Spatial and temporal variation in the diversity of malacofauna from Aripal stream of Kashmir Himalaya, India

Main Article Content

Zahoor Ahmad Mir
Yahya Bakhtiyar


This paper presents the spatial and temporal variation in the diversity of malacofauna in relation to the water chemistry of the Aripal stream of Kashmir Himalaya. A total of 12 species were reported which belong to four families, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Planorbidae, and Bithyniidae from class Gastropoda, and two families, Cyrenidae and Pisidiidae from class Bivalvia. The family Planorbidae contributed 34% to the total annual molluscan population followed by Lymnaeidae (28%) and Bithyniidae (18%). During the collection, Gyraulus sp., Planorbis sp., and Bithynia tentaculata were prevalent at all sites, with predominance of Bithynia tentaculata. Species richness and abundance were observed maximum at site A3 (down-stream) and minimum at site A1 (up-stream) while in the case of temporal variation, species richness and abundance were maximum in summer and minimum in winter. Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, Margalef index, and Pielou evenness index were used to calculate the diversity, dominance, richness, and evenness of molluscan species, respectively. Physico-chemical parameters revealed a non-significant spatial variation (P >0.05) except pH, total hardness, and alkalinity while a significant temporal variation (P <0.05) was observed in the physico-chemical parameters except dissolved oxygen. A significant positive correlation was seen between the molluscan species and total hardness. In the present study, the stone mining, channel morphology of stream, habitat heterogeneity, and physico-chemical parameters were also found to promote the spatial and temporal diversity of malacofauna. 

Article Details

How to Cite
Mir, Z.A. and Bakhtiyar, Y. 2022. Spatial and temporal variation in the diversity of malacofauna from Aripal stream of Kashmir Himalaya, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 14, 3 (Mar. 2022), 20747–20757. DOI:


Alhassan, A., A. Abidemi, I. Gadzama, R. Shaaba & Y. Wada (2020). Distribution and Diversity of Freshwater Snails of Public Health Importance in Kubanni Reservoir and Weir/Sediment Trap, Zaria, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health 10(1): 1–9.

Allaie, I.M., R.A. Shahardar, A. Prasad, S.R. Tramboo, Z.A. Wani & S.S. Kubra (2019). Prevalence of snails in central Kashmir, India 7(3): 1018–1020.

American Public Health Association APHA (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington, DC, 20 pp.

Aravind, N.A., K.P. Rajashekhar & N.A. Madhyastha (2010). A review of ecological studies on patterns and processes of distribution of land snails of the Western Ghats, India. Proceeding of World Congress of Malacology 222 pp.

Barbour, M.T., J. Gerritsen, B.D. Snyder & J.B. Stribling (1999). Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish. 2nd Edition. EPA 841-B-99-002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water. Washington, District of Columbia, U.S.A. 339 pp.

Bath, K.S., H. Kaur & S.S. Dhillon (1999). Correlation of Molluscs with Physico-chemical factors at Harike Reservoir (Punjab). Indian Journal of Environmental Sciences 3: 159–163.

Bhat, S. & A.K. Pandit (2010). Ecological study of Benthic communities in Three Limnocrene freshwater springs in Kashmir Himalaya. Journal of Natural Sciences and Mathematics 3(2): 89–96.

Biggs, B.J., I.G. Jowett, J.M. Quinn, C.W. Hickey, R.J. Davies-Colley & M. Close (1990). Ecological characterization, classification, and modeling of New Zealand rivers: An introduction and synthesis. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 24: 277–304.

Bilby, R.E. & J.W. Ward (1991). Characteristics and function of large woody debris in streams draining old growth, clear cut, and second-growth forests in southwestern Washington. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48: 2499–2508.

Blanford, W.T. & H.H. Godin-Austen (1908). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma, Mollusca I: Testacellidae and Zonitidae. Taylor & Francis, London 311 pp.

