Hazards of wind turbines on avifauna - a preliminary appraisal within the Indian context

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Himika Deb
Tanmay Sanyal
Anilava Kaviraj
Subrata Saha


Wind farms are substantial sources of renewable energy in India; however, their spread across the country potentially present new hazards to local and migratory birds.  This study explored the risk of electrocution and collision of birds with wind turbines close to eco-sensitive zones in India, including Bakkhali, a UNESCO World Heritage site.  Geographic information system and remote sensing technology were used.  The results indicate vulnerability of local bird species such as barn owl, Indian Scops Owl, Blue Rock Pigeon, Asian Koel, House Crow, Common Sandpiper, Common Snipe, Ruddy Shelduck, Lesser Whistling Duck, Cattle Egret, Great Egret, and Pond Herons, as well as migratory species such as Bar-headed Goose, Red-crested Pochard, and American Black Duck.  Modification of wind turbine design and location were considered determinant factors to reduce risk of bird collisions.

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