Breeding reports and conservation implications of the Endangered Black-bellied Tern Sterna acuticauda J.E. Gray, 1831 (Aves: Charadriiformes: Laridae) in Odisha, eastern India

Main Article Content

Tuhinansu Kar
Himanshu Shekhar Palei
Subrat Debata


The Black-bellied Tern is an endangered species and its population is declining severely due to the loss and degradation of its foraging and breeding habitats because of increasing anthropogenic activities.  We report the breeding of Black-bellied Tern from different localities along the Mahanadi River in Odisha, eastern India.  We recommend the protection and conservation of its breeding sites along with regular community outreach activities for the long-term conservation of this globally threatened species.

Article Details

Author Biography

Subrat Debata, Aranya Foundation, Plot No. 625/12, Mars Villa, Panchasakha Nagar, Dumduma, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751019, India

Department of Biodiversity and Conservation of Natural Resources, Ph.D. Scholar


Ali, S. & D. Ripley (1983). Handbook of the Birds of India & Pakistan. Bombay, India; Oxford University Press, New York, xiii+737pp.

Balachandran, S., P. Sathiyaselvam & S. Panda (2009). Bird Atlas of Chilika. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai & Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar, 326pp.

Barua, M. & P. Sharma (1999). Birds of Kaziranga National Park, India. Forktail 15: 47–60.

BirdLife International (2017). Sterna acuticauda. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22694711A110488626. Accessed on 28 February 2018;

Debata, S., T. Kar, K.K. Swain & H.S. Palei (2017). The Vulnerable Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis Swainson, 1838 (Aves: Charadriiformes: Laridae) breeding in Odisha, eastern India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(11): 10961–10963;

Dev, U. (2013). A Field Guide to the Birds of Chilika. Odisha Forestry Sector Development Project, Bhubaneswar, 281pp.

Dutta, S.K. (2007). Biodiversity Assessment of Dhamara Port Site and Surrounding Areas, Orissa. Greenpeace India, Bangalore, 38pp.

Eldos, K.V., K.C. Susanth & K. Rafeek (2002). Nesting of Black-bellied Tern. Newsletter for Birdwatchers 42: 122–123.

Goes, F., A. Claassen & H. Nielsen (2010). Letter to the editor - obituary to the Black-bellied Tern. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 1: 5–6.

Gopi, G.V. & B. Pandav (2007). Avifauna of Bhitarkanika mangroves, India. Zoo’s Print Journal 22(10): 2839–2847;

Li, Z.W.D., A. Bloem, S. Delany, G. Martakis & J.O. Quintero (2009). Status of Waterbirds in Asia - Results of the Asian Waterbird Census: 1987–2007. Wetlands International, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 276pp.

Mundkur, T., T. Langendoen & D. Watkins (eds.) (2017). The Asian Waterbird Census 2008–2015 - Results of Coordinated Counts in Asia and Australasia. Wetlands International, Ede, 144pp.

Neelakantan, K.K., C. Sashikumar & R. Venugopalan (eds.) (1993). A Book of Kerala Birds, Part I. WWF-India, Kerala State Committee, Trivandrum, 143pp.

Palei, H.S. & P.P. Mohapatra (2011). Sighting of Black-bellied Tern in Samal Reservoir of Angul District, Odisha. Newsletter for Birdwatchers 51(4): 61.

Palei, H.S. (2015). Endangered Black-bellied Tern Sterna acuticauda Gray, 1832 in Odisha needs conservation attention. Zoo’s Print 30(10): 4.

Rahmani, A.R. (2012). Threatened Birds of India: Their Conservation Requirements. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, xvi+864pp.

Rahmani, A.R. & M.V. Nair (2012). Threatened Birds of Odisha. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 196pp.

Sykes, B. (2010). River terns: is the Black-bellied Tern Sterna acuticauda heading to oblivion? BirdingASIA 13: 73.

Tiwari, S.K., J.R.B. Alfred & S.K. Dutta (2002). Vertebrate Fauna of Chandaka-Dampara Willife Sanctuary Orissa. Conservation Area Series 14. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 126pp.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>