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Four species of wild canids are documented as occurring in Vietnam: Dhole Cuon alpinus, Eurasian Golden Jackal Canis aureus, Red Fox Vulpes vulpes and Raccoon Dog Nyctereutes procyonoides. Except for Dhole, all species are widely distributed globally and are listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Concerned by the paucity of recent records of these species from Vietnam, especially in the context of rapidly declining mammal populations in the country in general, we undertook a review of the status of these species in Vietnam. All traceable and potentially verifiable canid records from 01 January 2002 until 31 December 2018 were collated and reviewed. The Dhole, formerly the most widely distributed of all canid species in Vietnam, and Raccoon Dog, apparently formerly widely distributed in the northern part of the country, appear to have both declined; Dhole is now either extirpated, or close to extirpation, while Raccoon Dog is of uncertain status. The Eurasian Golden Jackal does not seem to have been reliably observed in the wild since 2004, although it is possible the species may persist in some areas. Red Fox has only ever been known from a handful of records, and the current status of this species is unknown. In summary, Vietnam cannot be considered to sustain healthy populations of any of its four native wild canid species. These declines seem largely attributable to hunting of both the canids themselves and, for Dhole, their prey base, exacerbated by habitat loss.
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