Main Article Content
Bufo gargarizans, a species complex, has a wide distribution ranging from Japan to south-western China, Vietnam, and Russia but was not previously reported from India. Surveys conducted in Dibang Valley district of Arunachal Pradesh near the Indo-Tibetan border with China in 2014–15 revealed previously unreported specimens of the toad genus Bufo. Based on photographic comparisons with morphological characteristics obtained from published literature, we have identified the Bufo from Dibang Valley as the Asiatic Toad Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842. Individuals of the species reported from Dibang have a wide mid dorsal line in the dorsum, rarely observed in Bufo gargarizans except in the sub-populations on the Tibetan Plateau.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27184.108.40.20653-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Borkin, L.J. & M. Matsui (1987) “1986”. On systematics of two toad species of the Bufo bufo complex from eastern Tibet. In: Ananjeva, N.B. & L.J. Borkin (eds.). Sistematika i ekologiia amfibii i reptilii: 43–53. Zoologicheskii Instituta SSSR, Leningrad.
Che, J., K. Jiang, F. Yan & Y. Zhang (2020). Amphibians and Reptiles in Tibet—Diversity and Evolution [In Chinese with English abstracts and species descriptions]. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Science Press, Beijing, 803pp.
Dinesh, K.P., C. Radhakrishnan, B.H. Channakeshavamurthy, P. Deepak & N.U. Kulkarni (2020). A Checklist of Amphibians of India with IUCN Conservation Status. Version 3.0. updated till April 2020. available at https://www.amphibians.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/2020_Indian_Amphibian_checklist.pdf. Accessed on 16 March 2021.
Fei, L., S.Q. Hu, C.Y. Ye & Y.Z. Huang (2009). Fauna Sinica. Amphibia. Volume 2. Anura. Chinese Academy of Science. Science Press, 958pp.
Fei, L., C.Y. Ye & J.P. Jiang (2012). Colored Atlas of Chinese Amphibians and their distributions. Sichuan Publishing House of Science & Technology, Sichuan, 619pp.
Frost, D.R. (2021). Amphibian Species of the World: An Online Reference. Version 6.1 Electronic Database accessible at: https://amphibiansoftheworld.amnh.org. Accessed on 16 March 2021.
Guhathakurta, P., S. Khedikar, P. Menon, A.K. Prasad, N. Sangwan & S.C. Advani (2020). Observed rainfall variability and changes over Arunachal Pradesh state. ESSO/IMD/HS/Rainfall Variability/02(2020)/26. Climate Research and Services, India Meteorological Department, Ministry of Earth Science, Pune. 29pp.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2019). Bufo gargarizans. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T78017839A63877827. Downloaded on 14 September 2020. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T78017839A63877827.en
Liu, C. & S. Hu (1961). Chinese Tailless Amphibians. Science Press, Beijing.
Roy, J.K., R.H. Begum & M.F. Ahmed (2018). Amphibians of the Dibang River Basin, Arunachal Pradesh: an annotated checklist with distribution records. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(15): 12940–12952. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4249.10.15.12940-12952
Sheth, C., M.F. Ahmed, S. Banerjee, N. Dahanukar, S. Dalvi, A. Datta, A.D. Roy, K. Gogoi, M. Gogoi, S. Joshi, A. Kamdar, J. Krishnaswamy, M Kumar, R.K. Menzies, S. Molur, S. Mukherjee, R. Naniwadekar, S. Nijhawan, R. Raghavan, M. Rao, J.K. Roy, N. Sharma, A. Sinha, U. Srinivasan,K., Tamma, C. Umbrey, N. Velho, A. Viswanathan & R. Yumnam (2020). ‘The devil is in the detail’: Peer-review of the Wildlife Conservation Plan by the Wildlife Institute of India for the Etalin Hydropower Project, Dibang Valley. Zoo’s Print 35(5): 1–78.
Zarevskij, S.F. (1926). Notes on some Batracians from the Palaearctic region. Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de l’Académie des Sciences de Leningrad 26: 74–78.
Zhan, A. & J.Z. Fu (2011). Past and present: Phylogeography of the Bufo gargarizans species complex inferred from multi-loci allele sequence and frequency data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 136–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.06.009