An updated catalogue of true flies (Insecta: Diptera) from northern Pakistan

Main Article Content

Noor Fatima
Ding Yang


We present the first comprehensive catalogue of true flies from the northernmost territories of Pakistan, including Azad Jammu & Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. In the current inventory, 64 genera and 153 species in 16 families are being documented. The total number of known species has been updated based on the availability of taxonomic literatures from Pakistan. In 2007, Insect Fauna of Azad Jammu & Kashmir was updated and it lists only 16 known species in order Diptera where as there is no such documented information so far available on the dipterous fauna of Gilgit-Baltistan. However, during the last few decades, relatively a few studies have been conducted on some major group of flies, i.e., Syrphidae, Sepsidae, Calliphoridae, and Tephritidae from Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. Among these, Syrphidae represents 53 species which is the highest number of species recorded, followed by Sepsidae and Calliphoridae with 20 and 18 species, respectively. The present diversity does not reflect the true species account in the northern areas; the important biogeographic area that exhibits a very heterogeneous fauna, not only because of the high mountains with valleys (the Hindu Kush and Karakoram ranges of the Western Himalayas) but also the junction points of the world’s two largest zoogeographical regions (the Oriental and Palaearctic). Some common families, i.e., Stratiomyidae, Asilidae, Bombyliidae, Muscidae, Conopidae, Pipinculidae, Tachinidae, and some other families which are common in high mountainous regions of northern Pakistan still need to be explored in the future studies. The complete locality data for each valid species are presented as the baseline for future studies from northern areas of Pakistan, i.e., Azad Jammu & Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan.

Article Details



Agarwal, M.L. & M. Sueyoshi (2005). Catalogue of Indian fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Oriental Insects 39(1): 371–433.

Akbarzadeh, K., J.F. Wallman, H. Sulakova & K. Szpila (2015). Species identification of Middle Easternblow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of forensic importance. Parasitology Research 114(4): 1463–72.

Alam, M.M., M.N. Beg, R.A. Syed & S. Shah (1969). Survey of parasites of insect pests of cultivated and useful plants and survey of insects destroying weeds and their parasites. Final Report. Pakistan Station, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Rawalpindi, 243pp.

Alexander, C.P. & M.M. Alexander (1973). A Catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental Region. The University Press of Hawaii. 1: 10–224.

Alexander, C.P. (1957). New or little-known Tipulidae (Diptera). CIV. Oriental-Australasian species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 10(112): 287–304.

Alexander, C.P. (1966). New or little-known Tipulidae from eastern Asia (Diptera). LX. Philippine Journal of Science 95: 227–266.

Arif, M.J., A. Suhail & M. Yousuf (2001). Genus Sphaerophoria St. Farg. et Serv. from Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 3(2): 260–261.

Arif, M.J. (2001). Taxonomic studies of syrphidae (Diptera) of Pakistan. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis submitted to the Agricultural University, Faisalabad, Pakistan, 213pp.

Arif, M.J., A. Suhail & M. Yousuf (2002). Taxonomic studies of saprophagous syrphids from Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 4(1): 76–77.

Aslamkhan, M., S. Safdar & Azizullah (1997). Biodiversity of Syrphidae of Pakistan. Biologia 43(1): 19–25.

Baloch, G.M., A.G. Khan & M. Mushtaque (1971). Biological control of Carduus spp. I. insects associated with these in West Pakistan. Commonwealth Institue Biological Control Tenechnical Bulletin 14: 51–58.

Banerjee, D., A. Naskar, J. Sengupta, S. Hazra & A. Maity (2018). Insecta: Diptera, pp 727–760. In: Chandra, K., D. Gupta, K.C. Gopi, B. Tripathy & V. Kumar (eds.). Faunal Diversity of Indian Himalaya, Director, Zoological Survey of India. Kolkata, India, 893 pp.

Becker, T. (1903). Ägyptische Dipteren (Fortsetzung und Schluss). Mitteilungenaus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 3: 67–195.

Becker, T. (1907). Zur Kenntnis der Dipteren von ZentralAsien. I. Cyclorrhapha schizophora holometopa und Orthorrhapha brachycera. Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg 12: 253–317.

Bezzi, M. (1913). Indian trypaneids (Fruit–Flies) in the collection of the Indian museum, Calcutta. Memoirs of Indian Museum 3: 53–175.

