Main Article Content
Three new ant species from the genera Proceratium Roger, 1863, Zasphinctus Wheeler, 1918, and Vollenhovia Mayr, 1865 are described from the Western Ghats of southern India. This is the first report of Proceratium and Zasphinctus from peninsular India and the first record of Vollenhovia from the Western Ghats mountain range proper. Proceratium gibbosum sp. nov. is described from Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala, being the first record of the stictum species group from the Indian subcontinent; it differs from other members of the stictum group by the mesonotum bearing a prominent rounded dorsal hump (tumulus) and petiole devoid of ventral tooth. The first record of the genus Zasphinctus Wheeler, 1918 from the Indian region is also presented here, with a description of a new species. Zasphinctus sahyadriensis sp. nov. differs from all known Afrotropical and Asian Zasphinctus by a combination of characters including clypeal area with single median tooth, occipital margin being regular in outline, and head sculpture sparsely punctate. The occurrence of the genus Vollenhovia Mayr, 1865 is confirmed from peninsular India, with the description of the female castes of Vollenhovia keralensis sp. nov. We provide ecological notes on these new taxa. In addition, separate identification keys based on the worker caste are also presented to Indo-Malayan species of Proceratium, Afrotropical-Indomalayan species of Zasphinctus, and Vollenhovia of the Indian subcontinent. The biogeographical implications of the presence of these three genera are also discussed in relation to plate tectonics of the Indian subcontinent.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2722.214.171.12453-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
AntWeb (2021). Version 8.55.2. California Academy of Science. https://www.antweb.org. Accessed 20 April 2021.
Urbani, C.B. & M.L. De Andrade (2003). The ant genus Proceratium in the extant and fossil record (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Monografie (Turin) 36: 1–492.
Bharti, H. & A.A. Wachkoo (2014). New synonymy of Proceratium williamsi Tiwari (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Zookeys 88: 69–72.
Bharti, H. & R. Kumar (2013). A new species of Vollenhovia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from India with key to known Indian species. Vestnik Zoologii 47(2): 67-69. https://doi.org/10.2478/vzoo-2013-0018
Bharti, H., B. Guénard, B. Meenakshi & E. Economo (2016). An updated checklist of the ants of India with their specific distributions in Indian states (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). ZooKeys 551: 1–83 https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.551.6767
Bingham, C.T. (1903). The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera Vol II. Ants and Cuckoo Wasps. Taylor and Francis, London, 506 pp.
Bolton, B. (1994). Identification guide to the Ant Genera of the World, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 222 pp.
Bolton, B. (2003). Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71: 1–370.
Bolton, B. (2022). An online catalog of the ants of the world. Available from https://antcat.org. Accessed 7 February 2022.
Boudinot, B.E. (2015). Contributions to the knowledge of Formicidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata): a new diagnosis of the family, the first global male-based key to subfamilies, and a treatment of early branching lineages. European Journal of Taxonomy 120: 1–62. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2015.120
Borowiec, M.L. (2016). Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dorylinae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Zookeys, 608: 1–280. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.608.9427
Briggs, J. (2003). The biogeographic and tectonic history of India. Journal of Biogeography 30: 381–388. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2003.00809.x
Brown, W.L. (1973). A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. In: Meggers, B.J., E.S. Ayensu & W.D. Duckworth (eds.). Tropical Forest Ecosystems in Africa and South America: A Comparative Review. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C., viii+350 pp.
De Grave, S., C.P. Arjun, & R. Raghavan (2018). The discovery of Euryrhynchidae (Crustacea: Decapoda) in India, with the description of a new genus and species. Zootaxa 4462: 367–378. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4462.3.4
Eguchi, K., T.V. Bui & S. Yamane (2011). Generic synopsis of the Formicidae of Vietnam. Part 1 – Myrmicinae and Pseudomyrmecinae. Zootaxa 2878: 1–61.
Fisher, B.L. (1996). Origins and affinities of the ant fauna of Madagascar, pp. 457–465. In: Lourenço, W.L. (ed.). Biogéographie de Madagascar Paris: Editions ORSTOM. Published May 1996.
Fisher, B.L. (2005). A new species of Discothyrea Roger from Mauritius and a new species of Proceratium Roger from Madagascar (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 56: 657–667.
Forel, A. (1911). Ameisen aus Java beobachtet und gesammelt von Herrn Edward Jacobson. II. Theil. Notes from the Leyden Museum 33: 193–218.
