Historical and current extent of occurrence of the Caracal Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776) (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) in India

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Dharmendra Khandal
Ishan Dhar
Goddilla Viswanatha Reddy


This article focuses on the historical and current extent of occurrence of the Caracal Caracal Caracal in India between 1616 and April 2020.  We collated 134 reports during this period.  Historically, the Caracal was reported in 13 Indian states in nine out of 26 biotic provinces.  Since 2001, the Caracal’s presence has been reported in only three states and four biotic provinces, with only two possible viable populations.  Before 1947, the Caracal was reported from an area of 793,927km2.  Between 1948 and 2000, the Caracal’s reported extent of occurrence in India decreased by 47.99%.  From 2001 to 2020, the reported extent of occurrence further decreased by 95.95%, with current presence restricted to 16,709km2, less than 5% of the Caracal’s reported extent of occurrence in the 1948–2000 period.

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