On the reproductive ecology of Premna latifolia L. and Premna tomentosa Willd. (Lamiaceae)

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B. Dileepu Kumar
D. Sandhya Deepika
A.J Solomon Raju


Premna latifolia and Premna tomentosa shed their foliage during winter but produce foliage at different periods to avoid competition for nutrients, P. latifolia during the dry season while P. tomentosa during the wet season.  Flowering also occurs at different seasons, P. latifolia during the wet season and P. tomentosa during the dry season.  The flowering period of P. latifolia is comparatively longer than P. tomentosa; however, both of them display profuse flowering for 2–3 weeks only.  The flowers are of gullet type, weakly bilabiate, and the stamens and stigma are situated near the upper corolla lip and are dichogamous, herkogamous and facultatively xenogamous in both species.  In P. latifolia, the pollinators are wasps and butterflies while in P. tomentosa, in addition to wasps and butterflies, the bees and flies are also pollinators.  Camponotus ants rob the nectar of P. latifolia by removing the entire corolla together with stamens and sometimes also with the style and stigma.  Both the species display ornithochory, anthropochory and anemochory. The seeds germinate during wet season in both the species irrespective of their time of dispersal but their continued growth depends on the soil nutrient and moisture environment. 


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Author Biographies

B. Dileepu Kumar, Andhra University

Mr. B. DILEEPU KUMAR has been awarded Ph.D. recently by Andhra University.  He recently joined as Lecturer in Botany in  M R (Autonomous) College, Vizianagaram.  He has published four research papers on pollination ecology.  

D. Sandhya Deepika, Andhra University

Dr. D. SANDHYA DEEPIKA is working as Professor in the Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. She is also Assistant Principal in the College of Science & Technology, Andhra University.  She has done excellent work on butterfly-plant interactions.  She has published several research papers in national journals.  

A.J Solomon Raju, Andhra University

Prof. A.J. SOLOMON RAJU is the Chairman, Board of Studies in the Department of Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. He is the recipient of several national and international awards. He has more than 250 research papers in international and national Journals.  He is on the editorial board of several international journals.  He is presently working on keystone and endemic species of Eastern Ghats with financial support from DST and UGC. He visited USA, Canada, UK, Spain, Brazil, Paraguay, Mexico, Italy, Malaysia, Thailand, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Hong Kong and China.


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