A preliminary report on butterfly fauna (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of Tengchong Section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, China

Main Article Content

Yik Fui Philip Lo
Zheng Bi


The butterfly fauna of Tengchong Section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, western Yunnan, China was investigated during a series of field surveys conducted between April 2014 and May 2018.  A total of 216 butterfly species were recorded (Hesperiidae 41, Papilionidae 20, Pieridae 21, Lycaenidae 45, and Nymphalidae 89), of which 179 represent new records for Tengchong.  Significant findings include paratype materials of a recently described genus and a subspecies, respectively, as well as three national and five provincial new records.  Several obscure species were rediscovered during the survey, including two taxa that have not been recorded since their descriptions, Celaenorrhinus morena Evans, 1949 and Thoressa pedla pedla (Evans, 1956).  The result of the survey is presented herein with notes on some little-known species. Additionally, past records on Tengchong butterfly fauna were reviewed and a name is treated as nomen nudum

Article Details

How to Cite
Lo, Y.F.P. and Bi, Z. 2019. A preliminary report on butterfly fauna (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of Tengchong Section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, China. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 11, 11 (Sep. 2019), 14452–14470. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4443.11.11.14452-14470.


Anderson, J. (1878). Anatomical and zoological researches: comprising an account of the zoological results of the two expeditions to western Yunnan in 1868 and 1875; and a monograph of the two cetacean genera, Platanista and Orcella. B. Quaritch, London. 2 vols., xxv-l-985pp., xi-I-84pp.

Atkinson, W.S. (1871). Description of three new species of diurnal Lepidoptera from western Yunnan collected by Dr. Anderson in 1868. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871: 215–216, pl. 12.

Chan, B.P.L., Z. Bi & S.Z. Duan (2019). Introduction to a four-year biodiversity survey of Tengchong Section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, in the footsteps of pioneering naturalists in western Yunnan, China. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(11): 14391–14401.https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4438.11.11.14391-14401

Chiba, H. & H. Tsukiyama (1996). A review of the genus Ochlodes Scudder, 1872, with special reference to the Eurasian species (Lepidoptera: Herperiidae). Butterflies 14: 3–16.

Chou, I. (ed) (1994). Monographia Rhopalocerorum Sinensium. Henan Science and Technology Publishing House, Zhengzhou, 854pp.

Collins, N.M. & M.G. Morris (1985). Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World, The IUCN Red Data Book. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge, 403pp.+ 8pl.

D’Abrera, B. (1985). Butterflies of the Oriental Region, Part II. Hill House Publishers, Melbourne, 534pp.

Evans, W.H. (1915). A list of butterflies caught by Capt. F.M. Bailey in S.E. Tibet during 1913. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 23(3): 532–546.

Evans, W.H. (1949). A catalogue of the Hesperiidae from Europe, Asia and Australia in the British Museum (N.H.). British Museum, London. 502pp. + 53pl.

Evans, W.H. (1956). Revisional notes on the Hesperiidae of Europe, Asia and Australia. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (series 12) 9: 749–752.

Eliot, J.N. & A. Kawazoe (1983). Blue butterflies of the Lycaenopsis group. British Museum (Natural History), London, 309pp.

Fan, X.L. (2006). Taxonomy of Hesperiinae and Molecular Phylogeny of the tribe Gegenini (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from China. PhD Thesis. South China Agricultural University, 213pp.

Gogoi, M.J. (2013). Notes on some skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from Panbari Forest and its adjoining areas, Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong, upper Assam, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(13): 4759–4768. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3340.4759-68

Hsu, Y.F. (2015). A new species of Shaanxiana (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) from southern China. Zootaxa 4027(1): 130–134. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4027.1.6

Hsu, Y.F., J.Q. Zhu & Y. F.P. Lo (2017). The Checklist of Chinese Butterflies. The Straits Publishing House, Fuzhou, 30pp.

Hu, S.H., A.M. Cotton, F.L. Condamine, K. Duan, R.J, Wang, Y.F. Hsu, X. Zhang & J. Cao. (2018). Revision of Pazala Moore, 1888: the Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus (Oberthür, 1879) group, with treatments of known taxa and descriptions of new species and new subspecies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Zootaxa 4441(3): 401–446.

Huang, H. (1998). Research on the butterflies of the Namjagbarwa Region, S.E. Tibet. Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 41: 207–263.

Huang, H. (2000). A list of butterflies collected from Tibet During 1993–1996 with new descriptions, revisional notes and discussion on zoogeography (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) (part 1). Lambillionea 100(1): 141–158.

Huang, H. (2001). Report of H. Huang’s 2000 Expedition to SE. Tibet for Rhopalocera. Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 51: 65–151.

Huang, H. (2002). Some new nymphalids from the valleys of Nujiang and Dulongjiang, China. Atalanta 33(3/4): 339–360.

Huang, H. (2003). A list of butterflies collected from Nujiang (Lou Tse Kiang) and Dulongjiang, China with descriptions of new species, new subspecies, and revisional notes. Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 55: 3–114.

