Main Article Content
Swamp Deer is a globally threatened large-sized deer species confined within small patches of the Indian subcontinent. Historically, Swamp Deer occurred in Chitwan National Park, Nepal but was extirpated in the 1960s primarily due to widespread hunting. We assessed the habitat suitability at present for the Swamp Deer in Chitwan National Park using multi-criteria analysis in GIS and vegetation assessment using frequency, dominance, and cover. Within the 952.63km2 area of the national park, the habitat suitability analysis identified 14.57km2 as highly suitable, 134.87km2 as suitable, and 803.19km2 as moderate to least suitable area. Most of the national parkâ€™s grassland is suitable for Swamp Deer. Grassland is dominated by Saccharum spp.; Imperata cylindrica is the most widely distributed grass species followed by Saccharum spp., Narenga porphyrocoma, and Apluda mutica. Grass species of the Poaceae family are the most preferred species by Swamp Deer, which are found within short grasslands. The study revealed that Padampur Phanta could be the most suitable site for the reintroduction of Swamp Deer due to its highest proportion of short grass and availability of preferred food species and good habitat in comparison to other blocks. Invasion of swamps of Chitwan by Mikania micrantha and Eichornia crassipes could be a limiting factor for the habitat suitability of Swamp Deer.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27126.96.36.19953-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Aryal, C. (2016). Evaluation of Suitability of Triyuga Forest of eastern Nepal as Potential Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris Linneus, 1758) Habitat. MSc Thesis. Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, 60pp.
Bhatta, B. (2008). Daily Activities, Distribution, and Food Preference of Swamp Deer (Cervus duvauceli duvauceli). BSc Thesis. Department of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, 46pp.
Bhattarai, B. (2015). Habitat Preference and Evaluation of Swamp Deer (Cervus duvauceli duvauceli) in Bardia National Park. BSc Thesis. Department of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, 82pp
CFD (2004). Guideline for Inventory of Community Forests. Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Department of Forests, Community and Private Forest Division, Babarmahal, Kathmandu, Nepal. Accessed on 20 March 2018. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.np/books?id=1wdJAAAAYAAJ.
CNP (2015a). Annual Report 2071/72. Chitwan National Park Office, Kasara, Chitwan, Nepal, 197pp.
CNP (2015b). Chitwan National Park and its Buffer Zone Management Plan. Chitwan National Park, Kasara, Chitwan, Nepal, 165pp.
DNPWC (2015). Annual Report Fiscal Year 2071/72. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Babarmahal, Kathmandu, Nepal, 93pp.
Duckworth, J.W., N.S. Kumar, C.P. Pokharel, S.H. Baral & R. Timmins (2015). Rucervus duvaucelii. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T4257A22167675. Accessed on 17 March 2018. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T4257A22167675.en
Groves, C.P. (1982). Geographic variation in the Swamp Deer (Cervus duvauceli). The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 79: 620â€“629. Accessed on 07 January 2018. Retrieved from https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/48745060#page/686/mode/1up.
Guisan, A. & N.E. Zimmermann (2000). Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecological Modelling 135(2â€“3): 147â€“186. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(00)00354-9
Gurung, K.K. (1983). Heart of the Jungle: Wild Life of Chitwan, Nepal, 1st Edition. Andre Deutsch Limited, London, 197pp.
Gyawali, N. & S.R. Jnawali (2005). Population status and habitat use of Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli duvauceli) in Royal Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve. Tiger Paper: Regional Quarterly Bulletin on Wildlife and National Parks Management (FAO) 32(1): 6â€“10.
Jackson, R. & G.G. Ahlborn (1984). A preliminary habitat suitability model for the Snow Leopard, Panthera uncia, pp43â€“52. In: Blomqvist, L. (ed.). Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards, Vol. 4. Helsinki Zoo, Helsinki, Finland, 144pp.
Kafley, H., M. Khadka & M. Sharma (2009). Habitat evaluation and suitability modeling of Rhinoceros unicornis in Chitwan National Park, Nepal: a geospatial approach, pp1â€“12. In: World Forestry Congress XIII.
Lamichhane, B.R., N. Subedi, N.R. Chapagain, M. Dhakal, C.P. Pokheral, S.T. Murphy & R. Amin (2014). Status of Mikania micrantha Invasion in the Rhino Habitat of Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Proceeding of International Conference in Invasive Alien Species Management 25-27 March, 2014, Sauraha, Chitwan. National Trust for Nature Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal, 222pp.
Martin, C. (1977). Status and ecology of the Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli branderi) in Kanha National Park (India). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 74(1): 60â€“132. Retrieved from https://eurekamag.com/research/006/475/006475102.php.
Mishra, H.R. (1982). Ecology and Behaviour of Chital (Axis axis) in the Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal (with comparative studies of Hog Deer (Axis porcinus), Sambar (Cervus unicolor) and Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak)). PhD Thesis. Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, 239pp. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/1842/15405. Accessed on 27 February 2018.
Moe, S.R. (1994). The importance of aquatic vegetation for the management of the Barasingha Cervus duvauceli in nepal. Biological Conservation 70(1): 33â€“37. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(94)90296-8
Nandy, S., S.P. Kushwaha & P. Gaur (2012). Identification of Swamp Deer (Cervus duvauceli duvauceli Cuvier) potential habitat in Jhilmil Jheel Conservation Reserve, Uttarakhand, India, using multi-criteria analysis. Environmental Management 49(4): 902â€“914. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-012-9826-5
Oosting, H.J. (1956). The Study of Plant communities. An introduction to Plant Ecology, 1st Edition. W.H. Freeman & Company, San Francisco, California, USA, 440pp.
Pokheral, C.P. (1996). Food Habit and Habitat Utilization of Swamp Deer (Cervus duvauceli duvauceli) in Royal Bardia National Park, Nepal. MSc Thesis. Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, 62pp.
Poudel, B.S. (2007). Thirty years of managing Suklaphanta the Swamp Deer and the tiger: issues and strategies. The Initiation 1: 72â€“76. https://doi.org/10.3126/init.v1i0.2684
Qureshi, Q., V.B. Sawarkar & P.K. Mathur (1995). Ecology and Management of Swamp Deer (Cervus duvauceli) in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, U.P. (India). Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, India, 78pp.
Qureshi, Q., V.B. Sawarkar, A.R. Rahmani & P.K. Mathur (2004). Swamp Deer or Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli Cuvier, 1823), ungulates of India, pp181â€“192. In: Sankar, K. & S.P. Goyal (eds.). Envis Bulletin: Wildlife and Protected Areas, Vol. 7. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, India.
Ram, A.K. (2014). Geospatial Modelling to assess Asian Elephant (Elephus maximus) Habitat Suitability, Migratory Routes and Human-Elephant Interface in eastern Nepal. MSc Thesis. Department of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, 57pp.
Saaty, T.L. (1987). The analytical hierarchy process: what it is and how it is used. Mathematical Modelling 9(3â€“5): 161â€“176. https://doi.org/10.1016/0270-0255(87)90473-8
Singh, C.P., J.S. Chauhan, J.S. Parihar, R.P. Singh & R. Shukla (2015). Using environmental niche modeling to find suitable habitats for the hard-ground Barasingha in Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(11): 7761â€“7769. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3899.7761-9
Thapa, T.B. (2013). Habitat Suitability Evaluation for Leopard. PhD Thesis. Department of Ecology and Conservation Biology, Saurashtra University, Deharadun, India, 252pp.