Bezzi, M. (1925). Some tachinidae (Dipt.) of economic importance from the Federated Malay States. Bulletin of Entomological Research 16(2): 113–123.

Bhatia, H.L. & M. Shaffi (1933). Life–histories of some Indian syrphidae. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2(6): 543–570.

Bigot, J.M.F. (1880). Diptères nouveaux ou peu connus. 14e. partie. XXI. Syrphidi (mihi). - Genre Eristalis (Fabr.). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 5(10): 213–230.

Bigot, J.M.F. (1884). Diptères nouveaux ou peu connus. 23e. XXXII. Syrphidi (2e. Partie). Espèces nouvelles, No. II. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (6)3: 535–560.

Bigot, J.M.F. (1884). Dipteres nouveaux ou peu connus. 24e. XXXII. Syrphidi (2e. Partie). Especes nouvelles, No. III. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (6)4: 73–116.

Bigot, J.M.F. (1891). Catalogue of the diptera of the Oriential region. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 40: 250–282.

Borkent, A.R.T, B. Brown, P.H. Adler & M.A. Zumbado (2018). Remarkable fly (Diptera) diversity in a patch of Costa Rican cloud forest: Why inventory is a vital science. Zootaxa 4402: 53–90.

Brunetti, E. (1907). Notes on Oriental syrphidae. Part I. Records of the Indian Museum 1: 379–380.

Brunetti, E. (1908). Notes on Oriental syrphidae with descriptions of new species. Part I. Records of the Indian Museum 2: 49–96.

Brunetti, E. (1910). New Oriental sepsinae. Records of the Indian Museum 3: 343–372.

Brunetti, E. (1913). New and interesting diptera from the Eastern Himalayas. Records of the Indian Museum 9(5): 255–277.

Brunetti, E. (1923). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Diptera. V. 3, pipunculidae, syrphidae, conopidae, oestridae. London: Taylor & Francis. 424 pp.

Cerretti, P., D. Badano, S. Gisondi, G. Lo Giudice & T. Pape (2020). The world woodlouse flies (Diptera, Rhinophoridae). ZooKeys 903: 1–130.

Chapman, D. (2009). Number of living species in Australia and the World. Report for the AustralianBiological Resources Study, Canberra, Australia. Australian Government Department of theEnvironment, Water, Heritage and Arts, 84 pp.

Chillcott, J.G. (1961). Ten new species of Fannia R.D. (Diptera: Muscidae) from the Palaearctic and Oriental Regions. The Canadian Entomolgist 93(2): 81–92.

Coquillett, D.W. (1899). A new trypetid from Hawaii. Entomological News 10: 129–130.

Courtney, G.W., T. Pape, J.H. Skevington & B.J. Sinclair (2017). Biodiversity of diptera. In: Foottit RG, Adler PH. (Eds) Insect biodiversity: science and society, Volume1, 2nd Edition. Blackwell publishing, Oxford, 229– 278.

De Geer, C. (1776). Mémoires pour servir à l‘histoire des Insectes. Tome Sixieme. P. Hesselberg, Stockholm, 523 pp.

Duda, O. (1926). Monographie der Sepsiden (Dipt.). I. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 39: 1–110.

Enderlein, G. (1914). Dipterological studies IX. To know the Stratiomyiids with 3–branch media and their grouping. A. Forms in which the 1st cubital branch is connected to the discoidal cell by a transverse vein or only touches it in one point (subfamilies: Geosarginae, Analcocerinae, Stratiomyiinae). Zoological Scoreboard 43(13): 577–615.

Evenhuis, N.L. & T. Pape (Eds.) (2021). Systema Dipterorum. Version. 3.0. Accessed on 6 April 2021.

Fabricius, J.C. (1775). Systema entomologiae, sistens insectorum classes, ordines, genera, species, adiectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, observationibus. Vol. 1. Kortius [= Flensburg and Leipzig], 832 pp.

Fabricius, J.C. (1787). Mantissa insectorum sistens species nuper detectas adiectis synonymis, observationibus, descriptionibus, emendationibus. Vol. 2: 382 pp.

Fabricius, J.C. (1805). Systema Antliatorum, secundum ordines, genera, species: adiectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. Brunsvigae: C. Reichard [= Brunswick], 15–372.

