Distribution of the threatened Assamese Macaque Macaca assamensis (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae) population in Nepal

Main Article Content

Laxman Khanal
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2411-3627
Mukesh Kumar Chalise
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1417-6053
Xuelong Jiang
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0235-143X

Abstract

Sustainable conservation and management of a species require detailed knowledge of its population status and distribution pattern.  The population of the Assamese Macaque Macaca assamensis in Nepal, probably a new subspecies endemic to the country, is yet to be studied for documenting its spatial distribution and size.  We did extensive surveys across three major river systems of Nepal (Koshi, Gandaki, and Karnali river systems) by modified line transect method covering almost the entire distribution range of the species within the Nepal territory.  We counted a total of 829 individuals in 43 groups that accounted for the average group size of 19.29 (±10.40) individuals.  The elevation distribution of the species ranged between 130m and 2650m.  Further, we assessed the potential distribution areas of the species by ecological niche modeling employing maximum entropy algorithm.  The census and ecological niche modeling congruently revealed the mid-hills of eastern and central Nepal outside the protected areas as the major habitats of this nationally endangered and protected primate.  Conservation attempts, therefore, should focus on this area.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Khanal, L., Chalise, M.K. and Jiang, X. 2019. Distribution of the threatened Assamese Macaque Macaca assamensis (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae) population in Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 11, 1 (Jan. 2019), 13047–13057. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4623.11.1.13047-13057.
Section
Articles
Author Biographies

Laxman Khanal, Central Department of Zoology, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal

Assistant Professor

Central Department of Zoology

Mukesh Kumar Chalise, Central Department of Zoology, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal

Professor

 

Xuelong Jiang, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiaochang E Rd, Wuhua, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China

Professor

References

Adhikari, K., L. Khanal & M.K. Chalise (2018). Status and effects of food provisoning on ecology of Assamese Monkey (Macaca assamensis) in Ramdi area of Palpa, Nepal. Journal of Institute of Science and Technology 22(2): 183–190.

Boonratana, R., M.K. Chalise, J. Das, S. Htun & R.J. Timmins (2008). Macaca assamensis. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T12549A3354977. Downloaded on 22 December 2018; https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T12549A3354977.en

Boubli, J.P. & M.G. de Lima (2009). Modeling the geographical distribution and fundamental niches of Cacajao spp. and Chiropotes israelita in northwestern Amazonia via a maximum entropy algorithm. International Journal of Primatology 30(2): 217–228; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-009-9335-4

Buckland, S.T., A.J. Plumptre, L. Thomas & E.A. Rexstad (2010). Line transect sampling of primates: can animal-to-observer distance methods work? International Journal of Primatology 31(3): 485–499; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-010-9408-4

Campos, F.A. & K.M. Jack (2013). A potential distribution model and conservation plan for the Critically Endangered Ecuadorian Capuchin, Cebus albifrons aequatorialis. International Journal of Primatology 34(5): 899–916; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-013-9704-x

Carson, B., P.B. Shah & P.B. Maharjan (1986). Land Systems Report - tThe Soil Landscapes of Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal.

Chalise, M.K. (1999). Report on the Assamese Monkeys (Macaca assamensis) of Nepal. Asian Primates 7(1–2): 7–11.

Chalise, M.K. (2003). Assamese Monkeys (Macaca assamensis) in Nepal. Primate Conservation 19: 99–107.

Chalise, M.K. (2005). Characteristics of the Assamese Monkey (Macaca assamensis) of Nepal. American Journal of Primatology 66(S1): 195.

Chalise, M.K. (2008). Primate census in Kathmandu and west parts of Nepal. Journal of Natural History Museum, TU 23: 60–64.

Chalise, M.K. (2010). A study of Assamese Monkeys in Sebrubesi of Langtang National Park, Nepal. Journal of natural History Museum, TU 25: 54–61.

Chalise, M.K. (2013). Fragmented primate population of Nepal, pp329-356. In: Marsh, L.K. & C.A. Chapman (eds.). Primates in Fragments: Complexity and Resilience. Springer Science+Business Media, New York.