Boulton, A.J. & P.S. Lake (1992). The ecology of two intermittent streams in Victoria, Australia III. Temporal changes in faunal composition. Freshwater Biology 27: 123–138.

Bournard, M., H. Tachet, A.L. Roux & Y. Auda (1987). The effects of seasonal and hydrological influences on the macroinvertebrates of the Rhone River, France 1. Methodological aspects. Archives of Hydrobiology 109: 287–304.

Carter, J.L & Resh V.H (2001). After site selection and before data analysis: sampling, sorting, and laboratory procedures used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate monitoring programs by USA state agencies. Journal of North American Benthological Society 20: 658–682.

Dhar, D.N., G.C. Bansal & R.L. Sharma (1985). Studies on the aquatic snails of Kashmir Valley with particular reference to Lymnaea auricularia sensu stricto. Indian Journal of Parasitology 9: 241–44.

Dutta, S.P.S. & Y.R. Malhotra (1986). Seasonal variations in the macro-benthic fauna of Gadigarh stream (Miran Sahib), Jammu. Indian Journal of Ecology 13: 138–145.

Edmondson, W.T. (1959). Freshwater Biology. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, London.

Ghani, A., N. Afsar & S. Rahman (2017). Quantitative analysis of macrobenthic molluscan populations inhabiting Bandri area of Jiwani, South West Pakistan Coast. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences 10: 281–287.

Habib, S. & A.R. Yousuf (2012). Benthic macroinvertebrate community of Yousmarg streams (Doodganga stream and Khanshah Manshah canal) in Kashmir Himalaya. Indian Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment 4(11): 280–289.

Habib, S. & A.R. Yousuf (2014). Benthic macroinvertebrate community of a fourth order stream in Kashmir Himalaya, India. African Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology 8(4): 234–238.

Hayslip & Gretchen (2007). Methods for the collection and analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in wadeable streams of the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership, Cook, Washington.

Hora, S.L., G.M. Mulik & H. Khajuria (1955). Some interesting features of the aquatic fauna of the Kashmir Valley. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 53(1): 140–143.

Hynes, H.B.N. (1970). The Ecology of Running Waters. Liverpool University Press, England 555 pp.

Linke, S., R.C. Bailey & T.J. Schwind (1999). Temporal variability of stream bioassessments using benthic macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biology 42: 575–584.

Lydeard, C., R.H. Cowie, W. Ponder, A.E. Bogan, P. Bouchet, S.A. Clark, K.S. Cummings, T.J. Frest, O. Gar- Gominy, D.G. Herbert, R. Hershler, K.E. Perez, B. Roth, M. Seddon, E.E. Strong & F.G. Thompson (2004). The global decline of nonmarine mollusks. BioScience 54: 321–330.

Malhotra, Y.R., K.K. Sharma & M.R. Thakial (1996). Ecology of macro invertebrates from a fish pond. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India 66: 55–59.

Margalef, R. (1958). Temporal succession and spatial heterogeneity in phytoplankton, pp. 323–347. In: Buzzati-Traverso (ed.). Perspectives in Marine Biology. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Martin, A. (1991). Molluscs as agricultural pests. Outlooks on World Agriculture 20: 167–174.

Mir, K.A. & M. Saleem (2016). District survey report of Pulwama district. Department of Geology and Mining, J&K Srinagar, 26 pp.

Mostafa, O.M.S. (2009). Effect of salinity and drought on the survival of Biomphalaria arabica, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Science 1(1): 1–6.

Moulton, S.R., J.L. Carter, S.A. Grotheer, T.F. Cuffney & T.M. Short (2000). Methods of analysis by the US Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory: processing, taxonomy, and quality control of benthic macroinvertebrate samples. US Geological Survey Open-File Report, 212 pp.

Nelson, J.W., J.A. Kadlec & H.R. Murkin (1990). Responses by macroinvertebrates to cattail litter quality and timing of litter submergence in a northern prairie marsh. Wetlands 10(1): 47–60.

