Main Article Content
The diel activity pattern of small carnivores was studied using the camera trap technique at Nelliampathy Reserve Forest, Kerala, India. Six species of small carnivores were recorded during the study. These include Brown Palm Civet Paradoxurus jerdoni, Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica, Stripe-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis, Brown Mongoose Herpestes fuscus, Nilgiri Marten Martes gwatkinsii, and Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis. The maximum diel activity overlap was detected between the Brown Palm Civet and Small Indian Civet, while the activity overlap was minimal between the Stripe-necked Mongoose and Small Indian Civet.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2722.214.171.12453-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Anil, G., N. Kishor, G. Naseef, N. Ommer & P.O. Nameer (2018). Observations on the Nilgiri Marten Martes gwatkinsii (Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Pampadum Shola National Park, southern Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(1): 11226–11230. http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.34126.96.36.19926- 11230
Anoop, K.R. & S.A. Hussain (2004). Factors affecting habitat selection by Smooth-coated Otters Lutra perspicillata in Kerala, India. Journal of Zoological Society 263(4): 417–423.
Anoop, K.R. & S.A. Hussain (2005). Food and feeding habits of Smooth-coated Otters (Lutra perspicillata) and their significance to the fish population of Kerala, India. Journal of Zoological Society 266(1): 15–23.
Azevedo, F.C., F.G. Lemos, M.C. Freitas-junior, D.G. Rocha & F.C.C. Azevedo (2018). Puma activity patterns and temporal overlap with prey in a human-modified landscape in southeastern Brazil. Journal of Zoology (London) 305: 246–255. https://doi.org/10.1111/jzo.12558
Bhosale, H.S., G.A. Punjabi & R. Bardapurkar (2013). Photographic documentation of Brown Palm Civet Paradoxurus jerdoni in Maharashtra, India, North of its known range. Small Carnivore Conservation 49: 37–39.
Chen, M.T., M.E. Tewes, K.J. Pei & L.I. Grassman Jr. (2009). Activity patterns and habitat use of sympatric small carnivores in southern Taiwan. Mammalia 73: 20–26
Cruz, P., M.E. Iezzi, C. De Angelo, D. Varela, M.S. Di Bitetti & A. Paviolo (2018). Effects of human impacts on habitat use, activity patterns and ecological relationships among medium and small felids of the Atlantic Forest. PLoS ONE 13(8): e0200806. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200806
Fuller, A., D. Mitchell, S.K. Maloney & R.S. Hetem (2016). Towards a mechanistic understanding of the responses of large terrestrial mammals to heat and aridity associated with climate change. Climate Change Responses 3(1): 1–19.
Gerber, B., S.M. Karpanty & J. Randrianantenaina (2012). Activity patterns of carnivores in the rain forests: implications for species coexistence. Journal of Mammalogy 93: 667–676.
Gomez, H., R.B. Wallace, G. Ayala & R. Tejada (2005). Dry season activity periods of some Amazonian mammals. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 40: 91–95. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650520500129638
Harmsen B.J., R.J. Foster, S.C. Silver, E.T.O. Linde & C.P. Doncaster (2011). Jaguar and Puma activity patterns in relation to their main prey. Mammalian Biology 76: 320–324. https://doi:10.1016/j. mambio.2010.08.007
Ikeda, T., K. Uchida, Y. Matsuura, H. Takahashi, T. Yoshida, K. Kaji & I. Koizumi (2016). Seasonal and diel activity patterns of eight sympatric mammals in Northern Japan revealed by an intensive camera-trap survey. PLoS One 11(10): e0163602. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0163602
IMD (Indian Meteorological Department) (2019). IMD; an online data base of Weather data of Palakkad District [web application]. Indian Meteorological Department, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, New Delhi, https://mausam.imd.gov.in/index.php
Kalle, R., T. Ramesh, Q. Qureshi & K. Sankar (2013a). Predicting the distribution pattern of small carnivores in response to environmental factors in the Western Ghats. Plos One 8(11): e79295. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079295
Kalle, R., T. Ramesh, K. Sankar & Q. Qureshi (2013b). Observations of sympatric small carnivores in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, India. Small Carnivore Conservation 44: 53–59.
Kumara, H.N. & M. Singh (2006). Small carnivores of Karnataka: distribution and sight records. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 104(2): 155–162.
Kumara, H.N., O. Thorat, K. Santhosh, R. Sasi & H.P. Ashwin (2014). Small carnivores of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, Karnataka, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(12): 6534–6543. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3766.6534-43
Linkie, M. & M.S. Ridout (2011). Assessing tiger-prey interactions in Sumatran rainforests. Journal of Zoology (London) 284: 224–229. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2011.00801.x
Meredith, M. & M. Ridout (2018). Package ‘overlap’: estimates of coefficient of overlapping for animal activity patterns. R Package Version 0.3.2. Accessed 21 April 2019. Available online at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/overlap/overlap.pdf
Mudappa, D., A. Kumar & R. Chellam (2010). Diet and fruit choice of the brown palm civet Paradoxurus jerdoni, a viverrid endemic to the Western Ghats rainforest, India. Tropical Conservation Science 3(3): 282–300.
