Main Article Content
Macro-invertebrates form an integral part of aquatic systems, and assessment of macro-invertebrate communities is one of the best ways to monitor the health of a stream.Â Despite this, stream monitoring of macro-invertebrates has been extremely limited in Bhutan.Â A study was conducted to generate baseline information on macro-invertebrate diversity in the Phobjikha valley, covering community composition and seasonal variation in diversity during post and pre-monsoon seasons.Â From a total of 244 units sampled in streams, 50 families from 13 orders were recorded.Â The dominant order overall was Ephemeroptera (31%), which also dominated the pre-monsoon assessment (33%), while Trichoptera (39%) dominated the post-monsoon assessment.Â The pre-monsoon assessment recorded two additional orders, Caenogastropoda and Veneroida. There was no significant difference in diversity between the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon assessments (pËƒ0.3), but a significant difference in species diversity between seasons was observed in pools and riffles.Â Physicochemical parameters indicated that pH, electrical conductivity and salinity were within favorable ranges for macro-invertebrates.Â Further studies of other habitats in different seasons will produce a more comprehensive understanding of macro-invertebrate diversity.Â
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2718.104.22.16853-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Balian, E.V., H. Segers, C. Leveque & K. Martens (2008). The freshwater biodiversity animal biodiversity assessment: an overview of results. Hydrobiologia 595: 6327â€“6337
Bouchard, R. (2012). Guide to Aquatic Invertebrate Families of Mongolia: Identification Mannual for Students, Citizen Monitors and Aquatic Resource Professionals. Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA, 218pp.
Brewin, P.A., S.T. Buckton & S.J. Ormerod (2000). The seasonal dynamics and persistence of stream macroinvertebrates in Nepal: Do monsoon floods represent disturbance? Freshwater Biology 44: 581â€“594; http://doi.10.1046/j.1365-2427.2000.00608.x
Callisto, M., M. Goulart., F.A.R. Barbosa & O. Rocha (2005). Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower SÃ£o Francisco River (Northeastern Brazil). Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia 65(2): 229â€“240; http://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-
Camara, I.A., D. Diomande, Y.K. Bony, A. Ouattara, E. Franquet & G. Gourene (2012). Diversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Banco National Park. African Journal of Ecology 50: 205â€“217; http://doi.org/10.1051/kmae/2009020
Chama, L. & S. Siachoono (2015). Effectiveness of birds, butterflies, dragonflies, damselflies and invertebrates as indicators of freshwater ecological integrity. Geophysical Research 17: (EGU2015-13383).
Clarke, A., R. MacNally, N. Bond & P.S. Lake (2008). Macroinvertebrate diversity in headwater streams: A review. Freshwater Biology 53(9): 1707â€“1721.
Covich, A.P., M.A. Palmer & T.A. Crowl (1999). The Role of Benthic Invertebrate Species in Freshwater Ecosystemsâ€¯: Zoobenthic Species Influence Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycling. BioScience 49(2): 119â€“127.
Darwall, W. (2010). Freshwater Biodiversity: In the red list of threatened species. https://www.iucn.org/theme/species/our-work/freshwater-biodiversity. Accessed on 30 May 2016.
Death, R.G. & M.J. Winterbourn (1995). Diversity patterns in stream benthic invertebrate communities: The influence of habitat stability. Ecology 76(5): 1446â€“1460.
Dorji, T. (2014). Macroinveretebrates Diversity in Response to Environmental Variables in Headwater Sterams: A Project Report. Royal University of Bhutan, Thimphu.
Dorji, K. (2016). Utility of an existing biotic score method in assessing the stream health in Bhutan. PhD Thesis. Queensland University of Technology, 279pp.
