Main Article Content
The Endangered Hog Deer Axis porcinus has experienced drastic population declines throughout its geographical range. There is limited knowledge of its current population status, particularly from northeastern India. In this study the population density of Hog Deer was assessed in Manas National Park, which was a deer stronghold prior to the armed conflict that lasted for almost two decades, resulting in depressed deer populations. With the cessation of conflict, efforts were invested by both government and conservation organisations for the recovery and conservation of charismatic fauna in the park. Studies on Hog Deer populations, however, were lacking and thus reliable information on current status is unavailable. Current population status and threats faced by Hog Deer were assessed to aid informed conservation decisions. Distance sampling techniques (line transects) were applied in the grassland habitat during the dry season of two consecutive years. The estimated Hog Deer density was 18.22Â±3.32 km-2. The potential threats to Hog Deer identified in Manas include habitat loss, habitat degradation due to spread of invasive plant species, illegal hunting, and other anthropogenic disturbances. Our study suggests that the Hog Deer population, though reviving, needs immediate conservation attention.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27188.8.131.5253-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Angom, S.A. (2012). Demographic status and genetic variation of Sangai (Cervus eldi eldi) in Keibul Lamjao. PhD Thesis. Saurashtra University, xi+206pp.
Barman, R., B. Chaudhury, N.V.K. Ashraf & V. Menon (2014). Rehabilitation of Greater One-horned Rhinoceros calves in Manas National Park, a World Heritage Site in India. Pachyderm 55: 78â€“88.
Bhattarai, B.P. & P. Kindlmann (2012). Habitat heterogeneity as the key determinant of the abundance and habitat preference of prey species of tiger in the Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Acta Theriologica 57: 89â€“97. https://doi.org/10.1007/S1336401100478
Biswas, S. & K. Sankar (2002). Prey abundance and food habit of tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) in Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Zoology 256: 411â€“420. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836902000456
Biswas, T. (1999). Habitat utilization by Hog Deer (Axis Porcinus) in relation to other sympatric species at Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary. MSc Thesis. Saurashtra University, Gujarat, India, 138pp.
Biswas, T. (2004). Hog Deer (Axis porcinus Zimmerman, 1780). ENVIS Bulletin (Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun) 7: 61â€“78.
Borah, J., T. Sharma, K. Azad, P. Chakraborty & A. Swargowari (2013). Photographic evidence of the Swamp deer in Manas National Park. Oryx 47: 481.
Borthakur, M. (1986). Weather and climate of Northeast India. The Northeast Geographer 18: 20â€“27.
Buckland, S.T., D.R. Anderson, K.P. Burnham, J.L. Laake, D.L. Borchers & L. Thomas (2001). Introduction to Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. Oxford University Press, UK, 448pp.
Buckland, S.T., D.R. Anderson, K.P. Burnham, J.L. Laake, D.L. Borchers & L. Thomas (2004). Advanced Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. Oxford University Press, UK, 413pp.
Brook, S.M., C. Nasak & P. Channa (2015). 2015. Indochinese Hog Deer Axis porcinus annamiticus on the brink of extinction. Deer Specialist Group Newsletter 14â€“31.
Champion, H.G. & S.K. Seth (1968). A revised survey of forest types of India. Delhi, Manager of Publications, New Delhi.
Das, D. (2018). Diversity and assembly of a sub-tropical grassland community in Eastern Himalaya. PhD Thesis, Manipal University, 107pp.
Das, J.P., A. Sinha & B.K. Talukdar (2009). Swamp Deer in Manas: present status and feasibility of restocking. Report submitted to Manas Project Tiger Directorate, Assam Forest Department, India,14pp.
Dhungel, S.K. & B.D. Oâ€™Gara (1991). Ecology of the Hog deer in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Wildlife Monograph 119: 1â€“40.
Goswami, R. & T. Ganesh (2014). Carnivore and herbivore densities in the immediate aftermath of ethno-political conflict: the case of Manas National Park, India. Tropical Conservation Science 7(3): 475â€“487. https://doi.org/10.1177/194008291400700308
Jathanna, D., K.U. Karanth & A.J.T. Johnsingh (2003). Estimation of large herbivore densities in the tropical forests of southern India using distance sampling. Journal of Zoology 261: 285â€“290. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836903004278
Jhala, Y.V., Q. Queshi & R. Gopal (2015). The status of tigers, co-predators & prey in India 2014. National Tiger Conservation Authority, New Delhi and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, 406pp.
Karanth, K.U. & J.D. Nichols (2000). Ecological status and conservation of tigers in India. Final Technical Report. Centre for Wildlife Studies, Bangalore, India, 124pp.
Khan, J.A., R. Chellam, W.A. Rodgers & A.J.T. Johnsingh (1996). Ungulate density and biomass in the tropical dry deciduous of Gir, Gujarat, India. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12: 149â€“162. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400009366
Krishna, Y.C., J. Krishnaswamy & N.S. Kumar (2008). Habitat factors affecting site occupancy and relative abundance of four-horned antelope. Journal of Zoology 276: 63â€“70. https://doi.org/10/1111/j.14697998200800470.x
Lahkar, B.P. (2008). Ecology and management of grassland with special reference to grass and bird communities in Manas national park, Assam. PhD Thesis. Department of Zoology, Gauhati University, xii+ 187pp.
