Main Article Content
The geographical distribution of plants of Meghalaya show that a total of 548 plant taxa belonging to 302 genera and 100 families are endemic to northeastern India or Indo-Burma or the eastern Himalaya region. Of these, 115 species are exclusively endemic to the state of Meghalaya. The dominant life form is epiphytes (25.4%), followed by trees (25%), shrubs (21.7%), herbs (21%), climbers (6.6%) and parasites (0.4%). In terms of species richness, Orchidaceae is the largest family with 146 species and Bulbophyllum is the dominant genera represented by 15 species. The present investigation reveals that most species considered endemic to the state of Meghalaya has extended geographic distribution to neighbouring states and other countries. Majority of the endemic taxa are restricted to protected areas such as national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, conservation reserves, and small forest patches preserved in the form of community forests or sacred groves. Lesser known species with small populations outside the protected areas are on the verge of extinction due to a number of anthropogenic activities, hence warranting immediate conservation measures.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2718.104.22.16853-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Ahmedullah, M. & M.P. Nayar (1986). Endemic plants of the Indian region. Volume 1. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 261pp.
Balakrishnan, N.P. (1981âˆ’1983). Flora of Jowai. Vol. I & II. Botanical survey of India, Howrah, 666pp.
Brandis, D. (1906). Indian Trees: An Account of Trees, Shrubs, Woody Climbers, Bamboos, and Palms Indigenous or Commonly Cultivated in the British Indian Empire. New York Botanical Garden A. Constable & Co. Ltd. London, 574pp.
Champion, H.G. & S.K. Seth (1968). A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India. Manager of Publications, Government of India, Delhi, 404pp.
Defries, R. (2010). Interactions between protected areas and their surroundings in human-dominated tropical landscapes. Biological Conservation 143: 2870âˆ’2880.
Gentry, A.H. (1982). Neotropical floristic diversity: phyto-geographical connections between Central and South America, Pleistocene climatic fluctuations, or an accident of the Andean orogeny. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 69: 557â€“593. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2399084.
Haridasan, K. & R.R. Rao (1985â€“1987). Forest Flora of Meghalaya. Vol. I & II. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India, 937pp.
Hooker, J.D. (1854). Himalayan Journals or Notes of a Naturalist in Bengal, the Sikkim and Nepal Himalayas, the Khasia mountains. Vol. I & II. J. Murray, Albemarble Street, Bradbury and Evans, Printers Whitefriars, London, 530pp.
Hooker, J.D. (1872âˆ’1897). The Flora of British India. Vol. I to VII. L. Reeva and Company, London.
Hooker, J.D. (1904). A Sketch of Flora of British India. Eyre and Spttiswoode, London, 55pp.
Irwin, S.J. & D. Narasimhan (2011). Endemic genera of Angiosperms in India: a review. Rheedea 21(1): 87â€“105.
Jain, S.K. & R.R. Rao (1977). A Handbook of Field and Herbarium Methods. Today & Tomorrowâ€™s Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, India, 157pp.
Jamir, S.A. & H.N. Pandey (2003). Vascular plant diversity in the sacred groves of Jaintia Hills in northeast India. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 1497â€“1510.
Joseph, J. (1982). Flora of Nongpoh and its Vicinity. Forest Department, Government of Meghalaya, 376pp.
Kanjilal, V.N., P.C. Kanjilal, A. Das, R.N. De & N.L. Bor (1934â€“1940). Flora of Assam, Vol. I to V. Government Press, Shillong, India.
Kataki, S.K. (1986). Orchids of Meghalaya. Forest Department, Government of Meghalaya, India, 380pp.
Khan, M.L., S. Menon & K.S. Bawa (1997). Effectiveness of the protected area network in biodiversity conservation: A case study of Meghalaya State. Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 853âˆ’868.
Khandel, K.A., S. Ganguly, A. Bajaj & S. Khan (2012). New records, ethno-pharmacological applications and indigenous uses of Gloriosa superba L. (Glory Lily) practices by tribes of Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Nature and Science 10(5): 23âˆ’48.
Kumar, Y. (1984). Studies on the Flora of Balphakram Wild Life Sanctuary, Garo Hills, Meghalaya. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Botany, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong.
Lakadong, N.J. (2009). Assessment of Endemism, Rarity and Conservation Status of a few Medicinal Plant Species of Meghalaya. PhD Thesis, Department of Botany, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, 282pp.