Mudappa, D., B.R. Noon, A. Kumar & R. Chellam (2007). Responses of small carnivores to rain forest fragmentation in the southern Western Ghats, India. Small Carnivore Conservation 36: 18–26.
Mukherjee, S., P. Singh, A.P. Silva, C. Ri, K. Kakati, B. Borah, T. Tapi, S. Kadur, P. Choudhary, S. Srikant, S. Nadig, R. Navya, M. Björklund & U. Ramakrishnan (2019). Activity patterns of the small and medium felid (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) guild in northeastern India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(4): 13432–13447. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.46188.8.131.5232-13447
Nameer, P.O. (2015). A checklist of mammals of Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(13): 7971–7982. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2000.7.13.7971-7982
Nameer, P.O. (2020). JoTT Checklist of the mammals of Kerala (v1.0), 01 January 2020. https://threatenedtaxa.org/index.php/JoTT/checklists/mammals/westernghats
Nikhil, S. & P.O. Nameer (2017). Small carnivores of the montane forests of Eravikulam National Park in the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(11): 10880–10885. http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2184.108.40.20680-10885
Perinchery, A., D. Jathanna & A. Kumar (2011). Factors determining occupancy and habitat use by Asian small-clawed otters in the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Mammalogy 92(4): 796–802.
Pillay, R. (2009). Observations of small carnivores in the southern Western Ghats, India. Small Carnivore Conservation 40: 36–40.
Punjabi, G.A., A.S. Borker, F. Mhetar, D. Joshi, R. Kulkarni, S.K. Alave & M.K. Rao (2014). Recent records of Stripe-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis and Asian Small-clawed Otter Aonyx cinereus from the north Western Ghats, India. Small Carnivore Conservation 51: 51–55.
Rajamani, N., D. Mudappa & H.V. Rompaey (2002). Distribution and status of the Brown Palm Civet in the Western Ghats, South India. Small Carnivore Conservation 27(2): 6–11.
Raman, S., T.T Shameer, R. Sanil, P. Usha & S. Kumar (2020). Protrusive influence of climate change on the ecological niche of endemic brown mongoose (Herpestes fuscus fuscus): a MaxEnt approach from the Western Ghats, India. Modelling Earth Systems and Environment 6(3): 1795–1806. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40808-020-00790-1
Ridout, M.S. & M. Linkie (2009). Estimating overlap of daily activity patterns from camera-trap data. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 14: 322–337.
Rovero, F. & A.R. Marshall (2009). Camera trapping photographic rate as an index of density in forest ungulates. Journal of applied Ecology 46(5): 1011–1017.
Sanghamithra, D. & P.O. Nameer (2018). Small carnivores of Silent Valley National Park, Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(8): 12091–12097. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.29220.127.116.1191-12097
Sayyed, A., S.S. Talmale & A. Mahabal (2019). Records of Brown Palm Civet Paradoxurus jerdoni in Satara district, Maharashtra: extension of known range in Western Ghats, India. Zoo’s Print 34(9): 8–11.
Selvan, K.M., B.M. Krishnakumar, P. Ramasamy & T. Thinesh (2019). Diel activity pattern of meso-carnivores in the suburban tropical dry evergreen forest of the Coromandel Coast, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(8): 13960–13966. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4818.104.22.16860-13966
Silveira, L., A.T.A. Ja´como & J.A.F. Diniz-Filho (2003). Camera trap, line transect census and track surveys: a comparative evaluation. Biological Conservation 114: 351–355. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(03)00063-6
Solina, I.D., W. Novarino, Rizaldi & A.J. Giordano (2018). Activty pattern and habitat profile of small carnivores in and oil palm landscape. Journal of Indonesian Natural History 6(1): 18–27.
Sreehari, R. & P.O. Nameer (2016). Small carnivores of Parambikulam Tiger Reserve, southern Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(11): 9306–9315. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2322.214.171.12406-9315
Sreekumar, E.R. & P.O. Nameer (2018). Small carnivores of Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, the southern Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(1): 11218–11225. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.36126.96.36.19918-11225
Sridhar, H., T.R.S. Raman & D. Mudappa (2008). Mammal persistence and abundance in tropical rainforest remnants in the southern Western Ghats, India. Current Science 94: 748–757.
Su, S. & J. Sale (2007). Niche differentiation between common Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphrodites and Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica in regenerating degraded forest, Myanmar. Small Carnivore Conservation 36: 30–34.
Suthar, S., A. Menon & S. Gubbi (2020). An extension of the known range of Brown Mongoose Urva fuscus in southern India. Small Carnivore Conservation 58: e58007.
Varghese S. (2015). Working Plan of Nenmara Forest Division 2015-2025. Kerala Forest Department, Thiruvananthapuram, 469 pp.
Wilson, D.E. & R.A. Mittermeier (2009). Handbook of the Mammals of the World, Vol. 1. Lynx Edicions in association with Conservation International and IUCN, 728pp.