Distribution of the threatened Assamese Macaque Macaca assamensis (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae) population in Nepal

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Laxman Khanal
Mukesh Kumar Chalise
Xuelong Jiang


Sustainable conservation and management of a species require detailed knowledge of its population status and distribution pattern.  The population of the Assamese Macaque Macaca assamensis in Nepal, probably a new subspecies endemic to the country, is yet to be studied for documenting its spatial distribution and size.  We did extensive surveys across three major river systems of Nepal (Koshi, Gandaki, and Karnali river systems) by modified line transect method covering almost the entire distribution range of the species within the Nepal territory.  We counted a total of 829 individuals in 43 groups that accounted for the average group size of 19.29 (±10.40) individuals.  The elevation distribution of the species ranged between 130m and 2650m.  Further, we assessed the potential distribution areas of the species by ecological niche modeling employing maximum entropy algorithm.  The census and ecological niche modeling congruently revealed the mid-hills of eastern and central Nepal outside the protected areas as the major habitats of this nationally endangered and protected primate.  Conservation attempts, therefore, should focus on this area.

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How to Cite
Khanal, L., Chalise, M.K. and Jiang, X. 2019. Distribution of the threatened Assamese Macaque Macaca assamensis (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae) population in Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 11, 1 (Jan. 2019), 13047–13057. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4623.11.1.13047-13057.
Author Biographies

Laxman Khanal, Central Department of Zoology, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal

Assistant Professor

Central Department of Zoology

Mukesh Kumar Chalise, Central Department of Zoology, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal



Xuelong Jiang, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiaochang E Rd, Wuhua, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China



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