Lakadong, N.J. & S.K. Barik (2006). Diversity and distribution of endemic plant species of Meghalaya, India. pp 274â€“311. In: Pandey, H.N. & S.K. Barik (Eds). Ecology, Diversity and Conservation of Plants and Ecosystems in India. Regency Publications, New Delhi, xv+436pp.
Margules, C.R. & R.L. Pressey (2000). Systematic conservation planning; Nature 405: 243â€“253.
Mir, A.H., K. Upadhaya, N. Odyuo & B.K. Tiwari. (2017). Rediscovery of Magnolia rabaniana (Magnoliaceae): A threatened tree species of Meghalaya, northeast India. Journal of Asia Pacific Biodiversity 10(1): 127â€“131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2016.10.004
Mir, A.H., V. Iralu, N.T. Pao, G. Chaudhury, C.G. Khonglah, K.L. Chaudhary, B.K. Tiwari & K. Upadhaya (2016). Magnolia lanuginosa (Wall.) Figlar & Noot. in West Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, Northeastern India: Re-collection and implications for conservation. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(1): 8398â€“8402. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2242.8.1.8398-8402
Myers, N. (1988). Threatened biotas: â€˜hotspotsâ€™ in tropical forests. The Environmentalist 8: 187â€“208.
Myers, N., R.A. Mittermeier, C.G. Mittermeier, G.A. Fonseca & J. Kent (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853â€“857. https://doi.org/10.1038/35002501
Myrthong, S. (1980). Studies on Monocot Flora of Meghalaya. Ph.D Thesis, Department of Botany, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, India, 787pp.
Nayar, M.P. & A.R.K. Sastry (1987). Red Data Book of Indian Plants. Vol. I. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, India, 366pp.
Nayar, M.P. & A.R.K. Sastry (1988). Red Data Book of Indian Plants. Vol. II. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, India, 268pp.
Nayar, M.P. & A.R.K. Sastry (1990). Red Data Book of Indian Plants. Vol. III. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, India, 271pp.
Pandey, H.N., K. Upadhaya, S.A. Jamir, P.S. Law & R.S. Tripathi (2005). Floristic diversity in the sacred groves of Meghalaya, pp. 83â€“99. In: Pandey, A.K., J. Wen & J.V.V. Dogra (eds.). Plant Taxonomy: Advances and Relevance. CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, India, 541pp.
Pimm, S.L. & T.M. Brooks (2000). The sixth extinction: how large, where, and when? pp. 46â€“62. In: Raven, P.H. & T. Williams (eds.). Nature and Human Society: The Quest for A Sustainable World. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 625pp.
Pao, N.T. & K. Upadhaya (2017). Effect of fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbances on floristic composition and structure of subtropical broad leaved humid forest in Meghalaya, northeast India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 15(4): 385â€“407.
Rao, R.R., & P.K. Hajra (1986). Floristic diversity of eastern Himalaya in a conservation perspective. Proceedings Indian Academy of Sciences (Supplementary- Nov). 103âˆ’125.
Renuka, C. (1996). Rattans of North eastern India- a cause for great concern. Arunachal Pradesh Forest News 14(2): 8â€“11.
Seethalakshmi, K.K. & M.S.M. Kumar (1998). Bamboos of India: A Compendium. Kerala Forest Research Institute Peechi and International Network for Bamboo and Rattan, Beijing, 342pp.
Singh, P., K. Karthigeyan, P. Lakshminarasimhan & S.S. Dash (2015). Endemic Vascular Plants of India. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, India, 339pp.
Upadhaya, K., H.N. Pandey, P.S. Law & R.S Tripathi (2003). Tree diversity in sacred groves of the Jaintia hills in Meghalaya, North East India. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 583âˆ’597.
Upadhaya, K., G. Choudhury & K. Sarma (2014). Anthropogenic threats and plant diversity conservation in Cherrapunji- one of the wettest places on Earth. Keanean Journal of Science 3: 3âˆ’20.
Upadhaya, K., N. Thapa, J.N. Lakadong, S.K. Barik & K. Sarma (2013). Priority areas for conservation in North East India: A case study in Meghalaya based on plant species diversity and endemism. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 39(2): 125âˆ’136.
Walter, K.S. & H.J. Gillett (1998). IUCN Red List of threatened plants. Compiled by the world Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 31pp.
Young, K.R., C. Ulloa-Ulloa, J.L. Luteyn & S. Knapp (2002). Plant evolution and endemism in Andean South America: an introduction. The Botanical Review 68: 4â€“27.