Main Article Content
Heritiera fomes Buch.-Ham. is assessed as an endangered mangrove species by IUCN, and information on population status is lacking. The present study assesses the status of H. fomes in Mahanadi Mangrove Wetland on the east coast of India. Three forest blocks were selected and sampled for this study. Among these, the mean girth at breast height (GBH) of H. fomes was the highest in Hetamundia (HD) forest block. GBH of H. fomes was inversely proportional to the cumulative disturbance index (R2= 0.7244, p value <0.005). The relative density was maximum for H. fomes (56%) at Bhitarkharnasi (BK), and for Excoecaria agallocha at Hetamundia (HD; 35%) & Kansaridia (KD; 54%), respectively. Excoecaria agallocha is a dominant species possibly impacting natural populations of H. fomes. Climate change and rising sea levels may also negatively affect the existence of this species. Therefore, appropriate strategies should be taken for conservation of this globally threatened mangrove species prior to its extinction.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27220.127.116.1153-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Alongi, D.M. (2008). Mangrove forests: resilience, protection from tsunamis, and responses to global climate change. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 76(1): 1–13.
APHA (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. 21st edition, American Public Health.
Biswas, S.R. (2003). Invasive plants of Sundarbans. In: Interim report under SBCP project, IUCN Bangladesh, 34 pp.
Clough, B.F. (1985). Effect of nutrient supply on photosynthesis in mangroves, pp. 80–88. In: Bhosale, L.J. (ed.). The Mangroves. Proceeding of National Symposium on Biological Utilization and Conservation of Mangroves. Shivaji University, Kohlapur, India.
Cunningham, A.B. (2001). People, wild plant use and conservation. People and Plants conservation Manual. Appl. Ethnobotanique, Earthscan, 300 pp.
Mukherjee, B. & A. Karim (2000). Testing patterns of zonation in mangroves: Scale dependence and environmental correlates in the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. Journal of Ecology 88(5): 813–824.
Ellison, A.M. (2008). Managing mangroves with benthic biodiversity in mind: moving beyond roving banditry. Journal Sea Research 59(1–2): 2–15.
George, G., P. Krishnan, K.G. Mini, S.S. Salim, P. Ragavan, S.Y. Tenjing, R. Muruganandam, S.K. Dubey, A. Gopalkrishnan, R. Purvaja & R. Ramesh (2019). Structure and regeneration status of mangrove patches along the estuarine and coastal stretches of Kerala, India. Journal of Forestry Research 30: 507–518.
Gevana, D.T. & N.M. Pampolina (2009). Plant diversity and carbon storage of a Rhizopora stand in Verde Passage, San Juan, Batangas, Philippines. Journal of Environmental Science and Management 12(2): 1–10.
Ghosh, S.C., A.K.M.A. Bosunia, M.A. Islam & A.K. Lahiry (2004). Physical properties variation of sound and top dying affected Sundri wood (Heritiera fomes) in mangrove forest of Bangladesh. International Research Group on Wood Preservation: 35th Annual Meeting.
Harun-or-Rashid, S., S.R. Biswas, R. Böcker & M. Kruse (2009). Mangrove community recovery potential after catastrophic disturbances in Bangladesh. Forest Ecology and Management 257(3): 923–930.
Hussain, K. & G. Acharya (2010). Mangroves of the Sundarbans. Volume 2: Bangladesh. IUCN Wetlands Programme, Bangkok, Thailand.
ISFR (2017). Indian State of Forest Report. Forest Survey of India, Dehradun.
Islam, M.E., K.M.D. Islam, M.M. Billah, R. Biswas, M.H. Sohrab & S.M.M. Rahman (2019). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Heritiera fomes (Buch.-Ham), a mangrove plant of the Sundarbans. Advanced Traditional Medicine 20: 189–197. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-019-00401-0
IUCN (2003). Status of the ecological integrity of the Sundarbans. IUCN Bangladesh Country Office, 80 pp.
Joshi, H.G. & M. Ghose (2014). Community structure, species diversity and above ground biomass of the Sundarbans mangrove swamp. Tropical Ecology 55(3): 283–303.
Kathiresan, K. (2010). Globally threatened mangrove species in India. Current Science 98(12): 15–51.
