Main Article Content
The Wattled Crane is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, and isolated population occurs in Ethiopia. This study was conducted in Chimba wetlands, Lake Tana area from October–2013 to December–2014. The objectives were to understand the distribution and population status of the Wattled crane and assess the vegetation characteristics and threats of the ecological units. The population size and density of cranes in the study area was determined from weekly counts carried out in equal-sized sampling units. The total survey area was divided into square grids, and each of them was 1.23 square km wide/size. A total of 10 grid squares, which have an area of 12.32 square km were considered for density analysis. Although the total area of the study was 208.2 km2, unsuitable habitats, such as forest or farmlands were excluded. Counts of cranes were made at known sites. The density was calculated as the average number of cranes counted per unit area. A total of 32 cranes were recorded. The density of cranes in the study area is 2.6 per km2. Cranes were located in Addis Amba, Dehena Mesenta, Latamba, and Legdia local administrative areas. The number recorded in each area varied, the largest (17) was recorded in Latamba Kebele and the fewest (2) in Legdia. The dominant vegetation type of Chimba wetlands is emergent macrophyte. However, the papyrus bed represents about 10% of the wetland. Species of vegetation other than papyrus bed is represented by a 20 quadrat study. A total of 26 macrophyte species belonging to 10 families were recorded. Intensive cultivation, draining of the wetland, habitat degradation, overgrazing of the wetland, overharvesting of papyrus, invasive species, and over-flooding are the major threats of wetlands.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27126.96.36.19953-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Archibald, G.W. & C. Meine (1996). Ecology, Status, and Conservation, pp. 263–292. In: Ellis, D.H., G.H. Gee & M.C. Mirande (eds.). Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry, and Conservation. Department of the Interior, National Biological Service and Washington, DC, and the International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, Wisconsin, xii+318pp.
Aynalem, S. (2017). Birds of Lake Tana Sub-Basin, pp. 179–206. In: Stave, K., G. Goshu & S. Aynalem (eds.). Social and Ecological System Dynamics: Characteristics, Trends, and Integration in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 645 pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45755-0_13
Aynalem, S., G. Nowald & W. Schroder (2011). Observation on the biology and ecology of cranes: Wattled Cranes (Bugeranus carunculatus), Black Crowned Cranes (Balearica pavonina), and Eurasian Cranes (grus grus) at Lake Tana, Ethiopia. INDWA. Journal of African Crane Research and Conservationist 7: 1–12.
Beilfuss, R. (2000). Piecing together the story of an African floodplain: water, wetlands, and Wattled Cranes. ICF Bugle 26: 1–3.
Beilfuss, R., T. Dodman & E.K. Urban (2007). The status of cranes in Africa in 2005. Ostrich 78: 175–184. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2989/OSTRICH.2007.78.2.11.91
Bento, C.B., R.D. Beilfuss & P.A.R. Hockey (2007). Distribution, structure and simulation modeling of the Wattled Crane population in the Marromeu Complex of the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique. Ostrich 78: 185–193. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2989/OSTRICH.2007.78.2.12.92
Bibby, C.J., N.B. Collar, M.J. Crosby, M.F. Heath, C. Imboden, T.H. Jonston, A.J. Long, A.J. Satterfield & S.J. Thirgood (1992). Putting Biodiversity on the Map: Priority Areas for Global Conservation. Barrington Press, Cambridge, 239 pp.
Birdlife International (2020). Species factsheet: Bugeranus carunculatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31 May 2020.
Claire, M.M, F.G George, B. Ann & W. Peter (1996). Egg and semen production, 45–58 pp. In: Ellis DH, Gee GH and Mirande MC (eds.). Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry, and Conservation. Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, DC, and the International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, Wisconsin, xii+318pp.
Douthwaite, R.J. (1974). An endangered population of Wattled Cranes. Biological Conservation 6: 134–142. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(74)90025-1
Dugan, P.J. (ed.) (1990). Wetland Conservation: A Review of Current Issues and Required Action. IUCN, Gland, 192pp.
Francis, I.S. & S. Aynalem (2007). Bird surveys around Bahir Dar-Lake Tana. Important Bird Areas Report, Ethiopia. 93 pp.
Ivey, G.L. (2007). Factors Influencing Nest Success of Greater Sandhill Cranes at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon. M.Sc. Thesis. Oregon State University, Oregon, 48pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1675/1524-4695(2008)31[52:FINSOG]2.0.CO;2
Johnsgard, P.A. (1983). Cranes of the World. Indiana University Press, Bloomington. 316 pp.
Joly, G. (1969). Sampling methods for aerial census of wildlife populations. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 34: 50–55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00128325.1969.11662348
Konrad, P.M. (1981). Status and ecology of Wattled Crane in Africa, pp. 220–237. In: Lewis, J.C. & H. Masatomi (eds.). Crane Research around the World. Proceedings of the International Crane Symposium at Sapporo, Japan. International Council for Bird Preservation, Sapporo.
Krebs, C.J. (1978). Ecology: experimental analysis of distribution and abundance of animals. 2nd ed. Harper and Row, New York, 688 pp.
Lloyd, H., A. Cahill, M. Jones & S. Marsden (1998). Estimating Bird Densities Using Distance Sampling, pp. 35–52. In: Bibby, C., M. Jones & S. Marseden (eds). Expedition field techniques, Bird surveys. Royal Geographical Society with the Institute of British Geography, London, 134pp.
Maltby, E. (1986). Waterlogged Wealth: Why waste the world’s wet places? International Institute for Environment and Development and Earth scan, London, 200 pp.
Meine, C.D. & G.W. Archibald (1996). The Cranes: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, 293 pp.
Mohamed, Y.A., B.J.J.M. van den Hurk, H.H.G. Savenije & W.G.M. Bastiaanssen (2005). Hydroclimatology of the Nile: results from a regional climate model. Hydrology and Earth System Science 9: 263–278. https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-9-263-2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-9-263-2005
Sundra, K.S.G. (2009). Are rice paddies suboptimal breeding habitat for Sarus Cranes in Uttar Pradesh, India? The Condor 111(4): 611–623. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/cond.2009.080032
Sime E. & B. Solomon (2017). Hydrology of Lake Tana Basin, pp. 117–126. In: Stave, K., G. Goshu & S. Aynalem (eds.). Social and Ecological System Dynamics: Characteristics, Trends, and Integration in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 645 pp.
Sutherland, W.J. (1996). Ecological Census Techniques: A handbook. Cambridge University Press, London. 336 pp.
Urban, E.K. & L.H. Walkinshaw (1967). The Wattled Crane in Ethiopia. Auk. 84: 263–264. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/4083193
Zelelew, S.A., N. Günter, A. George, T. Hadis, A. Abebayehu, M. Kerryn & G.M. Tariku (2020). Distribution and population estimates of four crane species in Ethiopia: a global crane hotspot facing increasing threats. Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology 40(2): 1–17.