Main Article Content
There exists limited information on biodiversity including avifaunal diversity and habitat condition in community forests (CF) of Nepal; thus we aimed to fulfill such gaps in Tibrekot CF of Kaski district. We used the point count method for assessing bird diversity and laid out a circular plot size of radius 5-m within 15-m distance from each point count station for recording the biophysical habitat characteristics. Bird species’ diversity, richness and evenness were calculated using popular indexes and General Linear Model (GLM) was used to test the respective effect of various biophysical factors associated with the richness of bird species. In total, 166 (summer 122, winter 125) bird species were recorded in 46 sample plots. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was calculated as 3.99 and 4.09, Margalef’s richness index as 16.84 and 17.53 and Pielou’s evenness index as 0.83 and 0.84 for summer and winter, respectively. The influencing factors for richness of bird species were season (χ21, 90= 112.21; P= 0.016) with higher richness in the summer season and low vegetation cover (χ21, 89= 113.88; P= 0.0064) with higher richness in lower percentage cover. Thus, community managed forest should be protected as it has a significant role in increasing bird diversity, which has potential for attracting avifaunal tourism for the benefit of the local communities.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27126.96.36.19953-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Adhikari, J.N., B.P. Bhattarai & T.B. Thapa (2019). Factors affecting diversity and distribution of threatened birds in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(5): 13511–13522. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4188.8.131.5211-13522
Baral, H.S. & C. Inskipp (2005). Important Bird Areas in Nepal: key sites for conservation. Bird Conservation Nepal, 242 pp.
Basnet, T.B., M.B. Rokaya, B.P. Bhattarai & Z. Münzbergová (2016). Heterogeneous landscapes on steep slopes at low altitudes as hotspots of bird diversity in a hilly region of Nepal in the Central Himalayas. PLOS ONE 11(3): e0150498. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150498
Bernard, H., E.L. Baking, A.J. Giordano, O.R. Wearn & A.H. Ahmad (2014).Terrestrial mammal species richness and composition in three small forest patches within an oil palm landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Mammal Study 39(3): 141–154. https://doi.org/10.3106/041.039.0303
Burfield, I.J., S.H. Butchart & N.J. Collar (2017). BirdLife, conservation and taxonomy. Bird Conservation International 27(1): 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270917000065
Canterbury, G.E., T.E. Martin, D.R. Petit, L.J. Petit & D.F. Bradford (2000). Bird communities and habitat as ecological indicators of forest condition in regional monitoring. Conservation Biology 14(2): 544–558. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.98235.x
Dahal, B.R., C.A. McAlpine & M. Maron (2014). Bird conservation values of off-reserve forests in lowland Nepal. Forest Ecology and Management 323: 28–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.03.033
Dahal, B.R., P.J. McGowan & S.J. Browne (2009). An assessment of census techniques, habitat use and threats to Swamp Francolin Francolinus gularis in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Bird Conservation International 19(2): 137–147. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270908008083
Girma, Z., G. Mengesha & T. Asfaw (2017). Diversity, relative abundance and distribution of Avian fauna in and around Wondo Genet forest, South-Central Ethiopia. Research Journal of Forestry 11 (1): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3923/rjf.2017.1.12
Gupta, N., M. Everard., I. Kochhar & V.K. Belwal (2019). Avitourism opportunities as a contribution to conservation and rural livelihoods in the Hindu Kush Himalaya-a field perspective. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(10): 14318–14327. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.49184.108.40.20618-14327
Hostetler, M.E. & M.B. Main (2001). Florida Monitoring Program: Point Count Method to Survey Birds. University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS, Gainesville, 45pp.
Inskipp, C., H.S. Baral, S. Phuyal, T.R. Bhatt, M. Khatiwada, T. Inskipp & L. Poudyal (2016). The Status of Nepal’s Birds: The National Red List Series. Zoological Society of London, UK.
Inskipp, C., H.S. Baral, T. Inskipp & A. Stattersfield (2013).The state of Nepal birds 2010. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(1): 3473–3503. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3276.933
IUCN (2017). The IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2017-1. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland. Available from http://www.iucnredlist.org Electronic version accessed May 2020.
Jha, P.K. (2019). Diversity of Birds in the Foothills of Phulchoki Hill, Lalitpur, Nepal. Forestry: Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal 16: 62–71.
