Main Article Content
Crop raiding and livestock predation are major conservation problems throughout most protected areas in Nepal, including the Khaptad National Park (KNP). However, no information exists on the extent of crop raiding, livestock predation, and animal attacks among villages surrounding KNP. We conducted a survey of 304 households in 30 villages in four districts (Bajhang, Bajura, Doti, and Achham) in the buffer zone of KNP between 24 May and 20 June 2019, using the snowball sampling technique. All households experienced numerous major incidents of crop raiding between April 2017 and May 2019. Major wildlife involved were Wild Boar Sus scrofa, Himalayan Black Bear Ursus thibetanus, Rhesus Macaque Macaca mulatta, Barking Deer Muntiacus vaginalis, Common Leopard Panthera pardus, Golden Jackal Canis aureus, and Porcupine Hystrix spp. Of the 304 households, all had their crops raided over the past two years, 55.5% (n = 169) faced livestock predation, and 2% (n = 6) attacks resulting in death or injury. Over 40% of households reported taking mitigation measures to minimize crop raiding. Common measures such as night guarding, noise making, use of scarecrows, watch dogs, and fencing were practiced. More than half of respondents had negative opinions towards wildlife but they still believed that wildlife should be conserved. There was no or negligible correlation between general opinion of respondents towards wildlife and wildlife conservation with their education, sex, or involvement in natural resources management group. We established baseline information on crop raiding and livestock predation in villages surrounding KNP. Gathered information will be transmitted to relevant authorities to design and implement measures to mitigate such conflicts.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2718.104.22.16853-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Acharya, K.P., P.K. Paudel, P.R. Neupane & M. Köhl (2016). Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nepal: Patterns of Human Fatalities and Injuries Caused by Large Mammals. PloS ONE 11(9): e0161717. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161717 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161717
Adhikari, J.N., B.P. Bhattarai & T.B. Thapa (2018). Human- Wild Mammal Conflict in a Human Dominated Landscape: A Case Study from Panchase Area in Chitwan Annapurna landscape, Nepal. Journal of Institute of Science and Technology 23(1): 30–38. https://doi.org/10.3126/jist.v23i1.22158 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/jist.v23i1.22158
Anand, S. & S. Radhakrishna (2020). Is human–rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) conflict in India a case of human–human conflict? Ambio 49(10): 1685–1696. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-020-01324-w DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-020-01324-w
Awasthi, B. & N. Singh (2015). Status of Human-Wildlife Conflict and Assessment of Crop Damage by Wild Animals in Gaurishankar Conservation Area, Nepal. Journal of Institute of Science and Technology 20: 107. https://doi.org/10.3126/jist.v20i1.13918 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/jist.v20i1.13918
Banikoi, H., S. Thapa, N. Bhattarai, R. Kandel, S. Chaudhary, S. Chaudhary & C. Pokheral (2017). Mitigating Human-Wildlife Conflict in Nepal: A case study of fences around Chitwan National Park. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu. DOI: https://doi.org/10.53055/ICIMOD.678
DNPWC (Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation) (2019). Khaptad National Park and its buffer zone management plan (2076/77-2080/81). Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation. Kathmandu, Nepal.
Geisser, H. (2000). Das Wildschein (Sus scrofa) im Kanton Thurgau (Schweiz): Analyse der Populationsdynamik, der Habitatansprüche und der Feldschäden in einem anthropogen beeinflussten Lebensraum. PhD Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
Genov, P.V., L. Tonini & G. Massei (1996). Crop damage by wild ungulates in a Mediterranean area. The Game and the Man. Proc. IUGB 214–215.
Government of Nepal (2014). Nepal Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2014–2020. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal, 191 pp.
Gurung, B., J.L.D. Smith, C. McDougal, J.B. Karki & A. Barlow (2008). Factors associated with human-killing tigers in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Biological Conservation 141(12): 3069–3078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.09.013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.09.013
Gurung, D.P. (2002). Wildboar (Sus scrofa, linnaeus-1758) distribution and conflict between park and people in Shivapuri National Park, Nepal. MSc Thesis, Tribhuvan University, Nepal, 78 pp.
Karanth, K.K., A.M. Gopalaswamy, R. DeFries & N. Ballal (2012). Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a central Indian protected area. PloS ONE 7(12): e50433. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050433 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050433
Kattel, B. (1993). A study on assessment of wildlife diversity and crop depredation in Shivapuri Watershed and Wildlife Reserve. Shivapuri Watershed Development Project GCP/NEP/048/NOR, National Consultant Report.