Fallén, C.F. (1810). Specimen entomologicum novam Diptera disponendi methodum. Ehibens. Lundae [= Lund], 1-26 pp.

Fallén, C.F. (1820). Heteromyzides Sveciae. Lundae [= Lund], 10 pp.

Fallén. C.F. (1817). Syrphici Sveciae. Lundae [ = Lund]: Part 3: 23 –30; Part 4: 31–42; Part 5: 43–54; Part 6: 55–62.

Fatima, N., A. Tamkeen & M.A. Hassan (2019). First record of black scavenger fly of the genus Meroplius Rondani, 1874 (Diptera: Sepsidae) from Pakistan. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(8):14062–14064.

Foote, R.H. (1984). Family tephritidae. In A. Soos and L. Papp eds., Catalogue of Palaearctic diptera. Vol. 9, Amsterdam, Micropozidae – Agromyzidae. Akademiae Kiado, Budapest and Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam 466: 66–149.

Frey, R. (1908). Über die in Finnland gefundenen Arten des Formenkreises der Gattung Sepsis Fall. (Dipt.). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 5: 577–588.

Ghorpadé, K. & A. Shehzad (2013). An annotated checklist and select bibliography of the hover–flies (Diptera–Syrphidae) of Pakistan, Indian subcontinent. Colemania 37: 1–26.

Ghorpadé, K. (1994). Diagnostic keys to new and known genera and species of Indian Subcontinent syrphini (Diptera: Syrphidae). Colemania 3:1–15.

Ghorpadé, K. (2015). Hoverflies (Diptera—Syrphidae) documented from the Northwest Frontier of the Indian sub–continentacircumstantial history and inclusive bibliography. Colemania 50: 1–151.

Halder, S., K.B. Kaushik, P. Parui, C. Kailash & D. Banerjee (2015). Fruit–Flies (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae) of Chhattisgarh. Zoological Survey of India 115 (Part–4): 385–389.

Haliday, A.H. (1833). Catalogue of diptera occurring about holywood in downshire. The Entomological Magazine (London) 1(2): 147–180.

Hamid, S. (1984). Natural balance of graminicolous aphids in Pakistan ii. Aphid’s populations on Maize. Agronomie 4(8): 801–803.

Harris, M. (1776–1780). An exposition of English Insects, with curious observations and remarks, where in each insect is particularly described; its parts and properties considered; the different sexes distinguished, and the natural history faithfully related. Robson, London, 8 pp.

Hassan, M.A., I. Bodlah & A. Aihetasham (2017). First record of the Oriental species, Saltella setigera Brunetti, 1909 (Diptera: Sepsidae) from Pakistan. Punjab University Journal of Zoology 32(2): 225–228.

Hassan, M.A., I. Bodlah, K. Mahmmod & A. Tamkeen (2017). New distributional records of black scavenger flies (Diptera: Sepsidae) from district Skardu, Gilgit Baltistan. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology 5(2): 51–55.

Hassan, M.A., N. Fatima, M.A. Aslam, M. Nabeel, K. Nazir & M.S. Bashir (2017). New distributional record of the genus Dicranosepsis (Duda, 1926) (Diptera: Sepsidae), with a new record from Pakistan. Journal of Insect Biodiversity and Systematics 3(2): 153–157.

Hassan, M.A., I. Bodlah, M. Bharti & K. Mahmood (2018). An updated checklist of blow fly fauna (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of Pakistan with new records for the country. Halteres 9: 1–5.

Hassan, M.A., I. Bodlah, M. Ali & A. Gull-E-Fareen (2018). First record of Dryomyza pakistana Kurahashi, 1989 (Diptera: Dryomyzidae) from Poonch district, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. Plant Protection 2(1): 7–8.

Hassan, M.A., I. Bodlah, J.A. Siddiqui, M.T. Rasheed & A. Gull–E–Fareen (2018). An updated checklist of the black scavenger flies (Diptera: Sepsidae) from Gilgit Baltistan. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology 6(2): 210–212.

Hassan, M.A., K. Ghorpadé, K. Mahmood, A. Shehzad, N. Nazir & N. Fatima (2018). Preliminary studies on the syrphidae (Diptera) of Poonch district, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. Oriental Insects 52(2): 190–209.