Chalise, M.K., J.B. Karki & M.K. Ghimire (2005). Status in Nepal: Non-human Primates. Special issue on the occasion of 10th Wildlife Week, 2062. Department of National Parks & Wildlife Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Chalise, M.K., H. Ogawa & B. Pandey (2013). Assamese Monkeys in Nagarjun Forest of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park. Tribhuvan University Journal 28: 181–189.

Defler, T.R. & D. Pintor (1985). Censusing primates by transect in a forest of known primate density. International Journal of Primatology 6(3): 243–259.

Elith, J., C.H. Graham, R.P. Anderson, M. Dudık, S. Ferrier, A. Guisan, R.J. Hijmans, F. Huettmann, J.R. Leathwick, A. Lehmann, J. Li, L.G. Lohmann, B.A. Loiselle, G. Manion, C. Moritz, M. Nakamura, Y. Nakazawa, J.McC. M. Overton, A.T. Peterson, S.J. Phillips, K. Richardson, R. Scachettiâ€Pereira, R.E. Schapire, J. Soberón, S. Williams, M.S. Wisz & N.E. Zimmermann (2006). Novel methods improve prediction of species’ distributions from occurrence data. Ecography 29: 129–156; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2006.0906-7590.04596.x

Elith, J., M. Kearney & S. Phillips (2010). The art of modelling range-shifting species. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 1(4): 330–342; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2010.00036.x

Fooden, J. (1979). Taxonomy and evolution of the Sinica group of macaques: I. Species and subspecies accounts of Macaca sinica. Primates 20(1): 109–140.

Fooden, J. (1982) Taxonomy and evolution of the sinica group of macaques: 3. Species and subspecies accounts of Macaca assamensis. Vol. No. 10. Fieldina Zoology (pp. 1–52): Field Museum of Natural Hostory.

Guisan, A. & W. Thuiller (2005). Predicting species distribution: offering more than simple habitat models. Ecology Letters 8(9): 993–1009; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00792.x

Jackson, J.K. (1994). Manual of afforestation in Nepal. Retrieved from Forest Research and Survey Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Jarvis, A., H.I. Reuter, A. Nelson & E. Guevara (2008). Hole-filled SRTM for the globe Version 4, available from the CGIAR-CSI SRTM 90m Database (http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org).

Karanth, K.K. & S.K. Nepal (2012). Local residents perception of benefits and losses from protected areas in India and Nepal. Environmental Management 49(2): 372–386; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9778-1

Khanal, L., M.K. Chalise, K. He, B.K. Acharya, Y. Kawamoto & X. Jiang (2018a). Mitochondrial DNA analyses and ecological niche modeling reveal post-LGM expansion of the Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis) in the foothills of Nepal Himalaya. American Journal of Primatology 80(3): e22748; https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22748

Khanal, L., M.K. Chalise, T. Wan & X. Jiang (2018b). Riverine barrier effects on population genetic structure of the Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus) in the Nepal Himalaya. BMC Evolutionary Biology 18(1); https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-018-1280-4

Kuhl, H., F. Maisels, M. Ancrenaz & E.A. Williamson (2008). Best practice guidelines for surveys and monitoring great ape populations. IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG), Gland, Switzerland.

Kumara, H.N. & S. Radhakrishna (2013). Evaluation of census techniques to estimate the density of Slender Loris (Loris lydekkerianus) in southern India. Current Science 104(8): 1083–1086.

Lehmann, J. & R.I. Dunbar (2009). Network cohesion, group size and neocortex size in female-bonded Old World primates. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276(1677): 4417–4422; https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2009.1409

Liu, C., M. White & G. Newell (2013). Selecting thresholds for the prediction of species occurrence with presence-only data. Journal of Biogeography 40(4): 778–789; https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12058

Marshall, A.R., J.C. Lovett & P.C. White (2008). Selection of line-transect methods for estimating the density of group-living animals: lessons from the primates. American Journal of Primatology 70(5): 452–462; https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20516

Molur, S., D. Brandon-Jones, W. Dittus, A. Eudey, A. Kumar, M. Singh, M.M. Feeroz, M. Chalise, K.P. Priya & S. Walker (2003). Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (C.A.M.P.). Zoo Outreach Organisation/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India, viii+432pp.