Lahkar, B.P., B.K. Talukdar & P. Sarma (2011). Invasive species in grassland habitat: an ecological threat to the Greater One-horned Rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis). Pachyderm 49: 33â€“39.
Lahkar, D., M.F. Ahmed, R.H. Begum, S.K. Das, B.P. Lahkar, H.K. Sarma & A. Harihar (2018). Camera-trapping survey to assess diversity distribution and photographic capture rate of terrestrial mammals in the aftermath of ethno-political conflict in Manas National Park, Assam, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(8): 12008â€“12017. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4039.10.8.12008-12017
Lopez-Bao, J.V., R. Godinho, C. Pacheco, F.J. Lema, E. Garcia, L. Llaneza, V. Palacios & J. Jimenez (2018). Towards reliable population estimates of wolves by combining spatial capture-recapture models and non-invasive DNA monitoring. Scientific Reports 8: 2177. https://doi.org/10.1038/S41598018206759
Lovari, S., C.P. Pokherel, S.R. Jnawali, L. Fusani & F. Ferretti (2015). Coexistence of the tiger and the common leopard in a prey-rich area: the role of prey partitioning. Journal of Zoology 295: 122â€“131. https://doi.org/10.1111/jzo.12192
Lwin, N., M. Linkie, A. Harihar, S.S. Aung, A.O. Lin & F. Momber (2016). Initiating conservation of a newly discovered population of the endangered Hog deer Axis porcinus in Myanmar. Oryx 52: 126â€“133. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605316000727
Mishra, H.R. (1982). The ecology and behaviour of Chital (Axis axis) in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, U.K., 204pp.
Nath, A., A. Sinha, B.P. Lahkar & N. Brahma (2019). In search of Alien: factors influencing the distribution of Chromolaena odorata L. and Mikania micrantha Kunth in the Terai grasslands of Manas National Park, India. Ecological Engineering 131: 16â€“26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2019.02.012
Odden, M. & P. Wegge (2007). Predicting spacing behaviour and mating systems of solitary cervids: A study of Hog deer and Indian muntjac. Zoology 110: 261â€“270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.zool.2007.03.003
Odden, M., P. Wegge & T. Storaas (2005). Hog deer Axis porcinus need threatened tallgrass floodplains: a study of habitat selection in lowland Nepal. Animal Conservation 8: 1â€“6. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1367943004001854
Ohtaishi, N. & Y.T. Gao (1990). A review of the distribution of all species of deer (Tragulidae, Moschidae and Cervidae) in China. Mammal Review 20: 125â€“144. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2907.1990.tb00108.x
Sarma, P.K., B.P. Lahkar, S. Ghosh, A. Rabha, J.P. Das, N.K. Nath, S. Dey & N. Brahma (2008). Land-use and land-cover change and future implication analysis in Manas National Park, India using multi-temporal satellite data. Current Science 95: 223â€“227.
Seidensticker, J. (1976). Ungulate populations in Chitawan Valley, Nepal. Biological Conservation 10: 183â€“210. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(76)90034-3
Stoen, O. & P. Wegge (1996). Prey selection and prey removal by tiger (Panthera tigris) during the dry season in lowland Nepal. Mammalia 60: 363â€“373. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836903003765
Talukdar, B.K. (2003). Challenges faced in Tiger conservation in Manas National Park of Assam, India. Tigerpaper 37: 11â€“13.
Tikader, B.K. (1983). Threatened Animals of India. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, India, 307pp.
Timmins, R., J.W. Duckworth, N.S. Kumar, M.A. Islam, H.S. Baral, B. Long & A. Maxwell (2015). Axis porcinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T41784A22157664. Downloaded on June 19, 2019. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T41784A22157664.en
UNESCO Report (2005). Report on the UNESCO-IUCN Mission to the Manas World Heritage site, India.
Varman, K.S & R. Sukumar (1995). The line transect method for estimating densities of large mammals in a tropical deciduous forest: an evaluation of modes and field experiments. Journal of Bioscience 20: 273â€“287
Wang, S.W. (2010). Estimating population densities and biomass of ungulates in the temperate ecosystem of Bhutan. Oryx 44: 376â€“382. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605310000487
Wegge, P. & T. Storaas (2009). Sampling tiger ungulate prey by the distance method: lessons learned in Bardia National Park, Nepal. Animal Conservation 12: 78â€“84. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.14691795200800230.x
Zamboni, T., A. Delgad, I. Jimenez-Perez & C.D. Angeloc (2015). How many are there? Multiple-covariate distance sampling for monitoring pampas deer in Corrientes, Argentina. Wildlife Research 42: 291â€“301. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR14222