Hassan, M.A., K. Ghorpadé, I. Bodlah, K. Mahmood & Z. Iqbal (2018). Additional notes on the genus Paragus (Diptera: Syrphidae) from Pakistan with a new country record. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 28(3): 7.

Hassan, M.A., I. Bodlah, M.F. Malik, & A. Gull–E–Fareen (2019). New records of genus Ptecticus Loew, 1855 (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Pakistan. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 29(1): 358–362.

Hassan, M.A., I. Bodlah, A. Aihetasham, M.A. Bodlah & K. Hussain (2019). First record of Baccha maculate Walker, 1852 (Diptera: Syrphidae) from the Pothwar region of Punjab, Pakistan. Punjab University Journal of Zoology 34(2): 133–135.

Hassan, M.A., I. Bodlah, M. Ahmad, A.R. Kayani & K. Mahmood (2020). First record of the genus Graptomyza Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae) from Pakistan. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 30(2): 512–516.

Hassan, M.A., A. Shehzad, S. Jaffar & D. Abbas (2021a). Notes on the genus Xylota Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) from Pakistan. Journal of Insect Biodiversity 29(2): 36–43.

Hassan, M.A., R. Hussain, S. Ali & N. Fatima (2021b). Re-description and first record of Saltella setigera Brunetti, 1909 (Diptera: Sepsidae) from Azad Kashmir: An Oriental Asian species. Journal of Insect Biodiversity and Systematics 7(1): 43–50.

Hayashi, T. (1991). The genus Coproica Rondani from Pakistan (Diptera, Sphaeroceridae). Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 42(3): 235–240.

Hendel, F. (1927). Trypetidae. In: Lindner, E. (Ed.), Die Fliegen der Palaearktischen Region 5 (1): 1–221.

Heo, C.C., R. Rahimi, X. Mengual, M. Isa, S. Shahirul, P.N. Zainal, P.N. Khofar & W.A. Nazni (2020). Eristalinus arvorum (Fabricius, 1787) (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Human Skull: A New Fly Species of Forensic Importance. Journal of Forensic Sciences 65(1): 276-282.

Irshad, M. (2008). Biological control of insects and weeds in Pakistan. Islamabad: Higher Education Commission; 315 pp.

Iwasa M. (1989). Taxonomic study of the sepsidae (Diptera) from Pakistan. Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 40: 49–60.

Iwasa M., J. Zuska & A.L. Ozerov (1991). The sepsidae from Bangladesh, with description of a new species (Diptera). Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 42 (3): 229–234.

Iwasa, M. (1984). Studies on the sepsidae from Japan (Diptera). Vol. III. On the eleven species of eight generaexcluding the genera Sepsis Fallen and Themira R.–D., with description of a new species. Kontyu, Tokyo 52(2): 296–308.

Iwasa, M. (1984). The sepsidae from Nepal, with descriptions of eight new species (Diptera). Kontyû, Tokyo 52(1): 72–93.

Jeong S.H. & H.Y. Han (2019). A taxonomic revision of the genus Xylota Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Korea. Zootaxa 4661: 457–493.

Kanmiya, K. (1989). Study on the eye–flies, siphuneulina Rondani from the region and Far East (Diptera, Chloropida). The Japan Society of Medical Entomology and Zoology 40: 65–86.

Knutson, L.V., F.C. Thompson & J.R. Vockeroth (1975). Family syrphidae. In: Delfinado, M.D. & Hardy, D.E. (eds.). A catalog of the diptera of the Oriental region. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, 79pp.

Kurahashi, H. & M. Afzal (2002). The blow flies recorded from Pakistan, with the description of one new species (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Medical Entomology and Zoology 53(2): 213–230.

Kurahashi, H. & V.K. Thapa (1994). Notes on the Nepalese calliphorid flies (Insecta: Diptera). The Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology 45: 179–252.

Kurahashi, H. (1989). A new species of Dryomyza (Diptera: Dryomyzidae) from Pakistan. Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology. The Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology 39: 43–47.

Kütük, M. & A.F. Özgür (2003). Faunistical and systematical studies on the Genus Tephritis Latreille, 1804 (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the south west of Turkey along with new Records. Turkish Journal of Entomology 27: 243–252.

