Main Article Content
The Bengal Florican is one of the rarest bustard species and is listed ‘Critically Endangered’ by the IUCN. The species is restricted to the lowland grasslands of India, Nepal, and Cambodia with fewer than 1,000 mature individuals. To assess the species status in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal, we repeated our first comprehensive survey conducted during the 2012 breeding season. In spite of a larger area coverage we recorded only 41 adult Bengal Floricans in 2017 compared to 47 individuals in 2012. Detectability of this rare species is low in its Imperata-Saccharum grasslands. We, therefore, used a long pole with black and white clothing to mimic Bengal Florican’s display flight to stimulate male Bengal Florican. The number of adult males recorded was the same as in the 2012 survey and the adult male density remains one of the highest in the Indian subcontinent. Management recommendations for the long-term conservation of the species in Koshi Tappu include maintenance of Imperata-Saccharum grasslands in the reserve favoured by the Bengal Florican and working with farmers and communities adjacent to the reserve where the birds breed in order to maintain some agricultural lands with vegetation height suitable for the species especially during the species’ breeding season.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27220.127.116.1153-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Baker, T. (1981). Birds seen in Nepal, Feb—Mar 1981. Unpublished report.
Baral, H.S. (2001). Community Structure and Habitat Associations of Lowland Grassland Birds in Nepal. University of Amsterdam and Cardiff University. Amsterdam and Cardiff, 235pp.
Baral, H.S. (2016). Birds of Saptakoshi Floodplains. Himalayan Nature, Kathmandu, Nepal, 44pp.
Baral, H.S., A.K. Ram, B. Chaudhary, S. Basnet, H. Chaudhary, T. Giri & D. Chaudhary (2012). Conservation status of Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis bengalensis (Gmelin, 1789) (Gruiformes: Otididae) in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and adjoining areas, eastern Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(3): 2464–2469. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2948.2464-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2948.2464-9
Baral, H.S., A.K. Ram, B. Chaudhary., D. Chaudhary, A. Timilsina, S. Acharya, K. Bindari, S. Acharya, B. Acharya, P. Thulung, A. Karki & K.P. Acharya (2013). Survey of Bengal florican Houbaropsis bengaldensis (Gmelin, 1789) (Gruiformes: Otididae) in Koshi Tappu Wildife Reserve and adjoining areas, Nepal. Journal of Threatened taxa 5(7): 4076–4083. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3240.4076-83 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3240.4076-83
Baral, H.S. & B. Adhikari (2017). Mikania micrantha: its status and impact on people and wildlife in Nepal, pp. 59–72. In: Ellison, C.A., K.V. Sankaran & S.T. Murphy (eds). Invasive Alien Plants: Impacts on Development and Options for Management. CAB International, UK, xii +232pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/9781780646275.0059
Baral, H.S. & C. Inskipp (2005). Important bird areas in Nepal. Bird Conservation Nepal, Kathmandu and BirdLife International, Cambridge. Electronic version accessed on 06 December 2018.
BirdLife International (2017). Species fact sheet: Haubaropsisbengalensis.http://www.birdlife.org. Electronic version accessed 4 December 2017.
Birdlife International (2018). Species factsheet: Houbaropsis bengalensis. http://www.birdlife.org. Electronic version accessed 15 November 2018.
Chitwan National Park (2016). Grassland Habitat Mapping in Chitwan National Park. Chitwan National Park, Chitwan, Nepal, 64pp.
Collar, N.J., H.S. Baral, N. Batbayar, G.S. Bhardwaj, N. Brahma, R. Burnside, A.U. Choudhury, O. Combreau, P.M. Dolman, P.F. Donald, S. Dutta, D. Gadham, K. Gore, O.A. Goroshko, C. Hong, G.A. Jathar, R.R.S. Jha, Y.V. Jhala, M.A. Koshkin, B.P. Lahkar, G. Liu, S.P. Mahood, M.B. Morales, S.S. Narwade, T. Natsagdori, A.A. Nefedov, J.P. Silva, J.J. Thakuri, M. Wang, Y. Zhang & A.E. Kessler (2017). Averting the extinction of bustards in Asia. Forktail 33: 1–26.
Dahal, B.R., P.J. McGowan & S.J. Browne (2009). An assessment of census techniques, habitat use and threats to Swamp Francolin Francolinus gularis in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Bird Conservation International 19(2): 137–147. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270908008083 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270908008083
Dahmer, T.D. (1976). Birds of Kosi Tappu Wildlife Reserve. Unpublished report.
DNPWC (2016). Bengal florican Conservation Action Plan. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Kathmandu, 32pp.
Inskipp, C. & T. Inskipp (1983). Report on a Survey of Bengal Floricans (Houbaropsis bengalensis) in Nepal and India, 1982. International Council for Bird Preservation (Study Report 2), Cambridge, UK, 54pp.
Inskipp, C. & T. Inskipp (1991). A Guide to the Birds of Nepal, 2nd edition. Christopher Helm, London, 400pp.
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve (2018). Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Its Buffer Zone Management Plan (20174/75- 2078/79). Koshi Rappu Wildlife Reserve, Sunsari, Nepal, 214pp.
Limbu, K.P. & B.R. Subba (2011). Status of key faunal species in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve after Koshi flood disaster 2008. Nepalese Journal of Biosciences 1: 41–54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/njbs.v1i0.7469
Oates, E.W. (1898). A Manual of The Game Birds of India. A J Combridge and Company, Bombay, ix+431pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.32411
Packman, C.E., D.A. Showler, N.J. Collar, S. Virak, S.P. Mahood, M. Handschuh, T.D. Evans, H. Chamnan & P.M. Dolman (2014). Rapid decline of the largest remaining population of Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis and recommendations for its conservation. Bird conservation international 24(4): 429–437. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270913000567 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270913000567
Poudyal, L.P., P.B. Singh & S. Maharajan (2008). Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis in Nepal: an update. Birding Asia 10: 43–47.
Sah, J.P. (1997). Koshi Tappu Wetlands: Nepal’s Ramsar site. IUCN Nepal, Kathmandu, 273pp.
Turton, J.M. & G.J. Speight (1982). A report on birds seen in Nepal, 1982. (Unpublished).