Root holoparasite Balanophora polyandra Griff. (Balanophoraceae) in eastern Himalaya (Sikkim, India): distribution, range, status and threats

Main Article Content

Prem K. Chhetri
Alexander R. O’Neill
Bijoy Chhetri

Abstract

Balanophora J.R. Forster & G. Forster (Balanophoraceae) is a poorly studied genus of root holoparasite native to temperate and tropical regions of Asia and the Pacific.  The occurrences of Balanophora polyandra Griff. were first reported within two protected areas in eastern Himalaya (Sikkim, India), namely, Khangchendzonga National Park and Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary.  The study assessed the distribution range of B. polyandra in Sikkim using data collected from both field surveys and herbarium records, and discussed the threats faced by Balanophora populations in the region.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Chhetri, P.K., O’Neill, A.R. and Chhetri, B. 2018. Root holoparasite Balanophora polyandra Griff. (Balanophoraceae) in eastern Himalaya (Sikkim, India): distribution, range, status and threats. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 10, 8 (Jul. 2018), 12123–12129. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3644.10.8.12123-12129.
Section
Short Communications
Author Biographies

Prem K. Chhetri, G.B.Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, Sikkim unit, India

Project fellow

Alexander R. O’Neill, G.B.Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, Sikkim unit, India

Fullbright Scholar

Bijoy Chhetri, G.B.Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, Sikkim unit, India

Project Fellow

References

Bora, H.R., A. Yadav, K. Das & R.K. Kumar (2010). Balanophora dioica R. Br. ex Royle (Balanophoraceae): a rare total root parasite reported from Karbi-Anglong District, Assam, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34(2): 298–299.

Chhetri, B. & H.K. Badola (2017). Predicting suitable habitats for the vulnerable species, Rhododendron niveum Hook.f. (Ericaceae) in eastern Himalaya. NeBIO 8(3): 139–146.

Chettri, N., E. Sharma, D.C. Deb & R.C. Sundriyal (2002). Impact of firewood extraction on tree structure, regeneration and woody biomass productivity in a trekking corridor of the Sikkim Himalaya. Mountain Research and Development 22(2): 150–158; http://doi.org/10.1659/0276-4741(2002)022[0150:IOFEOT]2.0.CO;2

Eberwein, R., D.l. Nickrent & A. Weber (2009). Development and morphology of flowers and inflorescences in Balanophora papuana and B. elongata (Balanophoraceae). American Journal of Botany 96(6): 1055–1067; http://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.0800289

Gaira, K.S., R.S Rawal & K.K Singh (2016). Variations in pollinator density and impacts on large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) crop yield in Sikkim Himalaya, India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 9(1): 17–21; http://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2015.12.010

Hooker, J.D. (1855). Himalayan Journals: Notes of A Naturalist in Bengal, the Sikkim and Nepal Himalayas, the Khasia Mountains, etc. John Murray, London.

Ignacimuthu, S., M. Ayyanar & K.S. Sivaraman (2006). Ethno botanical investigations among tribes in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu (India). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2: 25; http://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-2-25

Jamir, S.A. & H.N. Pandey (2003). Vascular plant diversity in the sacred groves of Jaintia Hills in northeast India. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 1497–1510; http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023682228549

Kandel, P., J. Gurung, N. Chettri, W. Ning & E. Sharma (2016). Biodiversity research trends and gap analysis from a transboundary landscape, Eastern Himalayas. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 9(1): 1–10; http://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2015.11.002

Kerr, J.T., A. Sugar & L. Packer (2000). Indicator taxa, rapid biodiversity assessment, and nestedness in an endangered ecosystem. Conservation Biology 14(6): 1726–1734; http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2000.99275.x

Kumar, P. (2012). Assessment of impact of climate change on Rhododendrons in Sikkim Himalayas using MaxEnt modelling: limitations and challenges. Biodiversity Conservation 21: 1251; http://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-012-0279-1

Nickrent, D.L. & M.A. Garcia (2009). On the brink of holoparasitism: plastome evolution in dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium, Viscaceae). Journal of Molecular Evolution 68: 603–615; http://doi.org/10.1007/s00239-009-9224-7

O’Neill, A.R. & S.K. Rana (2016). An ethnobotanical analysis of parasitic plants (Parijibi) in the Nepal Himalaya. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 12: 14; http://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-016-0086-y

Maharana, I., S.C. Rai & E. Sharma (2000). Environmental Economics of the Khangchendzonga National Park in the Sikkim Himalaya, India. GeoJournal 50: 329–337.