Lambkin, C.L., B.J. Sinclair, T. Pape, G.W. Courtney, J.H. Skevington, R., Meier, D.K. Yeates, V. Blagoderov & B. Weigmann (2013). The Phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence. Systematic Entomology 38: 164–179.

Latreille, P.A. (1804). Tableau méthodique des Insectes. Pp. 129–200. In: Société de Naturalistes et d’Agriculteurs. Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle, appliqué aux arts, principalement à l’agriculture et à l’économie rurale et domestique. Tome 24. (section. 3). Tableaux méthodiques d’histoire naturelle. Deterville, Paris, 238 pp.

Lepeletier, A.L.M. & J.G.A. Serville (1828). Syrphe, Syrphus. Pp. 511–526. In: Latreille, P.A., Lepeletier, A.L.M., Serville, J.G.A. & Guerin–Meneville, F.E. Encycl. Meth., Histoire naturelle. V. 10. Agasse, Paris, 833 pp.

Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum caracteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Ed. 10. Holmiae [= Stockholm], 1: 824 pp.

Loew, H. (1855). Einige Bemerkungenüberdie Gattung Sargus. Verhandlungen des zoologisch–botanischen Vereins in Wien 5(2): 131–148

Loew, H. (1866). Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigena. Centuria septima. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 10: 1–54.

Macquart, J. (1829). Insectes diptères du nord de la France. Syrphies. Mémoires de la Société des sciences, de l’agriculture et des arts de Lille 4: 123.

Macquart, J. (1842). Diptères exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. Tome deuxième. 2e. Partie. Mémoires delaSociété des sciences, de l’agriculture et des arts de Lille 1841(1): 65–200.

Macquart, J. (1855). Diptères exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. 5e. Supplément. Mémoires de la Société des sciences, de l’agriculture et des arts de Lille (2)1: 25–156.

Macquart, P.J.M. (1835). Histoire Naturelle des insectes. Dipteres. Tome deuxieme. Roret, Paris, 703 pp.

Malloch, J.R. (1925). Notes on Australian diptera. No VII. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 50: 311–340

Marshall, S.A. (2012). Flies: The natural history and diversity of diptera. Firefly Books, Richmond Hill, Ontario, 616 pp.

Marshall, S.A., J. Roháček, H. Dong & M. Buck (2011). The state of sphaeroceridae (Diptera: Acalyptratae): a world catalog update covering the years 2000–2010, with new generic synonymy, new combinations, and new distributions. Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 51(1): 217–298.

Mathis, W.N. & M. Sueyoshi (2011). World catalog and conspectus on the family Dryomyzidae (Diptera: Schizophora). Myia 12: 207-233.

Matsumura, S. & J. Adachi (1917). Synopsis of the economic ayrphidae of Japan. (Pt. III). Kyoto Entomological Magazine 3(1): 14–46.

Mayhew, P.J. (2007). “Why are there so many insect species? Perspectives from fossils and phylogenies”. Biological Reviews 82(3): 425–454.

McAlpine, J.F. & D.M. Wood (1989). Manual of earctic Diptera, Volume 3. Agriculture Canada Monograph 32: 1333–1581

Mengual X, S. Bot, T. Chkhartishvili, A. Reimann, J. Thormann & L. von der Mark (2020). Checklist of hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae) of the Republic of Georgia. ZooKeys 916: 1–123.

Meigen, J.W. (1803). Attempt at a new genus classification of the European double–winged insects. Magazine for Insect Science, edited by Karl Illiger 2: 259–281.

Meigen, J.W. (1822). Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europaischen zweiflugeligen Insekten. Theil. Schulz–Wundermann, Hamm 416 pp.

Meigen, J.W. (1826). Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. 5. Hamm, xvii+412 pp.

Meijere, J.C.H. de. (1906). Über einige indo–australische dipteren des Ungarischen National–Museums, bez. des Naturhistorischen Museums zu Genua. Annales Historico–Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 4: 165–196.

Melander, A.L. & A. Spuler (1917). The dipterous families sepsidae and piophilidae. Bulletin. State College of Washington. Agricultural Experiment Station. Pullman, Washington, 143: 1–103.

Mik, J. (1897). Einige Bemerkungen zur Dipteren–Familie der Syrphiden. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung 16 (2): 61–66, 113–119.

