Main Article Content
We quantified the population abundance of Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus in Najafgarh Drain (Jheel), Basai Wetland, and Sultanpur flats of district Gurugram, Haryana from October 2018 to December 2020. A total of 72 visits were made to the study sites. In this study, we explored the uses of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a 5-megapixel camera to census the population and distribution of Greater Flamingos. The Nikon 10 x 50 field binoculars were used for observations. A photographic record was taken using a Canon Powershot sx70hs camera. To estimate the population size, point count method was used and videos and image analysis were carried out for a more accurate count in densely packed flocks. The mean population of Greater Flamingos was 267 ± 47 observed throughout the study period from the three sites. For three years, the highest mean population of Greater Flamingos recorded was 745 ± 76 at Najafgarh Drain and the lowest was 19 ± 8 at Sultanpur Flats. The Greater Flamingos were found to be residents at Najafgarh Drain. At the Basai Wetland, two major human activities were the construction of highways along wetlands and wetland drainage have been observed that resulted in habitat fragmentation and shrinkage, which is responsible for the huge decline in their population. While at Najafgarh Jheel fishing activities and overgrowth of water hyacinth were a major threat that affect the Greater Flamingo population. The findings in this study will be beneficial for the conservation efforts of the flamingos in this area.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2722.214.171.12453-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Afan, I., M. Manez & R. Diaz-Delgado (2018). Drone monitoring of breeding waterbird populations: the case of the glossy ibis. Drones 2(4): 42.
Ali, S. & S.D. Ripley (2001). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka. Oxford University Press, 2060 pp.
Ali, S., S.D. Ripley & J.H. Dick (1987). Compact Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. (Compact ed.). Oxford University Press, 841 pp.
Allen, R.P. (1956). The flamingos: their life history and survival, with special reference to the American or West Indian Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) (No. 5). National Audubon Society, 285 pp.
Anderson, K. & K.J. Gaston (2013). Lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles will revolutionize 494 spatial ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 138–146.
Arjun, C.P. & R. Roshnath (2018). Status of Greater Flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus in Kerala. Indian Birds 14(2): 43–45.
Balachandran, S. (2006). The decline in wader populations along the east coast of India with special reference to Point Calimere, south-east India. In: Boere, G.C., C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud (eds.). Waterbirds Around the World. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, 248 pp.
Balachandran, S. (2012). Avian diversity in coastal wetlands of India and their conservation needs. Marine Biodiversity, International Day for Biological Diversity, Uttar Pradesh Biodiversity Board, UP, 155–163pp.
Bibby, C.J., N.D. Burgess, D.A. Hill & S.H. Mustoe (2000). Bird Census Techniques. 2nd edition. Academic Press, London, 302 pp.
Bogolin, A.P., D.R. Davis, R.J. Kline & A.F. Rahman (2021). A drone-based survey for large, basking freshwater turtle species. PloS one 16(10): e0257720. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0257720
Boyd, W.S. (2000). A comparison of photo counts versus visual estimates for determining the size of snow goose flocks. Journal of Field Ornithology 71: 686–690.
Chabot, D., S.R. Craik & D.M. Bird (2015). Population census of a large common tern colony with a small unmanned aircraft. PloS one 10(4): e0122588. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122588
Del Hoyo, J. (1992). Family Phoenicopteridae (Flamingos). In: del Hoyo, J., A. Elliot & J. Sargatal (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, 696 pp.
Delany, S. & D. Scott (2006). Waterbird Population Estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, 248 pp.
Dundas, S.J., M. Vardanega, P. O’Brien & S.R. McLeod (2021). Quantifying waterfowl numbers: comparison of drone and ground-based survey methods for surveying waterfowl on artificial waterbodies. Drones 5(1): 5.
Ezat, M.A., C.J. Fritsch & C.T. Downs (2018). Use of an unmanned aerial vehicle (drone) to survey Nile Crocodile populations: a case study at Lake Nyamithi, Ndumo Game Reserve, South Africa. Biological Conservation 223: 76–81.