Kunwar, R. & N. Duwadee (2006). Ethnobotanical notes on flora of Khaptad National Park (KNP), far-western Nepal. Himalayan Journal of Sciences 1(1): 25–30. https://doi.org/10.3126/hjs.v1i1.182 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/hjs.v1i1.182
Lamichhane, B.R., G.A. Persoon, H. Leirs, S. Poudel, N. Subedi, C.P. Pokheral, S. Bhattarai, B.P. Thapaliya & H.H. de Iongh (2018). Spatio-temporal patterns of attacks on human and economic losses from wildlife in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. PloS ONE 13(4): e0195373. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195373 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195373
Linkie, M., Y. Dinata, A. Nofrianto & N. Leader‐Williams (2007). Patterns and perceptions of wildlife crop raiding in and around Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra. Animal Conservation 10(1): 127–135. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2006.00083.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2006.00083.x
Madden, F. (2004). Creating Coexistence between Humans and Wildlife: Global Perspectives on Local Efforts to Address Human–Wildlife Conflict. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9(4): 247–257. https://doi.org/10.1080/10871200490505675 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10871200490505675
Mishra, C. (1997). Livestock depredation by large carnivores in the Indian trans-Himalaya: Conflict perceptions and conservation prospects. Environmental Conservation 24: 338–343. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892997000441 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892997000441
Mishra, N. (2000). Status Paper of Khaptad National Park, pp 146–147. In: Richards C., K. Basnet, J.P. Sah & Y. Raut (eds). Grassland Ecology and Management in Protected Areas of Nepal Volume 3: Technical and Status Paper on Grasslands of Mountain Protected Areas. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development and WWF Nepal.
Naughton-Treves, L., J.L. Mena, A. Treves, N. Alvarez & V.C. Radeloff (2003). Wildlife Survival beyond Park Boundaries: The Impact of Slash-and-Burn Agriculture and Hunting on Mammals in Tambopata, Peru. Conservation Biology 17(4): 1106–1117. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.02045.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.02045.x
Pandey, P., P.J.L. Shaner & H.P. Sharma (2016). The wild boar as a driver of human-wildlife conflict in the protected park lands of Nepal. European Journal of Wildlife Research 62(1): 103–108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-015-0978-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-015-0978-5
Pandey, S. & S.B. Bajracharya (2016). Crop Protection and Its Effectiveness against Wildlife: A Case Study of Two Villages of Shivapuri National Park, Nepal. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 16(1): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3126/njst.v16i1.14352 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/njst.v16i1.14352
Poudyal, P.R. (1995). An assessment of crop depredation due to wildlife in Shivapuri watershed and wildlife Reserve; a case of Sundarijal VDC. NP, MSc Thesis, Tribhuvan University, Kritipur, Nepal, 53 pp.
R Core Team (2016). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Saj, T.L., P. Sicotte & J.D. Paterson (2001). The conflict between vervet monkeys and farmers at the forest edge in Entebbe, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 39(2): 195–199. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0141-6707.2000.00299.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0141-6707.2000.00299.x
Saraswat, R., A. Sinha & S. Radhakrishna (2015). A god becomes a pest? Human-rhesus macaque interactions in Himachal Pradesh, northern India. European Journal of Wildlife Research 61(3): 435–443. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-015-0913-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-015-0913-9
Sekhar, N.U. (1998). Crop and livestock depredation caused by wild animals in protected areas: the case of Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. Environmental Conservation 25(2): 160–171. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892998000204 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892998000204
Shehzad, W., M.A. Nawaz, F. Pompanon, E. Coissac, T. Riaz, S.A. Shah & P. Taberlet (2015). Forest without prey: livestock sustain a leopard Panthera pardus population in Pakistan. Oryx 49(2): 248–253. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605313001026 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605313001026
Sherchan, R. & A. Bhandari (2017). Status and trends of human-wildlife conflict: A case study of Lelep and Yamphudin region, Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Taplejung, Nepal. Conservation Science 5(1): 19–25. https://doi.org/10.3126/cs.v5i1.24296 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/cs.v5i1.24296
Thapa, S. (2010). Effectiveness of crop protection methods against wildlife damage: A case study of two villages at Bardia National Park, Nepal. Crop Protection 29(11): 1297–1304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2010.06.015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2010.06.015
Ulak, N.P. (1992). Wild boar in Shivapuri Watershed and Management. Shivapuri Integrated Watershed Management Project GCP/NEP/048/NOR, National Consultant Report.
Wang, S. & D. Macdonald (2006). Livestock predation by carnivores in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park, Bhutan. Biological Conservation 129: 558–565. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.11.024 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.11.024