Pollination ecology of Synedrella nodiflora (l.) Gaertn. (Asteraceae)

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B. Usharani
A.J. Solomon Raju


Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn grows almost throughout the year if the soil is damp. It produces heterogamous capitula with female ray florets anthesing first day and bisexual disc florets anthesing on the next three consecutive days. Disc florets are dichogamous, herkogamous, self-compatible, self-pollinating (vector-mediated) and display secondary pollen presentation through an intermediate form of brush mechanism. Ray and disc florets exhibit facultative xenogamy. Butterflies are principal pollinators while bees, wasps and flies are supplementary pollinators. Thrips, Microcephalothrips abdominalis uses the florets as breeding and feeding sites; the feeding activity effects pollination. The ray and disc florets produce cypselas; the cypselas produced by ray florets are  heavier, elliptical, membranous with upwardly-pointing teeth along the margins and 2 short terminal awns while those produced by disc floret are lighter, cylindrical and tangentially compressed with 2 or 3 stiff terminal divaricate awns. Seed dispersal is polychorous and represented by anemochory, anthropochory, zoochory and ombrohydrochory. Cypselas of ray florets disperse to short distances and germinate germinate under specific germination conditions either at parental sites or in similar habitats while those of disc florets disperse farther away from parental sites and germinate readily under a wide range of conditions. Therefore, bimorphic cypselas with different germination abilities enable the plant to grow as a widespread weed but not as an invasive weed.

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Author Biographies

B. Usharani, Department of Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530003, India

Ms. B. Usharani is a PhD student in the Department of Environmental Sciences, Andhra University. Recently, she has been awarded PhD under the guidance of Prof. A.J. Solomon Raju.  She has published two research papers on pollination ecology.   

A.J. Solomon Raju, Department of Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530003, India

Prof. A.J. Solomon Raju is working in the Department of Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. He is the recipient of several national and international awards. He has more than 300 research papers in international and national Journals.  He is on the editorial board of several international journals.  He visited USA, Canada, UK, Spain, Brazil, Paraguay, Mexico, Italy, Malaysia, Thailand, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Hong Kong, China and Australia.


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