Merz, B. (1994). Diptera, Tephritidae. In: Insecta Helvetica Fauna. Bd. 10. 198 S., 2 Tab., 60 mehrteil. Abb., Preis: 30. - CHF. Herausgegeben von der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft. Geneve.

Mitra, B., S, Roy, S, Halder, S, Bhaumik, O. Biswas & K. Mallick (2015). Current status of the thick–Headed flies (conopidae: diptera) in India. The Journal of Zoology Studies 2(4): 29–37.

Mohyuddin, A.I. (1981). A review of biological control in Pakistan. Proceedings of 2nd Congress on Zoology, Tandojamm. 21–79.

Nartshuk, E.P. (2012). A check list of the world genera of the family Chloropidae (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha, Muscomorpha). Zootaxa 3267(1): 1–43.

Nayar, J.L. (1968). A contribution to our knowledge of high altitude syrphidae (Cyclorrhapha: Diptera) from N.W. Himalaya. Part I – subfamily syrphinae. Agra University Journal of Research Science 16(2): 121–131.

Newman, E. (1834). Attempted division of British insects into natural orders. Entomological Magazine 2(4): 379– 431.

Nishida, K. (1989). The fannidae of Pakistan (Diptera). Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 40: 87–89.

Nishida, K. (1994). The fannidae of Nepal. Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 45 (Supplement): 81–97.

O’Hara, J.E. & P. Cerretti (2016). Annotated catalogue of the tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) of the afrotropical region, with the description of seven new genera. ZooKeys 575: 1–344.

O’Hara, J.E., D.M. Wood & C.R. González (2021). Annotated catalogue of the Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) of Chile. Zookeys 1064: 1–200.

Osten-Sacken, C.R. (1877). Western Diptera: descriptions of new genera and species of Diptera from the region west of the Mississippi and especially from California. U.S. Government printing office 3: 189–354.

Özgür, A.F. & M. Kütük (2003). Adana ili Meyve Sinekleri (Tephritidae: Diptera) Faunasının Tespiti. Çukurova Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 18(2): 35–44.

Ozerov, A.L. (2005). World catalogue of the family sepsidae (Insecta: Diptera). Zoologicheskie Issledovania 8: 1–74.

Pape, T. & F.C. Thompson (2013). Systema Dipterorum, Version 1.5.

Pape, T., P. Beuk, A.C. Pont, A.I. Shatalkin, A.L. Ozerov, A.J. Woźnica & C. Kehlmaier (2015). Fauna Europaea: Diptera–Brachycera. Biodiversity Data Journal (3). e4187.

Prado, C.C., K. Szpila, A. Martínez–Sánchez, C. Rego, I. Silva, A.R.M. Serrano & M. Boieiro (2016). The blowflies of the Madeira Archipelago: species diversity, distribution and identification (Diptera, calliphoridaes. l.) ZooKeys 634: 101–123.

Pont, A.C. & R. Meier (2002). The Sepsidae (Diptera) of Europe. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 37: 221pp.

Rahman, K.A. (1940). Important insect predators of India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science (Ser B) 12(3): 67–74.

Rahman, K.A. (1942). Insect pollinators of toria (Brassica napus Linn., var. Dichotoma prain), and sarson (B. Campestris Linn., var. Sarson prain) at Lyallpur. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 10: 422–447.

Robineau–Desvoidy, J.B. (1830). Essai sur les Myodaires. Mémoires présentés par divers Savansà l’Académie Royale des Sciences de l’Institut de France. Sciences mathématiques et physiques 2: 1–813.

Robineau–Desvoidy, J.B. (1863). Histoire naturelle des diptères des environs de Paris. Tome premier.V. Masson et fils, Paris, F. Wagner, Leipzig, and Williams & Norgate, London. xvi + 1143 pp.

Rognes, K. (2007). Fauna Europaea: diptera, calliphoridae. In: Pape T., Fauna Europaea: diptera: brachycera. Fauna Europaea version 1.3, http:// www. faunaeur. Org.

Rohdendorf, B.B. (1935). 64h. sarcophaginae. In: Lindner E (Ed.) Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region, 11 (Lieferung 88). E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 49–128.