Dorji, T., K. Thinley & S. Jamtsho (2014). Macroinvertebrate diversity in Thelpang and Kawangjangsa freshwater stream in Bhutan. NeBIO 5(1): 1â€“5
Dudgeon, D., A.H. Arthington, M.O. Gessner, Z. Kawabata, D.J. Knowler, C. Leveque, R.J. Naiman, A.P. Richard, D. Soto, L.J. Stiassay & C.A. Sullivan (2006). Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Review 81:163â€“182; http//doi.org/10.1017/51464793105006950
Gittenberger, E., S. Sherub & B. Stelbrink (2017). Erhaia Davis & Kuo (Gastropoda, Rissooidea, Amnicolidae) also in Bhutan. ZooKeys 679: 21â€“28; http://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.679.13326
Giri, N. & O.P. Singh (2013). Urban growth and water quality in Thimphu Bhutan. Journal of Urban and Environmental Engeeneering 7(1): 82Ââ€“95; http://doi.org/10.4090/juee.2013.v7n1.082095
Graf, W., H. Malicky & A. Schmidt-Kloiber (2006a). Key to Trichoptera (Caddisflies): Regional Capacity Building Workshop on the Macroinvertebrates Taxonomy and Systematics for Evaluating the Ecological Status of Rivers in the Hindu Kush-Hymalayan (HKH) Region, 20th August to 9th September 2006, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal, 56pp.
Graf, W., I. Sivec & A. Schmidt-Kloiber (2006b). Key to Plecoptera (Stoneflies): Regional Capacity Building Workshop on the Macroinvertebrates Taxonomy and Systematics for Evaluating the Ecological Status of Rivers in the Hindu Kush-Hymalayan (HKH) Region, 20th August to 9th September 2006, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal, 26pp.
Gurung, D.B., S. Dorji, U.Tshering & J.T. Wangyal (2013). An annotated checklist of fishes from Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(14): 4880â€“4886; http://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3160.4880-6
Gurung, D.B. & R.J. Thoni (2015). Fishes of Bhutan; A Priliminary Check List. Royal University of Bhutan, College of Natural Resources, Center for Rural Development Studies, Lobesa, 40pp.
Gurung, P.B. (2013). Macroinvertebrates diversity, composition,
Family Biotic Index, physiocochemical parameters and water quality in Teoberongchu, its tributaries and Punatshangchu. BSc Thesis. College of Natural Resources, 33pp.
Hamid, S.A. & C.S.M. Rawi (2014). Ecology of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (Insecta) in Rivers of the Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve: Diversity and Distribution of Functional Feeding Groups. Tropical Life Sciences Research 25(1): 61â€“73.
Hartmann, A., O. Moog, T. OfenbÃ¶ck., T. Korte., S. Sharma., D. Hering & A.B.M. Baki (2007). Deliverable No. 10 December 2007 - ASSESS-HKH Methodology Manual describing fundamentals & application of three approaches to evaluate the river quality based on benthic invertebrates: HKH screening, HKH score bioassessment & HKH multimetric bioassessment.
Haszprunar, G. (2001). Mollusca (Molluscs). Encyclopedia of life Sciences. John Wiley and Son, Ltd.
Hill, M.J, C.D., Sayer & P.J Wood (2016). When is the best time to sample aquatic macroinvertebrates in ponds for biodiversity assessment?Â Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 188:194; http://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5178-6
Hilsenhoff, W.L. (1988). Rapid field assessment of organic pollution with a family-level biotic index. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 7(1): 65â€“68.
Huber, T., W. Graf & A. Schmidt-Kloiber (2006). Key to Coleoptera (Beetles) of HKH region: Regional Capacity Building Workshop on the Macroinvertebrates Taxonomy and Systematics for Evaluating the Ecological Status of Rivers in the Hindu Kush-Hymalayan (HKH) Region, 20th August to 9th September 2006, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal, 5pp.
Husain, A. & P. Bhatnagar (2011). Wetland and role in water conservation refresher course Environmental Studies. Aligarh Wetland and Role in Water Conservation.
