Main Article Content
Indian sandalwood Santalum album L. plantations in Karnataka were surveyed to study the diversity and abundance of spider fauna. A total of 1,244 individuals belonging to 56 spider species in 40 genera under 14 families were recorded in the sandalwood plantations. Among the spider families recorded, Araneidae was the most dominant with 15 species in nine genera followed by Salticidae with 13 species in 10 genera, Thomisidae with seven species in four genera, Oxyopidae with four species in three genera, Uloboridae with four species in a genus, and Theridiidae by three species each under three genera. Lycosidae and Sparassidae are represented by two species under two genera each. The families Cheiracanthiidae, Clubionidae, Hersiliidae, Philodromidae, and Pholcidae are represented by a species each. The pruning of sandalwood revealed a significant negative effect on the occurrence and distribution of spiders.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2722.214.171.12453-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute
Grant numbers No.BT/PR29852/FCB/125/22/2018
Altieri, M.A. & D.K. Letourneau (1984). Vegetation diversity and insect pests outbreaks. CRC Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 2: 131–169. https://doi.org/10.1080/07352688409382193
Buchholz, S. & M. Schroder (2013). Diversity and ecology of spider assemblages of a Mediterranean wetland complex. Journal of Arachnology 41: 364–373. https://doi.org/10.1636/p13-26.1
Carter, P.V. & A.L. Rypstra (1995). Top-down effects in soya bean agroecosystems: Spider density affects herbivore damage. Oikos 72: 433–439.
Caleb, J.T.D. & P.M. Sankaran (2021). Araneae of India. Version 2021, online at http://www.indianspiders.in [accessed on 18.viii.2021].
Coddington, J.A. & H.W. Levi (1991). Systematics and evolution of spiders (Araneae). Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 22: 565–592. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.22.110191.003025
Downie, I.S., W.L. Wilson., V.J. Abernehy., D.I. McCracken., G.N. Foster., I. Ribera., A. Waterhouse & K.J. Murphy (1999). The impact of different agricultural land-uses on epigeal spider biodiversity in Scotland. Journal of Insect conservation 3: 273–286. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009649222102
Foelix, R.F. (1996). Biology of Spiders. (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press, New York.
Greenstone, M.H. (1984). Determinants of web spider species diversity: vegetation structural diversity vs. prey availability. Oecologia 62: 299–304. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00384260
Halaj, J., D.W. Ross & A.R. Moldenke (1998). Habitat structure and prey availability as predictors of the abundance and community organization of spiders in western Oregon forest canopies. Journal of Arachnology 26: 203–220. https://andrewsforest.oregonstate.edu/sites/default/files/lter/pubs/pdf/pub2575.pdf
Lalnunsangi, R., D. Paul & L.K. Jha (2014). Natural enemy complex of some agroforestry systems of Aizawl and their implications in insect pest management. Energy and Environment Research 4: 29–33. https://doi.org/10.5539/eer.v4n2p29
Marc, P. & A. Canard (1997). Maintaining spider biodiversity in agroecosystems as a tool in pest control. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 62: 229–235. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(96)01133-4
Metzner, H. (2021). Jumping spiders (Arachnida: Araneae: Salticidae) of the world. Accessed on 19 August 2021.https://www.jumping-spiders.com/
Oguri, H., T. Yoshida, A. Nakamura, M. Soga & N. Hijii (2014). Vertical stratification of spider assemblages in two conifer plantations in central Japan. The Journal of Arachnology 42: 34–43. https://doi.org/10.1636/P13-73.1
Ossamy, S., S.M. Elbanna, G.M. Orabi & F.M. Semida (2016). Assessing the potential role of spider as bioindicators in Ashtoum el Gamil Natural Protected Area, Port Said, Egypt. Indian Journal of Arachnology 5: 100–112.
Pooja, A. Anilkumar, S. Quasin, Sreelekshmi & V.P. Uniyal (2019). Spider Fauna of Navdanya Biodiversity Farm, Uttarakhand, India. Indian Forester 145: 392–397.
Riechert, S.E. & L. Bishop (1990). Prey control by an assemblage of generalist predators: Spiders in garden test systems. Ecology 71: 1441–1450. https://doi.org/10.2307/1938281
Rypstra, A.L. (1986). Web spiders in temperate and tropical forests: relative abundance and environmental correlates. The American Midland Naturalist 115: 42–51. https://doi.org/10.2307/2425835
Sandeep, S., S. Reshmi & K.S. Jose (2020). Predatory spider faun in fruit crops of Punjab, India along with new records. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 90: 1695–1701.
Sattler, C., J. Schrader, R.J. Flor, M. Keo, S. Chhun, S. Choun, H. Bar & J. Settele (2021). Reducing pesticides and increasing crop diversification offer ecological and economic benefits for farmers - a case study in Cambodian Rice Fields. Insects 12: 267. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030267
Scheidler, M. (1990). Influence of habitat structure and vegetation architecture on spiders. Zoologischer Anzeiger 225: 333–340. https://doi.org/10.32800/abc.2016.39.0221
Sudhikumar, A.V., M.J. Mathew, E. Sunish & P.A. Sebastian (2005). Seasonal variation in spider abundance in Kuttanad rice agroecosystem, Kerala, India (Araneae). European Arachnology 1: 181–190. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.22.06.73114
Sundararaj, R., R. Rashmi, Shanbhag & B. Lingappa (2018). Habitat diversification in the cultivation of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.): an ideal option to conserve biodiversity and manage insect pests. Journal of Biological Control 32(3): 160–164. https://doi.org/10.18311/jbc/2018/17931
Sundararaj, R., J.J. Wilson & D. Vimala (2019). Stem borers of Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) in Karnataka, India. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science 16: 31–35.
Sundararaj, R., R. Raja Rishi & S. Padma (2020). Conservation of pollinators is vital for the sustainable cultivation and conservation of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album L.). Insect Environment 23: 64–67. https://nucleus.iaea.org/sites/naipc/twd/Documents/Insect-Environment-Volume-23-Dec2020.pdf
Sunderland, K & F. Samu (2000). Effects of agricultural diversification on the abundance, distribution and pest control potential of spiders: a review. Entomologia Experiments et Applicata 95: 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1570-7458.2000.00635.x
Tews, J., U. Brose, V. Grimm, K. Tielbörger, M.C. Wichmann, M. Schwager & F. Jeltsch (2004). Animal species diversity driven by habitat heterogeneity/diversity: the importance of keystone structures. Journal of Biogeography 31: 79–92. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0305-0270.2003.00994.x
Tikader, B.K. (1987). Hand Book of Indian Spiders. Zoological Survey of India, India.
Torres, B., O.J. Maza, P. Aguirre, L. Hinojosa & S. Günter (2015). The Contribution of Traditional Agroforestry to Climate Change Adaptation in the Ecuadorian Amazon: The Chakra System, pp. 1973–1994. In: Filho, W.L. (ed.). Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany.
Uetz, G.W., J. Halaji & A.B. Cady (1999). Guild structure of spiders in major crops. Journal of Arachnology 24: 270–280.
Whitmore, C., R. Slotow, T.E. Crouch & A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman (2002). Diversity of spiders (Araneae) in a Savanna Reserve, Northern Province, South Africa. Journal of Arachnology 30: 344–356. https://doi.org/10.1636/0161-8202(2002)030[0344:DOSAIA]2.0.CO;2
World Spider Catalog (2021). World Spider Catalog.Version 22.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, Electronic version accessed on 24 March 2021.
Young, O.P. & G.B. Edwards (1990). Spiders in United States field crops and their potential effect on crop pests. Journal of Arachnology 18(1): 1–27.