Huang, H. (2009). Systematic and Taxonomic Study on the Tribe Aeromachini Tutt (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from China. MPhil Thesis. Shanghai Normal University, 175pp.

Huang, H. & C.H. Wang (2016). Rediscovery of Thoressa pedla (Evans, 1957) and Thoressa yingqii Huang, 2011 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Atalanta 47: 211–215.

Igarashi, S. & H. Fukuda (2000). The Life Histories of Asian Butterflies. Vol. 2. Tokai University Press, Tokyo. 711pp.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2017). Version 2017-3. . Downloaded on 19 June 2018.

Koiwaya, S. (2007). The Zephyrus hairstreaks of the World. Mushi-Sha, Tokyo, 300pp.

Küppers, K.V. (2015). The Leaf Butterflies of the Genus Kallima Doubleday, 1849. Goecke & Evers, Keltern, 27pp.

Lang, S.Y. (2012). The Nymphalidae of China (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) Part I. Tshikolovets Publication: Pardubice, 456pp.

Lang, S.Y. (2017). The Nymphalidae of China (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) Part II. Tshikolovets Publication: Pardubice, 200pp.

Lang, S.Y. & S.Z. Duan (2016). Description of a new species of Lethe (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) from western Yunnan, China. Zootaxa 4179(2): 295–300. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4179.2.10

Lee, C.L. (1985). Some New Species of Rhopalocera in China V. Entomotaxonomia VII (3): 191–194.

Lee, C.L. (1995). Yunnan Butterfly. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing.

Lee, C.L. & W.C. Cao. (1987). Rhopalocera, pp. 1111–1175. In: Huang, F.S. (eds) Forestry Insects of Yunnan. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, China, 1622pp.

Lo, Y.F.P. (2016). Butterflies of Tengchong, pp. 116–181. In: Chan, P.L. & Z. Bi (eds) Biodiversity of Tengchong, Gaoligongshan. Kadoorie Conservation China, Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Hong Kong, 443pp.

Monastyrskii, A.L. (2005). Butterflies of Vietnam, Vol. 1 Nymphalidae: Satyrinae. Dolphin Media, Hanoi, 162pp. + 35pl.

Shizuya, H., Y. Watanabe, M. Saito & T. Soe (2005a). Basic information on butterflies of Kachin State, Myanmar (Part 2). Butterlfies 39: 29–39.

Shizuya, H., Y. Watanabe, M. Saito & T. Soe (2005b). Basic information on butterflies of Kachin State, Myanmar (Part 3). Butterlfies 40: 38–46.

Smith, T. & Y. Xie (2008). A Guide to the Mammals of China. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford, 544pp.

Sugiyama, H. (1999). New butterflies from western China (VI). Pallarge 7: 1–14.

UNESCO (2007). The MAB Programme, UNESCO – MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory, Biosphere Reserve Information, China, Gaoligong Mountain. Downloaded from http://www.unesco.org/mabdb/br/brdir/directory/biores.asp?code=CPR+18&mode=all on 19 June 2018.

Wang, S. & Y. Xie (eds) (2005). China Species Red List, Vol. III Invertebrates. Higher Education Press, Beijing, 891pp.

Wu, C.H. & Y.F. Hsu (eds) (2017). Butterflies of China. The Straits Publishing House, Fuzhou, 2036pp.

Wu, Z.J. (2017). Lethe, pp. 441–493. In: Wu, C.H. & Y.F. Hsu (eds), Butterflies of China. The Straits Publishing House, Fuzhou, 2036pp.

Xue, G.X. (2009). Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidae) from China. PhD Thesis. Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, 529pp.

Xue, J.R. (1995). Gaoligong Mountain National Natural Reserve. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing.

Yago, M. (2002). Comparative morphology and identification of the subgenus Kulua, with description of a new species from Vietnam (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Heliophorus). Tijdschrift Voor Entomologie 145: 145–171.

Yoshino, K. (1995). New Butterflies from China. Neo Lepidoptera 1: 1–4.

Yoshino, K. (1997). New Butterflies from China 2. Neo Lepidoptera 2: 1–8.

Yoshino, K. (1999). New Butterflies from China 5. Neo Lepidoptera 4: 1–10.

Yoshino, K. (2008). New species and new subspecies of Lethe from Myanmar, China and Vietnam. Futao 54: 9–14.

Zhao, S.Q. (1986). Physical Geography of China. Science Press and John Wiley, Beijing and New York, 221pp.

Zhu, J.Q. (2012). A Taxonomy Study on the tribe Baorini Doherty, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae) of China. MPhil Thesis. Shanghai Normal University, 132pp.

Zhu, J.Q., H. Chiba & L.W. Wu (2016). Tsukiyamaia, a new genus of the tribe Baorini (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae). Zookeys 555: 37–55. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.555.6144

Most read articles by the same author(s)