Rondani, C. (1845). Ordinamento sistematico dei generi Italiani degli insectti ditteri. Nuovi Annali. Delle Scienze. Naturali e Rendiconto delle Sessioni della Società Agraria e dell’Accademia delle Scienze dell’Istituto di Bologna 2(2): 1844: 256–270, 443–459.

Rondani, C. (1845). Descrizione di una nuova spcie del gen. Lasiophticus. Nota III. Annali dell’Accademia degli Aspiranti Naturalisti. Napoli. 3: 155–158.

Rondani, C. (1856). Dipterologiae italicae prodromus. Vol: I. Genera italica ordinis dipterorum ordinatim disposita et distincta et in familias et stirpes aggregata. A. Stocchi, Parmae [= Parma], 226 + [2] pp.

Rondani, C. (1857). Dipterologiae Italicae Prodromus. Species italicae ordinis dipterorum in generacharacteribus definita, ordinatim collectae, methodo analitica distinctae, et novis vel minus cognitis descriptis. Pars prima. sestridae: syrphidae: conopidae. ol. 2. Stocchi, Parmae (= Parma). 264 pp.

Rondani, C. (1874). Species italicae ordinis Dipterorum (Muscaria Rndn.). Stirps XXI. Tanipezinae Rndn. collectae et observatae. Bollettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 6: 167–182.

Rossi, P. (1790). Fauna Etrusca. Sistens insecta quae in provinciis Florentina et Pisana praesertim collegit, Thomae Masi et Sociorum, Liburni [= Livorno], 348 pp.

Rozkošný, R. & M. Hauser (2009). Species groups of oriental Ptecticus Loew including descriptions of ten new species with a revised identification key to the oriental species (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Zootaxa 2034(1): 1–30.

Rozkošný, R. & D. Kovac (2003). Seven new species of Ptecticus including new distributional records and a key to the oriental species. Senckenbergiana Biologica 82(1-2): 191–211.

Sabrosky, C.W. (1940). Chlorops swarming in houses. Journal of Economic Entomology 33(6): 946–947.

Sabrosky, C.W., G.F. Bennett & T.L. Whitworth (1989). Bird blow flies (Protocallophora) in North America (Diptera: Calliphoridae), with notes on Paleartic species. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. 312 pp.

Saeed, S., A. Sajjad, O. Kwon & Y.J. Kwon (2008). Fidelity of Hymenoptera and Diptera pollinators in onion (Allium cepa L.) pollination. Entomological Research 38(4): 276–280.

Sajjad, A. & S. Saeed (2009). New records of Eristalinus (Syrphidae: Diptera) from Multan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 41(3): 238–239.

Sajjad, A. & S. Saeed (2010). Floral host plant range of syrphid flies (Syrphidae: Diptera) under natural conditions in southern Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42(2): 1187–1200.

Sajjad, A., S. Saeed & M. Ashfaq (2010). Seasonal variation in abundance and composition of hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) communities in Multan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 42(2): 105–115.

Sajjad, A., S. Saeed & A. Masood (2008). Pollinator community of Onion (Allium cepa L.) and its role in crop reproductive success. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 40(6): 451–456.

Salem, H.H. (1935). The Egyptian species of the genus Sarcophaga. Publ Egypt Univ Fac Med 5: 1–61.

Saleem, M., M.J. Arif & A. Suhail (2001). Taxonomic studies of syrphidae of Peshawar Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 3(4): 533–534.

Schiner, J.R. (1862). Fauna austriaca. Die Fliegen (Díptera). Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet, mit der Characteristik sämmtlicher europäischer Gattungen, der Beschreibung aller in Deutschland vorkommenden Arten und der Aufzählung aller bisher beschriebenen europäischen Arten. Vol. 1. II Theil (part). Gerold, Wien [= Vienna]. xxxii+658 pp.

Scopoli, J.A. (1763). Entomologia carniolica exhibens insecta carnioliae indigena et distribute in ordines, genera, species, varietates. Methodo Linnaeana. Vindobonae [= Vienna]: 420 pp.

Shah, G.M., U. Jan & A.A. Wachkoo (2014). A Check list of hoverflies (Diptera: syrphidae) in the western Himalaya, India. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 60(4): 283–305.

Steenis, J. van., T.H. Wu, A.M. Ssymank, W. van. Steenis, J.H. Skevington, A.D. Young, C.J. Palmer, M.P. van. Zuijen, B. Lechner-Ssymank & S.F. Shiao (2021). Preliminary Results of the 2016 International Taiwan Expedition on SYRPHIDAE (DIPTERA). Formosan Entomologist 41(2): 78–134.

