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Aristolochia cathcartii Hook.f. & Thomson is a medicinal plant species native to Assam (India). Karbi people have traditionally used the plant to treat a variety of ailments. The population stock of this species has been rapidly depleting in its natural habitats due to over-utilization, habitat fragmentation, and other anthropogenic activities. Extensive field surveys were carried out to investigate the population status of A. cathcartii in various forest areas of Assam’s Karbi Anglong district. In 20 km of transects, a total of 36 quadrats were observed. A. cathcartii density, frequency of occurrence, and abundance were recorded to be 0.65, 17.8, and 3.81, respectively. Ecological niche modelling was used to identify suitable habitat for the reintroduction and conservation of this plant in Assam in order to prevent its extinction in the future. The maximum entropy distribution modelling algorithm was used to identify suitable areas and habitat for the species’ reintroduction and conservation. Primary data on the occurrence of A. cathcartii was gathered from the natural habitat of Karbi Anglong district, Assam, for modelling. The model identified various forest areas in northeastern India that have suitable climatic conditions for plant reinforcement.
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