Cytotaxonomy and palynology study of some weed species from the state of Punjab, India

Main Article Content

Rai Singh
M.C. Sidhu


The present study was conducted in Malwa region of Punjab, India in 2019–2020. A total of 10 weed species belonging to seven genera and four families were recorded from different crops. Meiotic analysis has revealed the chromosome numbers in different weed species as Datura innoxia (n= 12), Erigeron bonariensis (n= 13), Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (n= 10), Physalis angulata (n= 24), Sesbania bispinosa (n= 6), Sida cordifolia (n= 8), Solanum americanum (n= 12), Solanum nigrum (n= 36), Solanum villosum (n= 24), and Solanum virginianum (n= 12). Chromosome numbers of Solanum americanum and S. villosum have been worked out for the first time from the state of Punjab, India. Morphological features along with the chromosome numbers have authenticated the identity of weed species. Similarly, pollen fertility analysis has suggested the potential of seed production by the weed species and their subsequent invasiveness.

Article Details



Azeez, S.O., J.O. Faluyi & M. Oziegbe (2019). Cytological, foliar epidermal and pollen studies in relation to ploidy levels in four species of Physalis L. (Solanaceae) From Nigeria. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 13(4): 1960–1968.

Bamber, C.J. (1916). Plants of the Punjab Descriptive Key of the flora of the Punjab, North- West Frontier Province and Kashmir. Government Printing Press, Lahore, 652 pp.

Christenhusz, M.J.M. & J.W. Byng (2016). The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase. Phytotaxa 261(3): 201–217.

Dangwal, L.R., A. Singh, T. Singh, A. Sharma & C. Sharma (2010). Effect of weeds on the yield of wheat crop in Tehsil Nowshera. Journal of American Science 6(10): 405–407.

Dash, S.S. & S. Kumar (2019). Plant Discoveries 2018. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, 182 pp.

El-Twab, M.H.A., N.A.M. Barakat & A.A.A. El-Hafeez (2010). Cytogenetical and ecological studies of some wild congeneric species in the Solanaceae distributed in Upper Egypt. Chromosome Botany 5: 65–73.

Gaaliche, B., A. Majdoub, M. Trad & M. Mars (2013). Assessment of pollen viability, germination and tube growth in eight Tunisian Caprifig (Ficus carica L.) Cultivars. Agronomy (2013): 1–4.

Ganapathi, A. & G.R. Rao (1986). Taxonomic status of the Solanum nigrum complex found in India. Proceedings of the National Science Academy 96(3): 241–246.

Gupta, R.C. & B.S. Gill (1983). Cytology of family Compositae of the Punjab plains. Proceedings of the National Science Academy 49(4): 359–370.

Hooker, J.D. (1872–1897). The Flora of British India. Vols I to VII, London.

Jahan, B., A.A. Vahidy & S.S. Ali (1994). Chromosome numbers in some taxa of Fabaceae mostly native to Pakistan. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 81: 792–799.

Jones, K. (1979). Aspects of chromosome evolution in higher plants. Advances in Botanical Research 6: 119–193.

Kaur, K. & M.C. Sidhu (2014). Meiotic studies in some medicinal angiosperms from Doaba region of Punjab, India. International Journal of Phytomedicine 6(2): 216–224.

Kaur, K., Ramanpreet, R.C. Gupta & S. Kumari (2015). Cytomorphological studies of some dicot plants from Rajasthan (India). Cytologia 80(3): 353–362.

Kumar, S., S. Kumari & R.C. Gupta (2012). Cytological investigations of some polypetalous plants from district Sirmaur of Himachal Pradesh in the Western Himalayas, India. Chromosome Botany 7: 87–96.

Meenakshi & M. Sharma (1985). Flora of Ropar District. Dev Publishers, Patiala, India, 267 pp.

Nair, N.C. (1978). Flora of the Punjab Plains. Botanical Survey of India, Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, 326 pp.

Parihar, R.S. & S.N. Zadoo (1987). Cytogenetical studies on genus Sesbania Scop. Cytologia 52: 507–512.

Ram, H.Y.M. & P. Gupta (1997). Plant life under extreme environments. Current Science 72(5): 306–315.

Raven, P.H. (1975). The bases of angiosperm phylogeny: Cytology. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 62(3): 724–764.

Rieseberg, L.H. (1992). The genetic basis of morphological differences between plant species. International Journal of Plant Sciences 153(1): 5–6.

Sharma, M. & S.S. Bir (1978). Flora of Patiala, Punjabi University Patiala Press, Patiala, Punjab, India, 254 pp.

Sharma, M. (1990). Punjab Plants - Check list. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, 115 pp.

Sharma, M., D.S. Dhaliwal, R. Gaba & P. Sharma (1987). Flora of Semi-Arid Punjab, India. Dev Publishers, Patiala. 116 pp.

Sidhu, M.C. & T. Sharma (2016). Meiotic and phytochemical studies of three morphotypes of Solanum nigrum L. from Punjab (India). Indian Drugs 53(4): 20–28.

Sidhu, M.C., S. Kumari, N. Azad, S. Kaur & Namita (2011). Meiotic evaluation in some angiosperms. Vegetos 24(2): 49–54.

Sidhu, M.K. (1991). Biology of Punjab Weeds. Anova Publications, Mohali, 184 pp.

Singh, M.P. & S. Dey (2005). Indian Medicinal Plants. Satish Serial Publishing House, Publishers, Ajadpur, Delhi, India, 460 pp.

Singh, Y. & R. Singh (2019). Weed diversity in rice crop fields of Fatehgarh Sahib District, Punjab, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(5): 13611–13616.