the MycoBank.

Lentinus polychrous Lév. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot.2 : 175 (1844).

Pegler (1983) in his World monograph on Lentinus listed the occurrence of this species from Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. Natarajan & Manjula (1978) and Manimohan et al. (2004) described it from Tamil Nadu. Berkeley (1854) and Banerjee (1947) described it as L. praerigidus from Bihar and West Bengal, respectively. It exists as a valid species in Mycobank.

Lentinus cladopus Lév. Ann. des Sci. Nat. Bot. 2: 174 (1844).

This species was reported by Natarajan (1978) and Natarajan & Raman (1980) from Madras (now Chennai) in Tamil Nadu. Pegler (1983) has also listed it from Cochin in Kerala (Image 2).

 

 

241205.jpg

 

 

Lentinus tuber-regium (Fr.) Fr. Syn. gen. Lent. :10 (1836).

This species was reported to occur in Trichur (Kerela) by Pegler (1983) and Pathak & Gupta (1982) from Uttar Pradesh. It exists as a legitimate species in the World Monograph of Lentinus by Pegler (1983). It exists as a valid species in MycoBank.

Lentinus prolifer (Pát. & Har.) Pegler Kew Bull. Addit. Ser. 6: 40 (1977).

Natarajan & Raman (1981) documented this species from Madras (now Chennai) in Tamil Nadu. It exists as a valid species in MycoBank.

Lentinus giganteus Berk. Hooker Journ. Bot. 6: 493 (1847).

Joseph et al. (1995) and Manimohan et al. (2004) documented this species for the first time from India. It exists as a valid species in MycoBank.

Lentinus dicholamellatus Manim. Mycotaxon 90(2): 312 (2004).

This species was documented from Tamil Nadu by Manimohan et al. (2004). It exists as a valid species in MycoBank.

Lentinus alpacas Senthil. & S.K. Singh. Mycotaxon 121(6): 69–74 (2012).

Senthilarasu & Singh (2012) documented this species for the first time from Maharashtra (Pune). This species exists as a legitimate species in MycoBank. Hence it is an included species.

Lentinus candidus Graff. Philipp. Journ. of Sci. Bot. 8: 302 (1913).

Lloyd (1898–1925) documented it from India. L. candidus Graff. has been treated as the synonym of L. conatus Berk. by Pegler (1983). In view of this Manjula (1983) deleted it from Indian record. However, in MycoBank’s opinion this species is currently in use and is a valid species.

Lentinus glabratus Mont. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 17: 128 (1842).

This species was documented from Raj Mahal Hills (North Bengal) by Currey (1874). Although L. glabratus Mont. is a valid species but the collection assigned to L. glabratus Mont. from India has been assigned to L. squarrosulus Mont. (Pegler 1983; Manjula 1983). However, in MycoBank’s opinion, this species is currently in use and hence is a valid species for inclusion in Indian records.

Lentinus coadunnatus Hook. Hooker Journ. Bot. 3: 45 (1851).

Berkeley (1856) documented it from Darjeeling on dead wood. Lloyd (1904–1919) equated this species with L. subnudus. Pegler (1983) relegated it to the level of synonym of L. squarrosulus Mont. However, this species exists as a legitimate species in Mycobank records and Index Fungorum hence it is a valid species.

List of excluded species from Indian records:

Lentinus curreyanus Sacc. & Cub. Syll. Fung. 5: 586 (1887).

Banerjee (1947) reported it from Calcutta (now Kolkatta) (West Bengal) on dead wood. Pegler (1983) recognized this species as a synonym of L. squarrosulus Mont. as a consequence of which Manjula (1983) recommended this species for exclusion from the Indian record. In MycoBank’s opinion it exists as the synonym of L. squarrosulus.

Lentinus decaisneanus Lév. Bull. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 5: 120 (1846).

Banerjee (1947) recorded its occurrence from Calcutta (West Bengal). This is not a valid species as Pegler (1983) in his World monograph of the genus treated L. decaisneanus Lév as the synonym of L. conatus Berk. Hence L. decaisneanus Lév stands deleted from the Indian records. It exists as a synonym of L. conatus Berk. in MycoBank record.

Lentinus exilis Klotzsch ex Fr. Syn. Gen. Lent. 10 (1836).

Cooke (1881) recorded it from Andaman Islands for the first time from India. Pegler (1983) treated L. exilis Klotzsch ex Fr. as the synonym of L. sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr. because of which Manjula (1983) deleted this species from the Indian records. In MycoBank’s opinion, this species is listed as synonym of L. sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr.

Lentinus hepaticus Berk. Hooker Journ. Bot. and Kew Misc. 3: 45 (1851).

