Main Article Content
This study was carried out to establish the diversity and distribution of butterflies in Gidakom Forest Management Unit (GFMU), Thimphu, Bhutan. A survey was conducted from June 2016 to July 2017 in three locations within GFMU: Jamdo, Chimithanka, and Jedekha. A total of 90 species belonging to 52 genera and five families of butterflies were recorded. Nymphalidae was dominant with 38 species, followed by Lycaenidae with 19, Pieridae with 15, Papilionidae with 11, and Hesperiidae with seven species. Diversity of butterfly species was highest in farmland associated with pockets of forest cover in the lower valley, and a decreasing trend was observed towards higher elevations. The maximum species richness (83 species) was recorded from Chimithanka between 2500m & 2900m, where agriculture is associated with patches of forest, streams, forest edges, and open scrub land. Butterfly diversity was lowest at Jedekha above 2,900m (37 species), an area dominated by mixed conifer forest with little agriculture.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2722.214.171.12453-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Acharya, B.K. & L. Vijayan (2011). Butterﬂies of Sikkim with reference to elevational gradient in species, abundance, composition, similarity and range size distribution pp. 207–220. In: Arawatia, M.L. & S. Tambe (eds.). Biodiversity of Sikkim: Exploring and Conserving A Global Hotspot. IPR Department, Government of Sikkim, Gangtok.
Acharya, B.K. & L. Vijayan (2015). Butterfly diversity along the elevation gradient of Eastern Himalaya, India. Ecological Research 30(5): 909–919. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-015-1292
Atauri, J.A. & J.V. Lucio (2001). The role of landscape structure in species richness distribution of birds, amphibians, reptiles and lepidopterans in Mediterranean landscapes. Landscape Ecology 16: 147–159. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011115921050 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011115921050
Bazzaz, F.A. (1975). Plant species diversity in old-field successional ecosystems in southern Illinois. Ecology 56: 485–488.
Bonebrake, T.C., L.C. Ponisio, C.L. Boggs & P.R. Erlich (2010). More than just indicators: A review of tropical butterfly ecology and conservation. Biological Conservation 143: 1831–1841. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.04.044 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.04.044
Brooks, D.M. (1997). The influence of habitat structure upon diversity and evenness of abundance. Texas Journal of Science 49: 247–254.
Bullock, S.H., H.A. Mooney & E. Medina (Eds.) (1995). Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 439pp. https//doi.org/10.5822/978-1-61091-021-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511753398
Castro, A. & C.I. Espinosa (2015). Seasonal diversity of butterflies and its relationship with woody-plant resources availability in an Ecuadorian tropical dry forest. Tropical Conservation Science 8(2): 333–351. https://doi.org/10.1177/194008291500800205 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/194008291500800205
Harada, M. (1987a). Butterflies of Bhutan (I). The Lepidopterological Society of Janpan, 4-14pp.
Harada, M. (1987b). Butterflies of Bhutan (II). The Lepidopterological Society of Janpan, 23–24pp.
Hill, J.K., C.D. Thomas, R. Fox, M.G. Telfer, S.G. Willis, J. Asher & B. Huntley (2002). Responses of butterflies to twentieth century climate warming: implications for future ranges. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 269: 2163–2171. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2002.2134 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2002.2134
Kocher, S.D. & E.H. Williams (2000). The diversity and abundance of North America butterflies, vary with habitat disturbance and geography. Journal of Biogeography 27(4): 785–794. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2000.00454.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2000.00454.x
Körner, C. (2007). The use of ‘altitude’ in ecological research, Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22 (11): 569–574. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2007.09.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2007.09.006
Kunte, K. (2000). Butterflies of Peninsular India. Universities Press (Hyderabad) and Indian Academy of Sciences (Bangalore), 254pp.
McCain, C.M. (2010). Elevational Gradients in Species Richness, pp. 1–10. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470015902.a0022548 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470015902.a0022548
Phuntsho, Y. (2012). Forest Management Plan For Gidakom Forest Management Unit. Forest Resources Management Division, Department of Forest and Park Services, Thimphu, 71pp.
Pollard, E. & T.J. Yates (1993). Monitoring Butterflies for Ecology and Conservation. The British Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Springer Netherlands, 174pp.
