Main Article Content
The fish fauna of the Kabul River downstream of the City of Kabul face threats from increasing human population such as pollution, overfishing, and increased development. Despite the rapid increase of these activities leading to threats to fishes in the Kabul River, no studies have examined the changes in diversity, distribution, and abundance of fish fauna in the Kabul River surrounding of Kabul City. In this study, the Kabul River was divided into two zones (upstream and downstream) consisting of six sampling sites (3 sites per zone). Of the total of 1,190 fishes collected, Cypriniformes was the dominant order with one family, six genera, and eight species. Cyprinidae was the dominant family of that order with 81.4% (n= 969) of total individuals. Species abundance was higher in the upstream reaches in almost all analyses. Upstream sites recorded 11 species, while seven species were recorded from downstream sites. Fish species richness was significantly higher upstream versus downstream reaches (9.67 ± 1.53 vs. 6.33 ± .58; U= .00, z= -1.99, p= .04, r= .81). Species diversity upstream was significantly higher than downstream (H’= 1.90 ± 0.15, D1= 0.81 ± 0.02). Similarly, species evenness was also higher upstream than downstream (J’= 0.84 ± 0.01). Low diversity, abundance, and evenness in downstream reaches are likely due to anthropogenic activities affecting the river in and around Kabul City.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27220.127.116.1153-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Grant numbers 27579-1
Agarwal, N.K., G. Singh, H. Singh, N. Kumar & U.S. Rawat (2018). Ecological impacts of dams on the fish diversity of Bhagirathi River in central Himalaya (India). Coldwater Fisheries Society of India 1(1): 74–84.
Akhi, M.M., M.A. Jewel, M.A. Haque, B.K. Sarker, M.S. Khatun, A.K. Paul, M.S. Islam & S.K. Das (2020). Multivariate approaches to determine the relationship between fish assemblage structure and environmental variables in Karatoya River, Bangladesh. Community Ecology 21: 171–181. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42974-020-00015-6.
Aljazeera (2012). Afghanistan battles against cold and snow. In: Aljazeera. Retrieved on 30 March 2020. https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/inpictures/2012221102246504375.html
Allan, J.D. (2004). Landscapes and riverscapes: the influence of land use on stream ecosystems. The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35: 257–284. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.35.120202.110122
Aryani, N. (2015). Native species in Kampur Kanan River, Riau province Indonesia. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 2(5): 213–217.
Barbè, D. (2013). Population Displacement and Urban Transition in Kabul City. Sciences Po - Fall 2013. Risk Governance in the Large Metropolis.
Barbour, M.T., J. Gerritsen, B.D. Snyder & J.D. Stribling (1999). Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish, 2nd Edition. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, D.C.
Bennett, A., P. Patil, K. Kleisner, D. Rader, J. Virdin & X. Basurto (2018). Contribution of fisheries to food and nutrition security: Current knowledge, policy, and research. Duke University, Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions.
Bhatt, J.P. & M.K. Pandit (2016). Endangered Golden Masheer Tor putitora Hamilton: a review of natural history. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 26(1): 25–38.
Booth, D.B. (2005). Challenges and prospects for restoring urban streams: a perspective from the Pacific Northwest of North America. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24(3): 724–737.
Boschung, H.T. & R.L. Mayden (2004). Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 736 pp.
Bray, J.R. & J.T. Curtis (1957). An ordination of upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 27: 325–349.
Breckle, S.W. (2007). Flora and vegetation of Afghanistan. Basic and Applied Dryland Research 1(2): 155–194.
Broshears, R.E., M.A. Akbari, M.P. Chornack, D.K. Mueller & B.C. Ruddy (2005). Inventory of Ground-Water Resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigation Report 2005.
Choubey, K. & Y. Qureshi (2013). Study of ichthyofaunal biodiversity of Rajnandgaon town, CG, India. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2(2): 21–24.
Coad, B.W. (2014). Fishes of Afghanistan. Pensoft Publishers, 393 pp.
Coad, B.W. (2015). Native fish biodiversity in Afghanistan. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology 2(4): 227–234.