Pandit, M.K., N.S. Sodhi, L.P. Koh, A. Bhaskar & B.W. Brook (2007). Unreported yet massive deforestation driving loss of endemic biodiversity in Indian Himalayas. Biodiversity and Conservation 16: 153–163; http://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-006-9038-5

Pelser, P.B., D.N. Tandang, & J.F. Barcelona (2014). Balanophora coralliformis (Balanophoraceae), a new species from Mt. Mingan, Luzon, Philippines. Phytotaxa 170(4): 291–295; http://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.170.4.7

Podimuang, V., S. Mongkolsuk, K. Yoshihira & S. Natori (1971). Constituents of three Thai medicinal plants: Ardisia polycephala (Myrsinaceae), Rhabdia lycoides (Boraginaceae), and Balanophora poylandra (Balanophoraceae). Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 19(1): 207–208.

Pollard, E. & T.J. Yates (1993). Monitoring Butterflies for Ecology and Conservation. Chapman and Hall, London, 292pp.

Rai, I.D., B.S. Adhikari & G.S. Rawat (2014). A rare and endangered root parasite Balanophora involucrata Hook.f. & Thompson. Indian Forester 140(4): 435–436.

Rao, J.P., K.V. Satish, B.S. Sankar, C.S. Reddy & A. Kumar (2015). On the occurrence of parasitic plant Balanophora fungosa J.R. Forster & G. Forster (Balanophoraceae) in Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(2): 6943–6946; http://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3962.6943-6

Sharma, E., S. Bhuchar, M. Xing & B.P. Kothyari (2007). Land use change and its impact on hydro-ecological linkages in Himalayan watersheds. Tropical Ecology 48(2): 151–161.

Sharma, G., U. Partap, D.R. Dahal, D.P. Sharma & E. Sharma (2016). Declining large-cardamom production systems in the Sikkim Himalayas: climate change impacts, agroeconomic potential, and revival strategies. Mountain Research and Development 36(3): 286–298; http://doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-14-00122.1

Sharma, M.P. (2002). Balanophora dioica Royle (Balanophoraceae): an addition to the flora of Delhi. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 26(1): 103–104.

Sharma, N. (2015). A restricted distribution of rare and endangered Balanophora involucrata Hook.f. & Thompson in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Indian Forester 141(5): 583–584.

Sharma, N., A.P. Das & D.G. Shrestha (2015). Landuse and landcover mapping of East District of Sikkim using IRSP6 Satellite Imagery. Pleione 9(1): 193–200.

Shumei, H. & J. Murata (2003). Balanophoraceae. Flora of China 5: 272–276.

Su, H.J., J. Murata & J.M. Hu (2012). Morphology and phylogenetics of two holoparasitic plants, Balanophora japonica and Balanophora yakushimensis (Balanophoraceae), and their hosts in Taiwan and Japan. .Journal of Plant Research 125: 317–236.

Sundriyal, R.C. & E. Sharma (1996). Anthropogenic pressure on tree structure and biomass in the temperate forest of Mamlay watershed in Sikkim. Forest Ecology and Management 81: 113–134; http://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(95)03657-1

Tambe, S., M.L. Arrawatia & N. Sharma (2011). Assessing the priorities for sustainable forest management in the Sikkim Himalaya, India: a remote sensing based approach. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing 39(4): 555–564.

Tao, R., F. Ye, Y. He, Y. Tian, G. Liu, T. Ji & Y. Su (2009). Improvement of high-fat-diet-induced metabolic syndrome by a compound from Balanophora polyandra Griff. in mice. European Journal of Pharmacology 616: 328–333; http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.06.011

Telwala, Y., B.W. Brook, K. Manish & M.K. Pandit (2013). Climate-Induced Elevation Range Shift and Increase in Plant Species Richness in a Himalayan Biodiversity Epicenter. PLoS ONE 8(2): e57103; http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057103

Thriveni, M.C., G.R. Shivamurthy & K.N. Amruthesh (2016). Balanophora dioica (Balanophoraceae): a new record for South India from Western Ghats. The Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 58: 1017–110; http://doi.org/10.20324/nelumbo/v58/2016/105917

Venkatareddi, B. (1969). A new species of Acroblastum (Balanophoraceae) from Poona District, India. Willdenowia 5(3): 389–393.

Wang, Y., J. Yang, A. Wang, J. Ma, J. Tian, T. Ji & Y. Su (2013). Hydrolyzable tannins from Balanophora polyandra Griff. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B

(1): 46–50; http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2012.12.003