Fraser, W.R., J.C. Carlson, P.A. Duley, E.J. Holm & D.L. Patterson (1999). Using kite based aerial photography for conducting Adelie penguin censuses in Antarctica. Waterbirds 22: 435–440.
Grimmett, R., C. Inskipp & T. Inskipp (1998). Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Oxford University Press, Delhi, 480 pp.
Hodgson, J.C., S.M. Baylis, R. Mott, A. Herrod & R.H. Clarke (2016). Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles. Scientific Reports 6(1): 1–7.
Johnson, A.R. (1989). Movements of greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) in the Western Palearctic. Revue D’écologie 44: 75–94.
Johnson, A.R. & F. Cezilly (2007). The Greater Flamingo. T. & A.D. Poyser, London, United Kingdom, 328 pp.
Kidwai, Z. & S. Bhattacharjee (2016). An observation of Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) in Chicharli wetland, Dhawa, Rajasthan, India. Zoo’s Print 31(3): 1–2.
Koh, L.P. & S.A. Wich (2012). Dawn of drone ecology: low-cost autonomous aerial vehicles for conservation. Tropical Conservation Science 5(2): 121–132.
Kumar, A. & S. Rana (2021). Population and conservation threats to the Greater Flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus (Aves: Phoenicopteriformes: Phoenicopteridae) at Basai Wetland and Najafgarh Jheel Bird Sanctuary, Haryana, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 13(7): 18894–18898. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.62126.96.36.19994-18898
McKellar, A.E., N.G. Shephard & D. Chabot (2021). Dual visible‐thermal camera approach facilitates drone surveys of colonial marshbirds. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation 7(2): 214–226.
Nagarajan, R. & K. Thiyagesan (1996). Waterbirds and substrate quality of the Pichavaram wetlands, southern India. Ibis 138(4): 710–721.
Ogilvie, M. & C. Ogilvie (1986). Flamingos. Allan Sutton Publishing Limited, Gloucester, 121 pp.
Parasharya, B.M. & I.R. Gadhvi (2020). First report of successful breeding of Greater Flamingo in the Gulf of Khambhat, India outside its traditional nesting range. Indian Birds 15(5): 136–139.
Ramesh, D.A. & S. Ramachandran (2005). Factors influencing Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) distribution in the Pulicat lagoon ecosystem, India. Wetland Ecology & Management 13: 69–72.
Rameshchandra, V.V. (2014). Studies on Lesser Flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) with special reference to ecology, threats and conservation management. PhD Thesis The M.S. University of Baroda, Gujarat, 213 pp.
Rodgers Jr. J.A., S.B. Linda & S.A. Nesbitt (1995). Comparing aerial estimates with ground counts of nests in wood stork colonies. The Journal of Wildlife Management 59(4): 656–666.
Rush, G.P., L.E. Clarke, M. Stone & M.J. Wood (2018). Can drones count gulls? Minimal disturbance and semiautomated image processing with an unmanned aerial vehicle for colony‐nesting seabirds. Ecology and Evolution 8(24): 12322–12334.
Shivrajkumar, J., R.M. Naik & K.S. Lavkumar (1983). A visit to the flamingos in the Great Rann of Kutch, pp. 484–493. In: Daniel, J.C. (ed.). A Century of Natural History. Bombay Natural History Society/ Oxford University Press.
Sutherland, W.J. (2006). Ecological Census Techniques: A Handbook. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, 185 pp.
Tere, A. (2005). Ecology of Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) and Lesser Flamingo (Phoenicopterus minor) on the wetlands of Gujarat. PhD Thesis. The M.S. University of Baroda, Gujarat, 193 pp.
Vargas, F.H., S. Barlow, T. Hart, G. Jimenez‐Uzcategui, J. Chavez, S. Naranjo & D.W. Macdonald (2008). Effects of climate variation on the abundance and distribution of flamingos in the Galápagos Islands. Journal of Zoology 276(3): 252–265.
Weissensteiner, M.H., J.W. Poelstra & J.B. Wolf (2015). Low‐budget ready‐to‐fly unmanned aerial vehicles: An effective tool for evaluating the nesting status of canopy‐breeding bird species. Journal of Avian Biology 46(4): 425–430.