Morales, N.S., I.C. Fernandez & V. Baca-Gonzalez (2017). MaxEnt’s parameter configuration and small samples: are we paying attention to recommendations? A systematic review. PeerJ 5: e3093; https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3093

Motulsky, H.J. (1999). Analyzing Data with GraphPad Prism. GraphPad Software Inc., San Diego CA. Retrieved from www.graphpad.com

Nag, C., K.P. Karanth & K.V. Gururaja (2014). Delineating ecological boundaries of Hanuman langur species complex in peninsular India using MaxEnt modeling approach. PLoS One 9(2): e87804; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087804

Norris, D., F. Rocha-Mendes, R. Marques, R. de Almeida Nobre & M. Galetti (2011). Density and spatial distribution of Buffy-tufted-ear Marmosets (Callithrix aurita) in a continuous Atlantic forest. International Journal of Primatology 32(4): 811–829; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-011-9503-1

Ortega-Huerta, M.A. & A.T. Peterson (2008). Modeling ecological niches and predicting geographic distributions: a test of six presence-only methods. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 79: 205–216.

Otto-Bliesner, B.L., S.J. Marshall, J.T. Overpeck, G.H. Miller & A. Hu (2006). Simulating Arctic climate warmth and icefield retreat in the last interglaciation. Science 311(5768): 1751–1753; https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1120808

Owen, L.A., R.C. Finkel, P.L. Barnard, M. Haizhou, K. Asahi, M.W. Caffee & E. Derbyshire (2005). Climatic and topographic controls on the style and timing of Late Quaternary glaciation throughout Tibet and the Himalaya defined by 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide surface exposure dating. Quaternary Science Reviews 24(12–13): 1391–1411; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.10.014

Paudel, P.K. (2017). Conflict due to Assamese Macaques (Macaca assamensis McClelland, 1840) and crop protection strategies in Kali-gandaki River Basin, western Nepal. Our Nature 14(1): 107; https://doi.org/10.3126/on.v14i1.16449

Phillips, S.J., R.P. Anderson & R.E. Schapire (2006). Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling 190(3–4): 231–259; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.03.026

Phillips, S.J., M. Dudik & R.E. Schapire (2004). A maximum entropy approach to species distribution modeling. Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Machine Learning: 655–662.

Plumptre, A.J. & D. Cox (2006). Counting primates for conservation: primate surveys in Uganda. Primates 47(1): 65–73; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-005-0146-8

Primack, R.B. (2006). Essentials of Conservation Biology, 4th Ed. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates.

Regmi, G.R., F. Huettmann, M.K. Suwal, V. Nijman, K.A.I. Nekaris, K. Kandel, N. Sharma & C. Coudrat (2018). First open access ensemble climate envelope predictions of Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in Asia: a new role model and assessment of endangered species. Endangered Species Research 36: 149–160; https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00888

Roos, C., R. Boonratana, J. Supriatna, J.R. Fellowes, C. Groves, S.D. Nash, A.B. Rylands & R.A. Mittermeier (2014). An upadated taxonomy and conservation status review of Asian primates. Asian Primates Journal 4(1): 2–38.

Rovero, F., A. Mtui, A. Kitegile, P. Jacob, A. Araldi & S. Tenan (2015). Primates decline rapidly in unprotected forests: evidence from a monitoring program with data constraints. PLoS One 10(2): e0118330; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118330

Sarania, B., A. Devi, A. Kumar, K. Sarma & A.K. Gupta (2016). Predictive distribution modeling and population status of the endangered Macaca munzala in Arunachal Pradesh, India. American Journal of Primatology 79(2): e22592; https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22592

Sarma, K., A. Kumar, M. Krishna, M. Medhi, & O.P. Tripathi (2015). Predicting suitable habitats for the vulnerable Eastern Hoolock Gibbon, Hoolock leuconedys, in India using the MaxEnt model. Folia Primatologica 86(4): 387–397; https://doi.org/10.1159/000381952

