Main Article Content
This paper pertains to the nesting habits of Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766) with specific reference to the agricultural landscape of Tindivanam Taluk, Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu during the breeding period between April and October 2021. A total of 11,386 nests (wad stage-840, ring stage-478, helmet stage-3,980, egg-chamber closed stage-2,865, completed nests-2,028, abnormal nests-938, and damaged nests-257) and 12,600 birds were observed on 832 nest-supporting plants. Nest-supporting plants belonged to 27 species, 26 genera, and 17 families. The three principal nest-supporting palm species—Borassus flabellifer, Cocos nucifera, and Phoenix sylvestris—represented 85.21% of the total nest-supporting plants. The number of nests (including all the stages) per colony varied from 1 to 109 and 70.16% nests were oriented towards the east. Abnormal nests constituted 8.24% of the recorded nests with 17 variations and 90.12% helmet stage nests contained plastering of clay on the inner walls. Nest predation by House Crow, Large-billed Crow, Asian Koel, Black Drongo, & Rufous Treepie and killing of adult Baya Weaver by Shikra were recorded.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27188.8.131.5253-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Ali, M.H., S.T.G. Manmohan, B. Aziz, R.M. Anand & J.A.T. Sainath (1978). Observations on the food and feeding habits of Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 75 (Supp.): 1198—1204.
Ali, M.S. (2009). Studies on nest-site selection and prey delivery patterns to nestlings by the Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus (Aves: Passeriformes) in Tamil Nadu, South India. World Journal of Zoology 4: 308—312.
Ali, S. (1931). The nesting habits of the Baya (Ploceus philippinus). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 4(4): 947–964.
Ali, S., Vijayakumar & V.C. Ambedkar (1956). Notes on the Baya weaver Bird. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 53: 381–389.
Ali, S. & S.D. Ripley. (1987). Birds of India and Pakistan. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 737 pp.
Ambedkar, V.C. (1958). Notes on the Baya breeding season. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 55(1): 100–106.
Ambedkar, V.C. (1964). Some Indian Weaver birds: a contribution to their breeding biology, University of Bombay, Bombay, 75 pp.
Ambedkar, V.C. (1969). Notes on the Baya, “Ploceus philippinus” (Linnaeus) on telegraph wires. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 66(3): 624.
Ambedkar, V.C. (1980). Abnormal nests of the Baya Weaver Bird Ploceus philippinus (Linn.). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 75 (sup.): 1205–1211.
BirdLife International (2016). Ploceus philippinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22719005A94606190. Accessed on 05 August 2021. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22719005A94606190.en
Blozan, W. (2006). Tree measuring guidelines of the eastern native tree society. Bull East Native Tree Society 1(1): 3–10.
Borges, S.D., M. Desai & A.B. Shanbhang. (2002). Selection of nest platforms and the differential use of nest building fibres by the Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus Linn. Tropical Biology 15: 17–25.
Borkar, M.R. & N. Komarpant (2003). Observations on the nesting ecology of Baya Weaver bird (Ploceus philippinus Linn.) in South Goa, with notes on aberrant nest designs. Ecology, Environment and Conservation 9(2): 217–227.
Collias, N.E. & E.C. Collias (1959). Breeding behaviours of the Black-headed Weaver bird, Textor cucullatus graueri (Hartert), in the Belgian Congo. Proceedings of the First Pan-African Ornithological Congress, Ostrich, Suppl. No. 3: 233–241.
Collias, N.E. & E.C. Collias (1962). An experimental study of the mechanisms of nest building in a weaver bird. The Auk 79: 568–595.
Collias, N.E. & E.C. Collias (1964). The development of nest building behavior in a weaver bird. The Auk 81: 42—52.
Crook, J.H. (1960). Studies on the reproductive behavior of the Baya Weaver bird Ploceus philippinus (Linn.). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 57(1): 1–44.
Crook, J.H. (1962). A comparartive analysis of nest structure in the Weaver Birds (Ploceine). Ibis 105: 238–262.
Crook, J.H. (1963). A Comparative Analysis of Nest Structure in the Weaver Birds (Ploceinae). Ibis 105: 238–262.
Crook, J.H. (1964). Field experiments on the nest construction and repair behavior of certain Weaver birds. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London 142: 217–255.
Davis, T.A. (1971). Variation in nest structure of the common weaver birds Ploceus philippinus of India. Forma et functio 4: 225–239.
Davis, T.A. (1973). “Mud and dung plastering in Baya nests”. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 70(1): 57–71.
Davis, T.A. (1974). Selection of nesting trees and the frequency of nest visits by Baya weaver birds. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 71(3): 356–366.
Delacour, J. (1947). Birds of Malasia. The Macmillan Company, New York, 382 pp.
Dickinson, E.C. & L. Christidis (eds.) (2014). The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world: 2 Passerines. 4th edition, Eastbourne, Aves Press, UK, 752 pp.