Forel, A. (1912). The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905, under the leadership of Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, M.A. Volume 4. No. XI. Fourmis des Seychelles et des Aldabras, reçues de M. Hugh Scott. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology 15(2): 159–167.
Garcia, F.H., E.M. Sarnat & E.P. Economo (2015). Revision of the ant genus Proceratium Roger (Hymenoptera, Proceratiinae) in Fiji. ZooKeys 475: 97–112. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.475.8761
Garcia, F.H., G. Fischer, C. Liu, T.L. Audisio & E.P. Economo (2017). Next-generation morphological character discovery and evaluation: an X-ray micro-CT enhanced revision of the ant genus Zasphinctus Wheeler (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Dorylinae) in the Afrotropics. ZooKeys 693: 33–93. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.693.13012
Harris, R.A. (1979). A glossary of surface sculpturing. California Department of Food and Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology 28: 1–31.
Jaitrong, W., D. Wiwatwitaya & W. Sakchoowong (2016). Review of the Thai species of the genus Sphinctomyrmex Mayr, 1866 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Dorylinae), with description of a new species. Far Eastern Entomologist 305:1–9.
Joshi, J. & K. Karanth (2013). Did southern Western Ghats of peninsular India serve as refugia for its endemic biota during the Cretaceous volcanism? Ecology and Evolution 3: 3275–82. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.603
Keller, R.A. (2011). A phylogenetic analysis of ant morphology (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) with special reference to the poneromorph subfamilies. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 355: 1–90. https://doi.org/10.1206/355.1
Mathew, R. & R.N. Tiwari (2000). Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Fauna of Meghalaya, Part 7. State Fauna Series 4. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, 409 pp.
Menon, A.G.K. (1951). Distribution of Clariid Fishes, and Its Significance in Zoogeographical Studies Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy 17: 291–299.
Myers, N., R.A. Mittermeier, C.G. Mittermeier, G.A. Da Fonseca & J. Kent (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858. https://doi.org/10.1038/35002501
Rajan, P.D., M. Zacharias & T.M.M. Ali (2006). Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Fauna of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary (Karnataka), Zoological Survey of India Conservation Area Series 27: 153–188. http://faunaofindia.nic.in/PDFVolumes/cas/027/index.pdf
Sheela, S., M. Paromita & M. Arnab (2020). Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. In: Diversity of Biogeographic Zones of India: Western Ghats. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 435–444.
Silas, E.G. (2010). Phylogeography and evolutionary aspects of Indian fishes: Challenges for the future. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 80: 8-15.
Staab, M., F.H. Garcia, C. Liu, Z-H. Xu & E.P. Economo (2018). Systematics of the ant genus Proceratium Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Proceratiinae) in China – with descriptions of three new species based on micro-CT enhanced next-generation-morphology. ZooKeys 770: 137–192. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.770.24908
Subramanyam, K. & M.P. Nayar (1974). Vegetation and phytogeography of the Western Ghats. Ecology and Biogeography in India 23: 178–196.
Terayama M. & K. Kinomura (1997).Taxonomic studies of Japanese Formicidae, part 3. Genus Vollenhovia Mayr. Nature and Human Activities 2: 1–8.
Tomczak, M. & J.G. Stuart (2003). Regional Oceanography: an Introduction, 2nd ed.. xi+390 pp. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2009-0-14825-0
Ward, P.S. (1988). Mesic elements in the Western ant fauna: taxonomic and biological notes on Amblyopone, Proceratium, and Smithistruma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Journal of Kansas Entomological Society 61: 102–124.
Ward, P.S., S.G. Brady, B.L. Fisher & T.R. Schultz (2015). The evolution of Myrmicine ants: phylogeny and biogeography of a hyperdiverse ant clade (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 40: 61–81. https://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12090
Wilson, E.O. (1955). A monographic revision of the ant genus Lasius. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 113: 1–201. https://doi.org/10.1086/401086
Zachariah, A., R. Abraham, S. Das & K. Jayan (2012). A detailed account of the reproductive strategy and developmental stages of Nasikabatrachus sahyadriensis (Anura–Nasikabatrachidae), the only extant member of an archaic frog lineage. Zootaxa 3510: 53–64. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3510.1.3
Zryanin, V.A. (2012). A new species of the genus Indomyrma Brown, 1986 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) from Vietnam. Russian Entomological Journal 21: 223–228.