This species was recorded by Berkeley (1856) from Darjeeling (West Bengal) on tree trunks. Pegler (1983) assigned the collection of this species to Collybia (Fr.) Kumm., hence being a dubious name L. hepaticus Berk. has been excluded as it does not belong to Lentinus Fr. In view of this the species stands deleted from the Indian records (Manjula 1983).

Lentinus inquinans Berk. Hooker Journ. Bot. and Kew Misc. 6: 132 (1854).

From India Pegler (1983) has listed its occurrence from Changa-Chellingin Sikkim; Manipur; Khasi hills of Assam; Tistabridge in Hora and Darjeeling in West Bengal. It is a synonym of L. badius (Pegler, 1983) which was described by Berkeley (1854) as L. inquinans Berk. because of which it stands excluded from the Indian list of Lentinus species (Manjula 1983). In MycoBank records this species exists as a synonym of L. badius (Berk.) Berk.

Lentinus javanicus Lév. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 5: 118 (1846).

Its occurrence has been documented from Dehradun in Uttar Pradesh (now Uttarakhand), Assam and Bombay (now Mumbai) in Maharashtra by Pegler (1983) in his World monograph. L. javanicusLév. is an invalid species which is listed as the synonym of L. conatus Berk. In view of its present status L. javanicus Lév. has been excluded from the Indian records (Manjula 1983). This species exists as the synonym of L. conatus Berk. in MycoBank record.

Lentinus lecomtei Fr. Syst. Orb. Veg. 77 (1825).

Berkeley (1851, 1876) reported it from Tonglo in Sikkim Himalaya and Gulmarg in Kashmir, Darjeeling in West Bengal. It is also reported from Ootacamund in Tamil Nadu (Pegler 1983). All the above collections of L. lecomtei Fr. have been identified to be those of L. strigosus Fr., in view of which L. lecomtei Fr. stands excluded from Indian records (Manjula 1983). In MycoBank, this species is recognized as a synonym of L. strigosus Fr.

Lentinus melanophyllus Lév. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 2: 175 (1844).

Its occurrence has been listed from India on Shorea rubusta Gaertn. from Bilaspur in Madhya Pradesh by Hennings (1901). Manjula (1983) recognized it to be a synonym of L. velutinus Fr. however, Pegler (1983) in his world monograph on Lentinus listed it in the list of synonym of L. ciliates Lév.

Lentinus strigosus Fr. Sys. Orb. Veg. 77 (1825).

Murrill (1924) and Watling & Gregory (1980) documented it from Sonamarg (Kashmir). Abraham (1991) reported it from Kashmir. It is also known from number of other localities in India (Pegler 1983). Berkeley (1851) described it as L. lecomtei Fr. from Tonglo in Sikkim. Now this species exists as the synonym of Panus neostrigosus Drechsler-Santos et al. (2012). Therefore it is excluded from the list.

Lentinus torulosus Fr. (Pers.:Fr.) Llyod. Mycol. Writ.4, Lett. 47: 13 (1913).

Atri et al. (2010) documented this species for the first time from Bhadrol (Palampur) in Himachal Pradesh. Pegler (1983) in his World monograph has treated it as a legitimate species. It exists as a valid species in MycoBank. This species is treated as the synonym of Panus conchatus (Bull.) Fr. in MycoBank and Index Fungorum, hence excluded from Indian records (Image 3).

 

 

241207.jpg

 

 

Lentinus similis Berk. & Broome. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 14: 43 (1873)

Pegler (1983) in his World monograph reported the occurrence of this species from Khasia Hills West Bengal, Game Sanctuary (Coorg District) in Karnataka, Nilgiri Hills, Ootacamund and Tinnevelyin Tamil Nadu. It exists as a synonym of Panus similis (Berk. & Broome) T.W. May & A.E. Wood, hence stands deleted from Indian records.

Lentinus caespiticola var. asiaticus Manim. & Leelav. Mycol. Res. 99(4): 451 (1995).

Manimohan & Leelavathy (1995) documented it for the first time from Kerala. Now this species exists as a synonym of Panuscaespiticola (Pat. & Har.) Drechsler-Santos et al. (2012). Hence it is included in the excluded species.

Lentinus hookerianus Berk. Hook. Journ. Bot. and Kew Misc. 3: 45 (1851).

Berkeley (1856) documented this species from Darjeeling (West Bengal) on dead wood. Pegler (1983) has also listed a collection from Calcutta (now Kolkatta) in his World monograph. Although a validly described species, Manjula (1983) listed L. hookerianus as synonym of L. velutinus Fr. and recommended its exclusion from the Indian record. This species is now exists as a synonym of Panushookerianus (Berk.) T.W. May & A.E. Wood. Hence it is excluded from the list.

Lentinus blepharodes Berk. Jour. Lin. Soc. Bot. 10: 301 (1869).