Stone, A. & C.B. Philip (1974). The oriental species of the tribe Haematopotini (Diptera, Tabanidae). Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture 1489: 1–240.

Speiser, P. (1909). Orthoptera. Orthoptera Nematocera. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologische Expedition nach Kilimandjaro, Meru 10 (Diptera): 31–65.

Sugiyama, E. (1989). Sarcophagine flies from Pakistan (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 40: 113–124.

Talpur, M.A., T. Hussain & M.A. Rustamani (1995). Effect of insecticide formulations on pollinator activity in sunflower. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference of Entomology; Faisalabad. 184–188.

Thapa, V.K. (2000). An Inventory of Nepal’s Insects. IUCN Nepal, Kathmandu, 475 pp.

Thompson, F.C. (2008). The Diptera Site. The Biosystematic Database of World Diptera. Status Report Version 10.5.–105htm

Thompson, F.C. & T. Pape (2016). Sherborn‘s influence on Systema dipterorum. In: Michel, E. (Ed.), Anchoring Biodivesity Information: From Sherborn to the 21st century and beyond. Zookeys 550: 135–152.

Townsend, C.H.T. (1927). New Philippine Muscoidea. Philippine Journal of Science 33(3): 279–290.

Tsuruta, K. & I.M. White (2001). Eleven new species of genus Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Sri Lanka. Entomological Science 4(1): 69–87.

van Veen M.P. (2010). Hoverflies of Northwest Europe: identification keys to the Syrphidae. Utrecht: KNNV Publishing, 248 pp.

Virk, A.T., K.M. Sheikh & A.H. Marwat (2003). NASSD background Paper, Biodiversity. IUCN Pak. Northern Areas Programme, Gilgit. x+74 pp.

Wachkoo, A.A., H. Kurahashi, N. Khurshid & S.A. Akbar (2018). First record of Dryomyza pakistana Kurahashi, 1989 (Diptera, Dryomyzidae) from India. Oriental Insects 52(1): 96–100.

Wang, X. & X. Chen (2002). A revision of the genus Dacus Fabricius from China (diptera: tephritidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 27(3): 631–636.

Wala, J. (1994). The eight–thousand metre peaks of the Karakoram: orographical sketch map. 1:50, 000. The climbing Company Ltd., Buxton (Uk).

Walker, F. (1848). List of the specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part I. British Museum, London. 4: 1–229.

Walker, F. (1849). List of the specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part II–IV. British Museum (Natural History), London, 1: 942 pp.

Walker, F. (1852). Diptera. Part III, Pp. 157–252. In: Insecta Saundersiana: or characters of undescribed insects in the collection of William Wilson Saunders, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. and c.Vol. I. Van Voorst, London. 474 pp.

Whitworth, T. (2010). Keys to the genera and species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of the West Indies and description of a new species of Lucilia Robineau–Desvoidy. Zootaxa 2663(1): 1–35.

Wiedemann, C.R.W. (1818). Neue Insecten vom Vorgebirge der guten Hoffnung. Zoological Magazine 1(2): 40–48.

Wiedemann, C.R.W. (1824). Munus rectoris in Academia Christiana Albertina aditurus analecta entomologica ex Museo Regio Havniensi, Kiliae: 1–60.

Wiedemann, C.R.W. (1830). Aussereuropäische zweiflügelige Insekten. 2: 684 pp.

Yan, L., T. Pape, K. Meusemann, S.N. Kutty, R. Meier, Bayless & D. Zhang (2021). Monophyletic Blowflies Revealed by Phylogenomics. BMC Biology 19(1): 230. https//

Zain, O.F. (2010). A Socio–Political Study of Gilgit Baltistan Province. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences 30(1): 181–190.

Zetterstedt, J.W. (1847). Diptera Scandinaviae disposita et descripta. ex Officina Lundbergiana, sumtibus uctoris, 3(part5-6): 2163–2580.

Zubair, U., A., Shehzad, M.I. Mastoi & K. Mahmood (2019). New record of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Poonch division of Azad Jammu & Kashmir. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research 32(3): 466–473.