Main Article Content
Paphiopedilum fairrieanum, P. spicerianum, and P. venustum (Orchidaceae: Cypripedioideae) are reported to occur in Bhutan, of which the former is known to be Critically Endangered and the latter two are Endangered. Based on numerous field trips conducted over the last decade, populations of P. fairrieanum and P. venustum were located in Bhutan. No individual of P. spicerianum, however, was found despite many search attempts. Its occurrence in Bhutan may have been originally erroneous. Based on the accessibility of the habitats, six 10m Ã— 10m quadrats were defined to enumerate the plant species found in the Paphiopedilum habitats. Vegetation analyses and cluster dendrograms of the plant species composition indicated the presence of three forest types with distinct species compositions. Paphiopedilum fairrieanum was found growing mainly as a lithophyte on seasonally dry limestone cliffs or on limestone outcrops with a comparatively open forest canopy. These populations were mostly located on southwest- or northwest-facing slopes with soil pH ranging from 7.1 to 7.8. Paphiopedilum venustum, in contrast, was a ground-dwelling species restricted to relatively dense forests with soil pH ranging from 7.1 to 7.5.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2718.104.22.16853-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Chowdhery, H.J. (1998). Orchid Flora of Arunachal Pradesh. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India, 392pp.
Cribb, P.J. (1998). The Genus Paphiopedilum, 2nd Edition. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu & Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 427pp.
Dorji, S. (2008). The Field Guide to the Orchids of Bhutan. Bhutan Orchid Science Society. Thimphu, Bhutan, 58pp.
Dorji, T., I.O.A. Odeh, D.J. Field & I.C. Baillie (2014). Digital soil mapping of soil organic carbon stocks under different land use and land cover types in montane ecosystems, Eastern Himalayas. Forest Ecology and Management 318: 91â€“102.
Fowlie, J.A. (1970). Paphiopedilum spicerianum â€“ Lady Spicerâ€™s Slipper Orchid. Orchid Digest 34(2): 56â€“57.
Gansser, A. (1983). Geology of Bhutan Himalaya. BirkhÃ¤user, Basel, Boston & Stuttgart, 181pp.
Govaerts, R., M.A. Campacci, D.H. Baptista, P.J. Cribb, A. George, K. Kreutz & J.J. Wood (2019). World Checklist of Orchidaceae. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Available online at https://wcsp.science.kew.org/prepareChecklist.do?checklist=selected_families%40%40190090720191118292. Accessed on 20 April 2019.
Gurung, D.B. (2006). An Illustrated Guide to the Orchids of Bhutan. DSB Publication, Thimphu, Bhutan, 178pp.
Gurung, D.B., S. DalstrÃ¶m, T. HÃ¶ijer, N. Gyeltshen, N. Gyeltshen & D. Wangdi (2016). Orchid Explorers on the Trail of Gaurs and Elephants. Orchids, American Orchid Society, USA, 526â€“533pp.
Hooker, J.D. (1894). The Flora of British India. L. Reeve & Co. Ltd., London, 794pp.
King, J. & R. Pantling (1898). The Orchids of the Sikkim-Himalayas: Annals of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Vol. III. Calcutta, 342pp.
Ohsawa, M., 2002. Structure and regeneration of mixed broad-leaved forest in the Bhutan Himalayas, pp41â€“56. In: Ohsawa, M. (ed.). Life Zone Ecology of the Bhutan Himalaya III. University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan.
Pearce, N.R. & P.J. Cribb (2002). The Orchids of Bhutan. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh and Royal Government of Bhutan, 643pp.
Pradhan, U.C. (1976). Indian Orchids: Guide to Identification & Culture 1. Kalimpong. Primulaceae Books, 188pp.
Pradhan, U.C. (1978). Notes on Indian Sarcanthinae - the genus Schoenorchis Bl. American Orchid Society Bulletin 47: 910â€“912.
Pradhan, M. (1996). Paphiopedilum farrieanum (Lindl.) Pfitz. in Sikkim. South African Orchid Journal 27(4): 109â€“112.
Rankou, H. & P. Kumar (2015a). Paphiopedilum fairrieanum. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T43320321A43327829. Accessed on 01 December 2017. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T43320321A43327829.en
Rankou, H. & P. Kumar (2015b). Paphiopedilum venustum. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T15052375A15055154. Accessed on 01 December 2017. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T15052375A15055154.en
Rankou, H. & S. Molur (2015). Paphiopedilum spicerianum. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T15052359A15055149. Accessed on 01 December 2017. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T15052359A15055149.en
Raskoti, B.B. & R. Ale (2011). Paphiopedilum fairrieanum (Lindl.) Stein and Paphiopedilum venustum (Wall. ex Sims) Pfitzer, new records of genus Paphiopedilum Pfitzer (Orchidaceae) for flora of Nepal. The McAllen International Orchid Society Journal 12(8): 7â€“11.
RGoB (2006). Forests and Nature Conservation Rules and Regulations 2006. Royal Government of Bhutan, Thimphu, Bhutan, 180pp.