Cunico, A.M., J.D. Allan & A.A. Agostinho (2011). Functional convergence of fish assemblages in urban streams of Brazil and the United States. Ecological Indicators 11(5): 1354–1359.
Dau, A. & C. Parkash (2009). Distribution and abundance of fish populations in Herike wetland-A Ramsar site in India. Journal of Environmental Biology 30(2): 247–251.
Dice, L.R. (1945). Measurement of the amount of ecologic association between species. Ecology 26(3): 297–302.
Dudgeon, D., A.H. Arthington, M.O. Gessner, Z. Kawabata, D.J. Knowler, C. Lévêque, R.J. Naiman, A. Prieur-Richard, D. Soto, M.L.J. Stiassny & C.A. Sullivan (2006). Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews 81(2): 163–182.
Edds, D.R. (1993). Fish assemblage structure and environmental correlates in Nepal’s Gandaki River. Copeia 11: 48–60.
FAO (2014). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014: Opportunities and Challenges. Food and Agriculture Organization.
FishBase.org (2020). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.fishbase.org, version (1/2020).
Freyhof, J. (2011). Salmo trutta. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T19861A9050312. Downloaded on 20 March 2020. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T19861A9050312.en
Freyhof, J. & M. Kottelat (2008). Cyprinus carpio. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T6181A12559362. Downloaded on 20 March 2020. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T6181A12559362.en
Gebrekiros, S.T. (2016). Factors Affecting Stream Fish Community Composition and Habitat Suitability. Journal of Aquaculture and Marine Biology 4(2): 00076. https:/doi.org/10.15406/jamb.2016.04.00076
Goswami, U.C, W. Vishwanath & K.C. Jayaram (2007). Fish fauna of north east India: natural and anthropogenic. Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards on Fish and Fisheries 21.
Grabarkiewicz, J. & W. Davis (2008). An introduction to freshwater fishes as biological indicators. EPA-260-R-08-016. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Information, Washington, DC.
Grimm, N.B., J.M. Grove, S.T.A. Pickett & C.L. Redman (2000). Integrated approaches to longterm studies of urban ecological systems. BioScience 50(7): 571–584.
Gurung, D.B., S. Dorji, U. Tshering & J.T. Wangyal (2013). An annotated checklist of fishes from Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(14): 4880–4886. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3160.4880-6
Gurung, D.B. & R.J. Thoni (2015). Fishes of Bhutan: a preliminary checklist. Kuensel Corporation Limited.
Herawati, T., M. Syaiful, I. Bangkit, A. Sahidin, A. Yustiati, Y. Dhahiyat & Iskandar (2020). Fish community structure before reservoir inundation in Cipanas, West Java. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science Vol. 535, No. 1, p. 012059. IOP Publishing.
Hu, M., C. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Zhang & S. Jian (2019). Fish species composition, distribution and community structure in the lower reaches of Ganjiang River, Jiangxi, China. Scientific Reports 9: 10100. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46600-2
Jayaram, K.C. (1981). The freshwater fishes of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma and Sri Lanka. A Handbook. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta.
Jayaram, K.C. (2010). Freshwater fishes of the Indian region, 2nd edition. Narendra Pubishing House, Delhi, India.
Lalèyè, P. (2020). Coptodon zilli. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T183163A64508317. Downloaded on 20 March 2020. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T183163A64508317.en
Loures, R.C. & P.S. Pompeu (2019). Temporal changes in fish diversity in lotic and lentic environments along a reservoir cascade. Freshwater Biology 64(10): 1806–1820.
Ma, Q., K. He, X. Wang, J. Jiang, X. Zhang & Z. Song (2020). Better resolution of Cytochrome b than Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I to Identify Schizothorax Species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the Tibetan Plateau and Its Adjacent Area. DNA and Cell Biology 39(4): 579–598.
Mack, T.J., M.A. Akbari, M.P. Chornack, I.M. Verstraeten, T.B. Collen & L.N. Plummer (2009). Water resources availability in Kabul, Afghanistan: a conceptual simulation integrating climatologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, and remotely sensed data. Program with Abstracts. In Second Hindu Kush Conference, Symposia and Workshops for Geoscientists, Engineers, Planners, Archeologists and Investors (pp. 27–79).
