Factors affecting diversity and distribution of threatened birds in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

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Jagan Nath Adhikari
Bishnu Prasad Bhattarai
Tej Bahadur Thapa


Factors affecting diversity and distribution of globally threatened birds were studied by dividing Chitwan National Park (CNP) into five study blocks consisting of 17 birding routes.  CNP provides major habitats for the feeding and breeding of a large number of migratory birds from many parts of the globe and also plays a vital role in the conservation of threatened species.  We recorded a total of 437 individuals of globally threatened birds belonging to 19 species of nine families and eight orders.  There was considerable variation (F=2.94, df=44.43, p=0.05) in species diversity of threatened birds in different study blocks: the highest diversity was in Block E (Pithauli, Amaltari, and Narayani Island area; H=2.108), followed by Block C (Kasara to Sukibhar area; H=2.047), Block B (Barandabhar Corridor Forest; H=2.033), Block A (Khagendra Malli, Kathar, Sauraha to Old Padampur; H=1.744), and Block D with the least diversity (Madi area; H=1.69).  The higher dominance index was found in blocks A (D=0.2407) and D (0.2361) compared to other blocks.  The lower diversity of threatened birds was reported in those blocks (A & D) located nearer to human settlements that experienced higher disturbance.  Presence of livestock and people caused significantly negative effects on species richness and abundance of threatened birds, mainly in Block A.  Distance from roads and villages also had a negative effect on the diversity and abundance of most of the threatened birds.  This study suggests that human disturbance caused a significantly negative impact on the presence, distribution, diversity, and abundance of threatened birds in CNP and adjoining areas.

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Author Biographies

Jagan Nath Adhikari, Institute of Science and Technology, Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur Municipality, Kathmandu, Province - 3, Nepal and Department of Zoology, Birendra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Birendra Campus Road-10, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, Chitwan, Province - 3, Nepal.

Mr. Jagan Nath Adhikari is a lecturer of Zoology at Birendra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University. He is a Ph.D. scholar at the Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University. He has published six papers on birds and orchids of lowland Nepal. He also published a book about Natural resources management in Nepal.

Bishnu Prasad Bhattarai, Institute of Science and Technology, Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur Municipality, Kathmandu, Province - 3, Nepal.

Dr. Bishnu Prasad Bhattarai is working at Central Department of Zoology, TU. He has been awarded Ph.D. by University of South Bohemia, Czech Republic. He has published twenty research papers on various issues of biodiversity in Nepal. Dr. Bhattarai is also a co-author of a book Conservation biology: a primer for Nepal.

Tej Bahadur Thapa, Institute of Science and Technology, Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur Municipality, Kathmandu, Province - 3, Nepal.

Prof. Dr. Tej Bahadur Thapa is working at Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University. He has been awarded a Ph.D. degree by Saurastra University and Wildlife Institute of India. He has published twelve research articles about various aspects biodiversity in Nepal. He also worked as consultant biologist for several organizations such as WWF, NTNC.


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