Khare S.S. & D.G. Shah (2019). Mangrove vegetation change in Vagra Taluka, Bharuch district, Gujarat, India from 1978–2012. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences 48(4): 504–510.
Lewis, R.R., E.C. Milbrandt, B. Brown, K.W. Krauss, A.S. Rovai, J.W. Beever & L.L. Flynn (2016). Stress in mangrove forests: early detection and pre-emptive rehabilitation are essential for future successful worldwide mangrove forest management. Marine Pollution Bulletin 109(2): 764–771.
Magurran, A.E. (2004). Ecological diversity and its measurement. Blackwell Science Ltd. USA.
Mahmud, I., M.K. Islam, S. Saha, A.K. Barman, M.M. Rahman, M. Anisuzzman, T. Rahman, A. Al-Nahain, R. Jahan & M. Rahmatullah (2014). Pharmacological and Ethnomedicinal Overview of Heritiera fomes: Future Prospects. International Scholarly Research Notices 1–12. http://doi.org/10.1155/2014/938543
Mitra, A., K. Banerjee & D.P. Bhattacharyya (2004). The Other Face of Mangroves. Department of Environment, Govt. of West Bengal, India.
Mohanta, M.R., B.K. Pradhan & S.C. Sahu (2020). Assessment of species diversity and physicochemical characteristics of mangrove vegetation in Odisha, India, pp. 135–151. In: Patra, J.K., R.S. Mishra & H. Thatoi (eds). Biotechnological Utilization of Mangrove Resources.Chapter 6. Academic Press, Elsevier, 490pp.
Pascal, J.P. (1988). Wet Evergreen Forests of the Western Ghats of India: Ecology, Structure, Floristic Composition and Succession. Institut Francais de Pondichery, India.
Patwardhan, A., M. Pimputkar, P. Agarwal, N. Barve, R. Gunaga, A. Mirgal, C. Salunkhe & R. Vasudeva (2016). Distribution and population status of threatened medicinal tree Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De Wilde from Sahyadri-Konkan corridor. Current Science 111(9): 1500–1506.
Polidoro, B.A., K.E. Carpenter, L. Collins, N.C. Duke, A.M. Ellison, J.C. Ellison, E.J. Farnsworth, E.S. Fernando, K Kathiresan, N.E. Koedam, S.R. Livingstone, T. Miyagi, G.E. Moore, V.N. Nam, J.E. Ong, J.H. Primavera, S.G. Salmo III, J.C. Sanciangco, S. Sukardjo, Y Wang & J.W.H. Yong (2010). The loss of species: mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. PLoS ONE 5(4): e10095. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010095
Ravishankar, T., M. Navamuniyammal, L. Gnanappazham, S.S. Nayak, G.C. Mahapatra & V. Selvam (2004). Atlas of mangrove wetland of India (part-3, Orissa). MS Swaminathan Research Foundation, India.
Romanach, S., D. Deangelis, R.B. Sulaiman & L. Zhai (2018). Conservation and restoration of mangroves: Global status, perspectives, and Prognosis. Ocean and Coastal Management 154: 72–82.
Shengyan, Y., Z. Juncheng & M.V. Subrahmanyam (2019). Sea surface temperature cooling induced by Tropical cyclone Hudhud over Bay of Bengal. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences 48(1): 9–17.
Stanley, O.D. & R.R. Lewis III (2009). Strategies for mangrove rehabilitation in an eroded coastline of Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Coastal Development 12(3): 144–156.
Tadwalkar, M., A. Joglekar, M. Mhaskar, R. Kanade, B. Chavan, A. Watve, K.N. Ganeshaiah & A. Patwardan (2012). Dispersal modes of woody species from the northern Western Ghats, India. Tropical Ecology 53(1): 53–67.
Upadhyay, V.P. & P.K. Mishra (2014). An ecological analysis of mangroves ecosystem of Odisha on the eastern coast of India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 80(3): 647–661.
Valiela, I., J.L. Bowen & J.K. York (2001). Mangrove forests: one of the world’s threatened major tropical environments. BioScience 51(10): 807–815.
Xin, P., L. Li & D.A. Barry (2013). Tidal influence on soil conditions in an intertidal creek-marsh system. Water Resource Research 49: 137–150.