Margalef, R. (1958). Temporal succession and spatial heterogeneity in phytoplankton, pp. 323–347. In: Perspectives in Marine biology, Buzzati-Traverso (ed.), University of California Press, Berkeley.
McAleece, N. (1999). BioDiversity Pro, Version 2.00. The Natural History Museum and the Scottish Association for Marine Science.
McClendon, D.D. & C.F. Rabeni (1987). Physical and biological variables for predicting population characteristics of the small mouth bass and rock bass in an Ozark stream. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 7: 46–56.
Menhinick, E.F. (1964). A comparison of some species individual diversity indices applied to samples of field insects. Ecology 45: 589–861.
Mishra, K.S. (1959). An aid to identification of the common commercial fishes of India and Pakistan. Record of the Indian Museum 1–4(57): 172–177.
Mohsin, A.B.M., S.M. Haque, S.M. Galib, F.H. Fahad, N. Chaki, N. Islam & M. Rahman (2013). Seasonal abundance of fin fishes in the Padma River at Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences 5(6): 680–685.
Morris, E.K., T. Caruso, F. Buscot, M. Fischer, C. Hancock, T.S. Maier, T. Meiners, C. Müller, E. Obermaier, D. Prati, S.A. Socher, I. Sonnemann, N. Wäschke, T. Wubet, S. Wurst & M.C. Rillig (2014). Choosing and using diversity indices: insights for ecological applications from the German Biodiversity Exploratories. Ecology and Evolution 4(18): 3514–3524.
NEPA (2007). Afghanistan Initial National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. National Environmental Protection Agency, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Pandey, N., P. Kumar, S. Ali, B.K. Vishwakarma & S. Kumar (2018). Role of small tributaries in ichthyofaunal diversity of rivers in Uttarakhand. Journal of Coldwater Fisheries 1(1): 89–96.
Petr, T., D.B. Swar & S.B. Swar (Eds.) (2002). Cold water fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries (No. 431). Food and Agriculture Organization.
Pielou, E.C. (1975). Ecological Diversity. Wiley, New York, 165 pp.
Pielou, E.C. (1969). An Introduction to Mathematical Ecology. Wiley, New York, USA, 286 pp.
Powers, D.A. (1989). Fish as model systems. Science 246(4928): 352–358.
Prasad, A., A. Shrestha, J.H. Limbu & D. Swar (2020). Spatial and Temporal Variation of Fish Assemblages in Seti Gandaki River, Tanahu, Nepal. Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology 10(2): 93–104.
Pusey, B.J., D.M. Warfe, S.A. Townsend, M.M. Douglas, D. Burrows, M.J. Kennard & P.G. Close (2011). Conditions, impacts and threats to aquatic biodiversity. In: Aquatic Biodiversity in Northern Australia: Patterns, Threats and Future. Charles Darwin University Press, Darwin.
Qureshi, A.S. (2002). Water Resources Management in Afghanistan: The Issues and Options (Vol. 49). International Water Management Institute.
Ravi, V. & B. Venkatesh (2008). Rapidly evolving fish genomes and teleost diversity. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 18(6): 544–550.
Reid, G.M., T.C. MacBeath & K. Csatádi (2013). Global challenges in freshwater-fish conservation related to public aquariums and the aquarium industry. International Zoo Yearbook 47(1): 6–45.
Royce, W.F. (1996). Introduction to the Practice of Fishery Science, Revised Edition: 1st Edition. Elsevier, 448 pp. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-600952-1.X5000-2
Saeed, A. (2018). Overfishing, pollution and climate change have put Kabul river’s Sher Mahi fish in trouble. https://scroll.in/article/877676/overfishing-pollution-and-climate-change-have-put-Kabul-rivers-sher-mahi-fish-in-trouble. Retrieved on 13 March 2020.
