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The fish diversity of Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary in the Western Ghats of Kerala was studied between January 2018 and December 2020. The ichthyofauna comprised of 40 species belonging to 11 Orders, 17 Families, and 29 genera, of which 35% are endemic to the Western Ghats region, and two are endemic to the state of Kerala. Cyprinids were the most dominant family, represented by 19 species belonging to three genera, followed by family Channidae (3 species) and loaches belonging to the family Nemacheilidae (3 species). Of the 40 species, one (Mesonemachelius herrei) belonged to the ‘Critically Endangered’ (CR), one species is listed as ‘Vulnerable’ (VU), and four ‘Near Threatened’ (NT) category and on the IUCN Red List. Results are presented in the form of a primary checklist of the freshwater fish fauna of the Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary, together with remarks on their threats and conservation requirements.
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