Schipper, J., J.S. Chanson, F. Chiozza, N.A. Cox, M. Hoffmann, V. Katariya, J. Lamoreux, A.S. Rodrigues, S.N. Stuart, H.J. Temple, J. Baillie, L. Boitani, T.E. Lacher Jr., R.A. Mittermeier, A.T. Smith, D. Absolon, J.M. Aguiar, G. Amori, N. Bakkour, R. Bald, R.J. Berridge, J. Bielby, P.A. Black, J.J. Blanc, T.M. Brooks, J.A. Burton, T.M. Butynski, G. Catullo, R. Chapman, Z. Cokeliss, B. Collen, J. Conroy, J.G. Cooke, G.A. da Fonseca, A.E. Derocher, H.T. Dublin, J.W. Duckworth, L. Emmons, R.H. Emslie, M. Festa-Bianchet, M. Foster, S. Foster, D.L. Garshelis, C. Gates, M. Gimenez-Dixon, S. Gonzalez, J.F. Gonzalez-Maya, T.C. Good, G. Hammerson, P.S. Hammond, D. Happold, M. Happold, J. Hare, R.B. Harris, C.E. Hawkins, M. Haywood, L.R. Heaney, S. Hedges, K.M. Helgen, C. Hilton-Taylor, S.A. Hussain, N. Ishii, T.A. Jefferson, R.K. Jenkins, C.H. Johnston, M. Keith, J. Kingdon, D.H. Knox, K.M. Kovacs, P. Langhammer, K. Leus, R. Lewison, G. Lichtenstein, L.F. Lowry, Z. Macavoy, G.M. Mace, D.P. Mallon, M. Masi, M.W. McKnight, R.A. Medellín, P. Medici, G. Mills, P.D. Moehlman, S. Molur, A. Mora, K. Nowell, J.F. Oates, W. Olech, W.R. Oliver, M. Oprea, B.D. Patterson, W.F. Perrin, B.A. Polidoro, C. Pollock, A. Powel, Y. Protas, P. Racey, J. Ragle, P. Ramani, G. Rathbun, R.R. Reeves, S.B. Reilly, J.E. Reynolds 3rd., C. Rondinini, R.G. Rosell-Ambal, M. Rulli, A.B. Rylands, S. Savini, C.J. Schank, W. Sechrest, C. Self-Sullivan, A. Shoemaker, C. Sillero-Zubiri, N. De Silva, D.E. Smith, C. Srinivasulu, P.J. Stephenson, N. van Strien, B.K. Talukdar, B.L. Taylor, R. Timmins, D.G. Tirira, M.F. Tognelli, K. Tsytsulina, L.M. Veiga, J.C. Vié, E.A. Williamson, S.A. Wyatt, Y. Xie & B.E. Young (2008). The status of the world’s land and marine mammals: diversity, threat, and knowledge. Science 322(5899): 225–230; https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1165115

Sekercioglu, C.H., S.H. Schneider, J.P. Fay & S.R. Loarie (2008). Climate change, elevational range shifts, and bird extinctions. Conservation Biology 22(1): 140–150; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00852.x

Sharma, C.K. (1999). Physiography: Nepal nature’s paradise. In: Majupuria, T.C. & R.K. Majupiria (eds.). Hari Devi, Gwalior, India. p. 4-8.

Thorn, J.S., V. Nijman, D. Smith & K.A.I. Nekaris (2009). Ecological niche modelling as a technique for assessing threats and setting conservation priorities for Asian slow lorises (Primates: Nycticebus). Diversity and Distributions 15(2): 289–298; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2008.00535.x

Timmins, R.J. & J.W. Duckworth (2013). Distribution and habitat of Assamese Macaque Macaca assamensis in Lao PDR, including Its use of low-altitude Karsts. Primate Conservation 26(1): 103–114; https://doi.org/10.1896/052.026.0113

Vidal-Garcia, F. & J.C. Serio-Silva (2011). Potential distribution of Mexican primates: modeling the ecological niche with the maximum entropy algorithm. Primates 52(3): 261–270; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-011-0246-6

Voskamp, A., E.J. Rode, C.N.Z. Coudrat, W. Wirdateti, A. Abinawanto, R.J. Wilson & K.A.I. Nekaris (2014). Modelling the habitat use and distribution of the threatened Javan slow loris Nycticebus javanicus. Endangered Species Research 23(3): 277–286; https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00574

Wada, K. (2005). The distribution pattern of Rhesus and Assamese monkeys in Nepal. Primates 46(2): 115–119; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-004-0112-x

WoldClim Database (2018). WorldClim Database v.1.4 (current conditions). Downloaded on February 17, 2018; www.worldclim.org/current.