Saund, T.B., J.B. Thapa & H.P. Bhatt (2012). Fish Diversity at Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project Area in Mahakali River. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 13(2): 225–230.
Shannon, C.E. & W. Wiener (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 177pp.
Shen, Y., L. Guan, D. Wang & X. Gan (2016). DNA barcoding and evaluation of genetic diversity in Cyprinidae fish in the midstream of the Yangtze River. Ecology and Evolution 6(9): 2702–2713.
Shendge, A.N. (2007). Study of fish diversity in Nira River. Journal of the Indian Fisheries Association 34: 15-19.
Shrestha, J. (1999). Coldwater fish and fisheries in Nepal. Fish and fisheries at higher altitude-Asia. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 385: 13–40.
Sørensen, T. (1948). A method of establishing groups of equal amplitude in plant sociology based on similarity of species and its application to analyses of the vegetation on Danish commons. The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters 5(4): 1–34.
Spencer, C.N. & D.L. King (1984). Role of fish in regulation of plant and animal communities in eutrophic ponds. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 41(12): 1851–1855.
Talwar, P.K. & A.G. Jhingran (1991). Inland Fishes of India and Adjacent Countries Vol-1&2. Oxford and OBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
Tawari-Fufeyin, P. & S.A. Ekaye (2007). Fish species diversity as indicator of pollution in Ikpoba river, Benin City, Nigeria. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 17(1): 21–30.
Thoni, R.J. & D.B. Gurung (2014). Parachiloglanis bhutanensis, a new species of torrent catfish (Siluriformes: Sisoridae) from Bhutan. Zootaxa 3869(3): 306–312.
Tiemann, J.S., D.P. Gillette, M.L. Wildhaber & D.R. Edds (2004). Effects of Lowhead Dams on Riffle-Dwelling Fishes and Macroinvertebrates in a Midwestern River. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133(3): 705–717. https://doi.org/10.1577/T03-058.1
Turner, G.F. (1999). What is a fish species? Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 9(4): 281–297.
UNEP (2003). Afghanistan: Post-conflict Environmental Assessment. United Nations Environment Program, Nairobi, Kenya
UNEP (2008). Biodiversity profile of Afghanistan: An output of the national capacity needs self-assessment for global environment management (NCSA) for Afghanistan. United Nations Environment Program, Kabul, Afghanistan.
Vishwanath, W., W. Manojkumar, L. Kosygin & K.S. Selim (1998). Biodiversity of freshwater fishes of Manipur, India. Italian Journal of Zoology 65(S1): 321–324. https://doi.org/10.1080/11250009809386840
Walsh, C.J., T.D. Fletcher & A.R. Ladson (2005). Stream restoration in urban catchments through redesigning storm water systems: looking to the catchment to save the stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24(3): 690–705.
Wang, L., J. Lyons & P. Kanehl (2001). Impacts of urbanization on stream habitat and fish across multiple spatial scales. Environmental Management 28(2): 255–266.
Weir, D. (2018). The slow violence of pollution in Afghanistan. In: Conflict and Environment Observatory. Retrieved on 15 February 2020. https://ceobs.org/the-slow-violence-of-pollution-in-afghanistan/
Whittaker, R.H. (1965). Dominance and Diversity in Land Plant Communities: Numerical relations of species express the importance of competition in community function and evolution. Science 147(3655): 250–260.
Wily, L.A. (2015). Resolving natural resource conflicts to help prevent war: a case from Afghanistan. Livelihoods, Natural Resources, and Post-conflict Peacebuilding 115–137.
Wu, W., Z. Xu, X. Yin & D. Zuo (2014). Assessment of ecosystem health based on fish assemblages in the Wei River basin, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 186(6): 3701–3716. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-3651-7
Zhang, C., C. Tong, F. Tian & K. Zhao (2017). Integrated mRNA and microRNA transcriptome analyses reveal regulation of thermal acclimation in Gymnocypris przewalskii: a case study in Tibetan Schizothoracine fish. PloS one 12(10): e0186433. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0186433
Zhao, H.H. (2011). Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T166081A6168056. Downloaded on 20 March 2020. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T166081A6168056.en