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For conservation breeding, the endangered Lion-tailed Macaques have been maintained in North America under SSP since 1983 and in Europe under EEP since 1989. Based on a growing interest to support the species long-term survival, the SSP population increased considerably during the first few years of the programme but due to space problems and resulting birth control measures, it has drastically declined to small numbers and a non- breeding status at present. The EEP population continually increased till 2012, but due to the lack of spaces and birth control practises, it has gradually declined since then. It is emphasised that the knowledge gained from field studies on Lion-tailed Macaques in India and its incorporation for captive management under EEP has helped develop appropriate management strategies. Captive propagation of the Lion-tailed Macaque in India, the habitat country, can profit from the successes and drawbacks of the long-term management experiences of SSP and EEP.
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