Joshi, R., R. Chhetri & K. Yadav (2019).Vegetation analysis in Community Forests of Terai Region, Nepal. International Journal of Environmental Science 8(3): 68–82. https://doi.org/10.3126/ije.v8i3.26667
Joshi, R. & H. Singh (2020). Carbon sequestration potential of disturbed and non-disturbed forest ecosystem: A tool for mitigating climate change. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 14(11): 385–393. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJEST2020.2920
Joshi, R., H. Singh, R. Chhetri & K. Yadav (2020). Assessment of carbon sequestration potential in degraded and non-Degraded community forests in Terai Region of Nepal. Journal of Forest and Environmental Science 36(2): 113–121. https://doi.org/10.7747/JFES.2020.36.2.113
Katuwal, H.B., K. Basnet, B. Khanal, S. Devkota, S.K. Rai, J.P. Gajurel & M.P. Nobis (2016). Seasonal changes in bird species and feeding guilds along elevational gradients of the Central Himalayas, Nepal. PLOS ONE11(7): e0158362. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158362
Khan, B. & Z. Ali (2014). Assessment of birds’ fauna, occurrence status, diversity indices and ecological threats at ManglaDam, AJK from 2011 to 2014. Journal of Animal and Plant Science 25(3): 397–403.
Kumar, R., G. Shahabuddin & A. Kumar (2011). How good are managed forests at conserving native woodpecker communities? A study in sub-himalayandipterocarp forests of northwest India. Biological Conservation 144(6): 1876–1884. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.04.008
Luintel, H., R.A. Bluffstone & R.M. Scheller (2018).The effects of the Nepal community forestry program on biodiversity conservation and carbon storage. PLOS ONE13(6): e0199526. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199526
Lundberg, J. & F. Moberg (2003). Mobile link organisms and ecosystem functioning: implications for ecosystem resilience and management. Ecosystems 6(1): 0087–0098. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-002-0150-4
Mahiga, S.N., P. Webala, M.J. Mware & P.K. Ndang’Ang’A (2019). Influence of land-use type on forest bird community composition in Mount Kenya Forest. International Journal of Ecology (Volume 2019) Article ID 8248270. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8248270
Manu, S. & W.R. Cresswell (2007). Addressing sampling bias in counting forest birds: a West African case study. Ostrich-Journal of African Ornithology 78(2): 281–286. https://doi.org/10.2989/OSTRICH.2007.78.2.25.105
Margalef, R. (1958). Temporal succession and spatial heterogeneity in phytoplankton. Perspectives in Marine Biology (Série B. Colloques) 27: 323–349.
MoFSC (2014). Nepal Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan: 2014-2020. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Singhdurbar, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Moning, C. & J. Müller (2008). Environmental key factors and their thresholds for the avifauna of temperate montane forests. Forest Ecology and Management 256(5): 1198–1208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.06.018
Mulwa, R.K., K. Böhning‐Gaese & M. Schleuning (2012).High bird species diversity in structurally heterogeneous farmland in western Kenya. Biotropica 44(6): 801–809. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2012.00877.x
Odum, E.P. (1971). Fundamentals of Ecology. WB Saunders Company. Philadelphia, London, Toronto, 574 pp.
Pandey, N., L. Khanal & M.K. Chalise (2020). Correlates of avifaunal diversity along the elevational gradient of Mardi Himal in Annapurna Conservation Area, Central Nepal. Avian Research 11(1): 1–14.
Paudel P.K., B.P. Bhattarai & P. Kindlmann (2012). An overview of the biodiversity in Nepal, pp. 1–40. In: Kindlmann P. (ed.). Himalayan Biodiversity in the Changing World. Springer, Dordrecht, 216 pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1802-9_1
Peh, K.S.H., N.S. Sodhi, J. De Jong, C.H. Sekercioglu, C.A.M. Yap & S.L.H. Lim (2006). Conservation value of degraded habitats for forest birds in southern Peninsular Malaysia. Diversity and Distributions 12(5): 572–581. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1366-9516.2006.00257.x
Persha, L., H. Fischer, A. Chhatre, A. Agrawal & C. Benson (2010). Biodiversity conservation and livelihoods in human-dominated landscapes: Forest commons in South Asia. Biological Conservation 143(12): 2918–2925. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.03.003
Pielou, E.C. (1996). A clearcut decision. Nature Canada 25(2): 21–25.
Ralph, C.J., S. Droege & J.R. Sauer (1995). Managing and monitoring birds using point counts: standards and applications. In: Ralph, C.J., J.R. Sauer & S. Droege (technical editors). Monitoring Bird Populations by Point Counts. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-149. Albany, CA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 149pp.
Shahabuddin, G. & R. Kumar (2007). Effects of extractive disturbance on bird assemblages, vegetation structure and floristics in tropical scrub forest, Sariska Tiger Reserve, India. Forest Ecology and Management 246(2–3): 175–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.03.061
Thakuri, J.J. (2011). An ornithological survey in Reshunga Forest, Potential IBA, West Nepal. A report submitted to Oriental Bird Club (OBC), United Kingdom, 47pp.
Whelan, C.J., D.G. Wenny & R.J. Marquis (2008). Ecosystem services provided by birds. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1134(1): 25–60.
Wu, Y., R. K. Colwell, C. Rahbek, C. Zhang, Q. Quan, C. Wang & F. Lei (2013). Explaining the species richness of birds along a subtropical elevational gradient in the Hengduan Mountains. Journal of Biogeography 40(12): 2310–2323. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12177