Lloyd (1904–1919) recorded it from Botanic Gardens of Saharnpur in Uttar Pradesh and Banerjee recorded it on dead trees of Cocosnucifera from Calcutta (now Kolkatta) in West Bengal. Pilát in Index of Fungi by Petrak (1950) made a new combination L. velutinus Fr. var. blepharodes (Berk. and Curtis) Pilát. Later Pegler (1983) treated L. blepharodes (Berk. and Curtis) Pilátas the synonym of L. velutinusFr. in his World monograph of Lentinus. In view of this Manjula (1983) deleted L. blepharodes Berk. from the Indian records. Now this species exists as a synonym of Lentinus velutinus Fr.

Lentinus molliceps Fr. Nova Acta R. Soc. Sci. Upsal. 1: 38 (1851).

This species was enlisted from Nicobar Islands (Fries 1855). Although Manjula (1983) has recognized it as a valid species and listed it under Indian species of Lentinus Fr., however, Pegler (1983) in his World monograph on Lentinus Fr. treated L. molliceps Fr. as the synonym of L. squarrosulus Mont. In view of this L. molliceps Fr. has been excluded from the Indian records. This species exists as a synonym of L. squarrosulus Mont. in MycoBank’s opinion.

Lentinus nepalensis Berk. Hooker Journ. Bot. and Kew Misc. 6: 131 (1854)

It was recorded by Berkeley (1856) from Nangki in East Nepal. It was not documented from any part of India. This is not a valid species and is a synonym of L. velutinusFr. (Pegler1983; Manjula 1983). In view of its present status L. nepalensis Berk. stands deleted from the Indian records. In MycoBank’s opinion it exists as a synonym of L. velutinus Fr.

Lentinus nicobarensis Reichardt. ApaudFrenziReise der ÖsterreichFreg. Novara. Bot.1 : 143 (1870).

It has been recorded to grow on rotten trunks in Nicobar Islands (Petch 1916). This is not a valid species. Pegler (1983) and Manjula (1983) treated L. nicobarensis Reichardt. as the synonym of L. sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr. In view of its present status L. nicobarensis Reichardt. stands deleted from the Indian records. It exists as a synonym of L. sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr. in MycoBank record.

Lentinus pergameneusLév. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 5 : 117 (1846).

It has been listed from India by Lèvèillè (1846). Its type at Paris has been marked as ‘’Herb. De Candole, Indes’’ (Butler & Bisby 1960). Manjula (1983) treated L. pergameneus Lév as a valid species and recognized its type documented by Lèvèillè (1846) as an authentic record. Contrary to the treatment of Manjula (1983), in his World monograph of Lentinus, Pegler (1983) relegated it to the status of a synonym of L. squarrosulus Mont. In view of this L. pergameneus Lév. stands excluded from the Indian records. This species exists as a synonym of L. squarrosulus Mont. in MycoBank record.

Lentinus praerigidus Berk. Hooker Journ. Bot. and Kew Garden Misc. 6: 132 (1854).

It has been reported from Sone River in Bihar by Berkeley (1856), on logs of Shorea robusta Gaertn. by Banerjee (1947) from Calcutta (now Kolkatta) in West Bengal and on Terminalia paniculata Roth. and Vateria indica Linn. (Anonymous 1950). This is not a valid species. Pegler (1983) treated this species as the synonym of Lentinus polychrous Lév which has been documented from Chota Nagpur (Maharashtra); Bankwara and Calcutta (now Kolkatta) (West Bengal) and Nanda Hills (Andhra Pradesh) in India. Manjula (1983) recognized L. polychrous Lév instead of L. praerigidus Berk. In Mycobank’s opinion this species is a synonym of L. polychrous Lév.

Lentinus revelatus Berk. Hooker Lon. Journ. Bot. 6: 492 (1847).

Cooke (1881) recorded it from Andaman Islands on fallen stumps of Cocos nucifera L. and on stumps of dead trees. Lloyd (1898–1925) and Banerjee (1947) reported it from Calcutta (now Kolkatta) in West Bengal. Pegler (1983) enlisted Lentinus revelatus as the synonym of L. conatus Berk. In view of the above L. revelatus stands excluded from the Indian records (Manjula 1983). It exists as a synonym of L. conatus in MycoBank record.

Lentinus cochleatus (Pers.:Fr.) Fr. Syst. Orb. Veg. 78 (1825).

Trivedi (1972) documented it from Nagpur. Pegler (1983) has excluded it from World monograph of Lentinus and instead has recognized it as Lentinellus cochlentus (Pers.:Fr.) Karst. Hence this species stands deleted from Indian records. In MycoBank records, this species exists as a synonym of Lentinellus cochleatus (Pers.) P. Karst.

Conclusions: Upon scrutiny, there are a total of 20 valid species of genus Lentinus encountered from India and 21 species are synonyms of these valid species as described as legitimate species in previous checklists.

 

 

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