Dewar, D. (1909). The nesting habits of Baya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 19(3): 627–634.
Ferguson, J.W. H & W.R. Siegfried (1989). Environmental factors influencing nest-site preference in White-browed Sparrow-Weavers (Plocepasser mahali). The Condor 91: 100–107.
Gadgil, M. (1972). The functions of communal roosts: relevance of mixed roosts. Ibis 114: 531—533.
Gadgil, M. & S. Ali (1975). Communal Roosting habits of Indian Birds. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 72: 716–726.
Khan, A.A. (1799). “On the Baya, or Indian Gross-beak”. Asiatic Researchers 2: 109–110.
Lepage, D. (2016). Avibase: The world bird database. www.bsc_eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp. Accessed on 27 September 2021.
Maclean, G.L. (1985). Roberts’ Birds of Southern Africa. John Voelter Bird Book Fund, Cape Town, 848 pp.
Mathew, D N. (1972). The ecology of the Baya in Rajampet, Cuddapah district, Andhra Pradesh. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69(1): 188–191.
Mishra, N. (2004). Abnormal nest of the Black-breasted weaver Ploceus benghalensis. Newsletter for Ornithologists 1(3): 45.
Oliveros, C.H., D.J. Field, D.T. Ksepka & B.C. Faircloth (2019). Earth history and the passerine superradiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of United States 116(16): 7916–7925. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1813206116
Pandey, D.N. (1991). Nest site selection by Baya Ploceus philippinus (Linn). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 88: 458.
Pandian, M. (2018). Baya Weaver Bird: Nest colonies and abnormal nests of Ploceus philippinus in Tindivanam Taluk, Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India. Bird-o-soar 24, In: Zoo’s Print 33(12): 15–27.
Pandian, M. & P. Ahimaz (2018). Nesting behavior of the Baya Weaver Bird, Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus) (Passeriformes: Ploceidae) in rural Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 44(1): 33–42.
Pandian, M. & S. Natarajan (2018). Studies on the habitats of Baya Weaver Bird, Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus) (Aves: Passeriformes: Poceidae) in an agrarian landscape in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Asia Pacific Journal of Research 87(1): 196–201.
Pandian, M. (2020). Foraging behaviours of Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus, during non-breeding seasons in northern Tamil Nadu, India. Bird-o-soar# 50, In: Zoo’s Print 35(6): 2–32.
Pandian, M. (2021a). Nesting habits of Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus, 1776) in rural Arakkonam Taluk, Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 118: 03–17.
Pandian, M. (2021b). Incidences of White-rumped Munia occupying the nest of Baya Weaver in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu. Bird-o-soar 65, In: Zoo’s Print 36(1): 07–09.
Praveen, J., R. Jayapal & A. Pittie (2020). Taxonomic updates to the checklists of birds of India, and the South Asian region-2020. Indian BIRDS 16(1): 12–19.
Quader, S. (2003). Nesting and mating decisions and their consequences in the Baya Weaverbird Ploceus philippinus. PhD Thesis. Graduate School, University of Florida, 116 pp.
Rasmussen, P.C. & J.C. Anderton (2005). The Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide, Vol 1 & 2. Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C. & Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, 378 pp & 683 pp.
Sharma, S.K. (1985). A study on qualitative aspects of abnormal nesting in Baya Weaver Bird Ploceus philippinus Linn. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 60: 50–54.
Sharma, S.K. (1987). Host plants used by Baya Weaver Bird (Ploceus philippinus Linn.) for nesting in eastern, Rajasthan (Breeding period 1982). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 84(1): 218–220.
Sharma, S.K. (1988). Buttressed nest of Baya Weaver Bird Ploceus philippinus (Linn.). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 85(2): 432.
Sharma, S.K. (1989). Host plants used by Baya Weaver Bird Ploceus philippinus (L.) for nesting in Udaipur district, Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 86: 453–454.
Sharma, S.K. (1990). “Orientation of nest colonies by Baya Weaver Birds”. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 87(3): 454–455.
Sharma, S.K. (1995). A study of abnormal nests of Baya Weaver bird Ploceus philippinus (L.) in Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 92: 1205–1211.
Subramanya, S. (1982). Baya nests on telegraph wires Newsletter for Birdwatchers 22(6): 3–4.
Ward, P. & A. Zahavi (1973). The importance of certain assemblages of birds as “information for food finding”. Ibis 115: 517–534.
Wood, C.A. (1926). The nest of the Baya Weaver bird. The Auk 43(3): 295–302.
www.viluppuram.nic.in (2021). Government of Tamil Nadu website-Villupuram district (Accessed on 15 October 2021).
Yashmita-Ulman, A. Kumar & M. Sharma (2017). Traditional home garden agro-forestry systems: Habitat for conservation of Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus (Passeriformes: Ploceidae) in Assam, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(4): 10076–10083. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3090.9.4.10076-10083
Zahavi, A. (1971). The function of pre-roost gatherings and communal roosts. Ibis 115: 106–109.