Pandit, A.K., S.A. Rather, S.A. Bhat & A.Q Shah (2002). Physico-chemical features of freshwaters of Kashmir Himalaya, pp. 112 –138. In: Unni, K.S. (ed.). Conservation and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems. Daya Publishing House, Delhi.

Peck, D.V., J.M. Lazorchak & D.J. Klemm (2002). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program--Surface Waters: Western Pilot Study Field Operations Manual for Wadable Streams. National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory [and] National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency.

Peeters, E.T. & J.J.P. Gardeniers (1998). Logistic regression as a tool for defining habitat requirements of two common gammarids. Freshwater Biology 39: 605–615.

Pielou, E.C. (1966). The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. Journal of Theoretical Biology 13: 131–144.

Poff, N.L. & J.V. Ward (1989). Implications of streamflow variability and predictability for lotic community structure: A regional analysis of streamflow patterns. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46: 1805–1817.

Primack, R.B. (2002). Essentials of Conservation Biology, 3rd Ed. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts, 698 pp.

Qadri, M.Y., S.A. Naqash, G.M. Shah, & A.R. Yousuf (1981). Limnology of two trout streams of Kashmir. Journal of Indian Institute of Sciences 63: 137–141.

Ramakrishna & A. Dey (2007). Handbook on Indian freshwater molluscs. AICOPTAX--Mollusca, Zoological Survey of India, 399 pp.

Rao, N.V.S. (1989). Handbook of Freshwater Molluscs of India, Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, 290 pp.

Rao, N.V.S. (1993). Fresh water molluscs of India. In: Roa K.S. (ed.). Recent Advances in Fresh Water Biology. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 380 pp.

Reddy, V.M. (1995). Soil organisms and litter decomposition in the tropics. Oxford and IBH CO. Pvt. Ltd., 272 pp.

Rosenberg, D.M. & V.H. Resh (1993). Introduction to fresh water biomonitoring and benthic macroinvertebrates, pp. 1–9. In: Rosenberg, D.M. & V.H. Resh (eds.). Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Chapman and Hall, New York.

Rosillon, D. (1987). Seasonal variation in the benthos of a chalk trout stream, the River Samson, Belgium. Hydrobiologia 126: 253–262.

Shannon, C. E. & W. Wiener (1949). The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 177 pp.

Sharma, K.K., S. Chowdhary & A. Sharma (2010). Malacofuana diversity of river Chenab fed stream (Gho-Manhasan). The Bioscan 6(2): 267–269.

Sharma, R.C. (1986). Effect of physico-chemical factors on benthic fauna of Bhagirathi river, Garhwal Himalayas. Indian Journal of Ecology 13: 133–137.

Silva, E.L., A.J. Rocha, M.F. Leal, O. Dos Santos, J.H. Sousa, A.R.V. Silva, K.K.S. Dantas, E.M.M. Rulim, E.S. Castro, A.C.L. Pacheco & T.G. Pinheiro (2020). Freshwater mollusks from three reservoirs of Piaui, northeastern Brazil. Biota Neotropica 20(1): 1–8.

Simpson, E.H. (1949). Measurement of diversity. Nature 163: 688pp.

Strzelec, M. & A. Krolczyk (2004). Factors affecting snail (Gastropoda) community structure in the upper course of the Warta river (Poland). Biologia Bratislava 59(2): 159–163.

Wagh, G.A., H.A. Qurashi & S. Patil (2019). A Brief Note on Molluscan Diversity From Water Bodies of Amravati MS India. Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications 12(3): 814–819.

Wosu, L.O. (2003). Commercial Snail Farming in West-Africa - A Guide. AP Express Publishers Ltd., Nsukka.

Yousuf, A.R., F.A. Bhat & M.D. Mahdi (2006). Limnological features of River Jhelum and its important tributaries in Kashmir Himalaya with a note on fish fauna. Journal of Himalayan Ecology and Sustainable Development 1: 37–50.