Pollard, E., D.O. Elias, M.J. Skelton & J.A. Thomas (1975). A method of assessing the abundance of butterflies in Monk’s Wood National Nature Research in 1973. Entomologist’s Gazette 26: 79–87.
Qureshi, A.A., A.D. Rayees, I.T. Shaheen & R.C. Bhagat (2013). Butterfly-fauna of Gulmarg, Kashmir, J&K State. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 2(5): 40–45.
Ribeiro, D.B. & A.V. Freitas (2012). The effect of reducedimpact logging on fruit-feeding butterflies in Central Amazon, Brazil. Journal of Insect Conservation 16(5): 733–744. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-012-9458-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-012-9458-3
Sbordoni, V., G.C. Bozano, K. Wangdi, S. Sherub, S. Marta, S. De Felici & D. Cesaroni (2015). Towards a georeferenced checklist of the butterflies of Bhutan: a preliminary account (Insecta: Lepidoptera). pp.523–546, pl. I-VI. In: Hartmann, M. & J. Weipert. Biodiversity and Natural Heritage of the Himalaya. V, Verein der Freunde und Foerder des Naturkundemuseums Erfurt e.V. Erfurt, Germany.
Sengupta, P., K.K. Banerjee & N. Ghorai (2014). Seasonal diversity of butterflies and their larval food plants in the surroundings of upper Neora Valley National Park, a sub-tropical broad leaved hill forest in the eastern Himalayan landscape, West Bengal, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(1): 5327–5342. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3446.5327-42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3446.5327-42
Singh, A.P. (2016). Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(3): 8596–8601. https://doi.org/10.11609/ jott.22126.96.36.19996-8601 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.22188.8.131.5296-8601
Singh, I.J., & M. Chib (2014). A preliminary checklist of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhophalocera) of Mendrelgang, Tsirang District, Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(5): 5755–5768. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3632.5755-68 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3632.5755-68
Singh, I.J & M.S. Chib (2015). Checklist of Butterflies of Bhutan. Journal of the Bhutan Ecological Society 1(2): 22–58.
Sondhi, S. & K. Kunte (2016). Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, western Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(8): 9053–912. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.29184.108.40.20653-9124 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.29220.127.116.1153-9124
Storch, D., M. Konvicka, J. Benes, J. Martinkova & K.J. Gaston (2003). Distribution patterns in butterflies and birds of the Czech Republic: separating effects of habitat and geographical position. Journal of Biogeography 30 (8): 1195–1205. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2003.00917.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2003.00917.x
Tews, T., U. Brose, V. Grimm, K. Tielborger, M.C. Wichmann, M. Schwager & F. Jeltsch (2004). Animal species diversity driven by habitat heterogeneity/diversity: the importance of keystone structures. Journal of Biogeography 31: 79–92. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0305-0270.2003.00994.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0305-0270.2003.00994.x
Tiple, A.D. (2012). Butterfly species diversity, relative abundance and status in Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, and central India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(7): 2713–2717. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2656.2713-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2656.2713-7
Tiple, A.D., A.M. Khurad & R.L.H. Dennis (2007). Butterfly diversity in relation to a human-impact gradient on an Indian university campus. Nota lepidopterologica 30(1):179–188.
van der Poel & T. Wangchuk (2007). Butterflies of Bhutan. Mountains, hills and valleys between 800 and 3000m. Royal Society for Protection of Nature (RSPN), Thimphu, Bhutan, 71pp.
van-Ingen, L.T., R.I. Campos & A.N. Andersen (2008). Ant community structure along an extended rain forest–savanna gradient in tropical Australia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 24 (4): 445–455. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467408005166 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467408005166
Wangdi, K. & Sherub (2012a). Nature Guide Series. Nymphalids, Brush-footed Butterflies of Bhutan. Ugyen Wangchuk Institute for Conservation and Environment, Bumthang, Bhutan, 77pp.
Wangdi, K. & Sherub (2012b). Field Guide for Swallowtails of Bhutan. Ugyen Wangchuk Institute for Conservation and Environment, Bumthang, Bhutan, 130pp.
Wangdi, K. & Sherub (2015). Butterflies of Bhutan. UWICE Nature Guide Series: Pieridae (Whites and Yellows) & Lycaenidae (Blues). Ugyen Wangchuck Institute for Environment and Conservation. Bhumthang, Bhutan, 173pp.