JaneÄek, B. (2006). Key to Diptera (Two-winged flies): Regional Capacity Building Workshop on the Macroinvertebrates Taxanomy and Systematic for Evaluating the Ecological Status of rivers in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region, 20th August to 9th September 2006, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal, 48pp.
Kefford, B.J. (1998). The relationship between electrical conductivity and selected macroinvertebrate communities in four river systems of south-west Victoria, Australia. International Journal of Salt Lake Research 7: 153â€“170; http://doi.org/10.1007/BF02441884
Kohler, S.L. (1992). Competition and the structure of a benthic stream community. Ecological Monograph 62(2): 165â€“188.
Li, F., N. Chung, M.J. Bae,Y.S. Kwon & Y.S. Park (2012). Relationships between stream macroinvertebrates and environmental variables at multiple spatial scales. Freshwater Biology 57: 2107â€“2124; http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.03.034
Malicky, H., G. Karma & O. Moong (2008). A Survey of the caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera) of Bhutan, with suggestion for further research, pp. 91â€“96. In: Moog, O., D. Hering, S. Sharma, I. Stubauer, & T. Korte (eds.). Proceedings of the Scientific Conference Rivers in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya - Ecology & Environmental Assessment.
Matson, W. (2007). A Comparison of Macroinvertebrate Diversity in Six Streams and Rivers in Olympia. Lacey and Tumwater, Washington.
Moor, F.C. & V.D. Ivanov (2008). Global diversity of caddisflies (Trichoptera: Insecta) in freshwater. Developmnet of Hydrobiology 198: 393â€“407; http://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-007-9113-2
Naiman, R.J., A.H. Prieur-Richard, A. Arthington, D. Dudgeon, M.O. Gessner, Z. Kawabata & C. Sullivan (2006). Freshwater Biodiversity: Challenges for Freshwater biodiversity research. Diversitas an international programme of Biodivresity Science.
National Environment Commission (2001). Bhutan: State of Environment, Royal Government of Bhutan, Thimphu.
Neves, B. (2011). PES Pilot site summery report: Establishing a PES fee for the Sustainable Development in Phobjikha Conservation Area.
OfenbÃ¶ck, T., O. Moog, S. Sharma & T. Korte (2010). Development of the HKHbios: a new biotic score to assess the river quality in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. Hydrobiologia 651: 39â€“58; http://doi.10.1007/s10750-010-0289-5
PeÅ¡iÄ‡, V & H. Smit(2007). First records of Water Mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Bhutan, with description of two new species. Zootaxa 1613(1613): 45â€“56.
Rae, J.G. (1985). A multivariate study of resource partitioning in soft bottom lotic Chironomidae. Hydrobiologia 126(3): 275â€“285.
Rios, S.L. & R.C. Bailey (2006). Relationship between riparian vegetation and stream benthic communities at three spatial scale. Hydrobiologia 553(1): 153â€“160; http://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-005-0868-z
Robertson, B. (2004). pH Requirements of Freshwater Aquatic Life: Technical Memorandum. Waterman Road, Suite L2.
Rosenberg, D.M. & V.H. Resh (1993).Â Freshwater biomonitoring and benthic macroinvertebrates.Â London, Chapman & Hall, 488p.
RSPN (2015). Royal Society for Protection of Nature; Crane Count 2014â€“2015. Accessed 14 April 2015 from
Rutherford, J. & B. Kefford (2005). Effects of salinity on stream ecosystems: improving models for macroinvertebrates. CSIRO Land and Water Technical Report. CSIRO Land and Water, Canbera.
Scheibler, E.E., C.N. Claps & S.A. Roig-JuÃ±ent (2014). Temporal and altitudinal variations in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in an Andean River basin of Argentina. Journal of Limnology 73(1): 76â€“92; http://doi.org/10.4081/jlimnol.2014.789
Schmidt-Kloiber, A. & K. Brabec (2007). Current Status of the HKH Macroinvertebrate Taxa Catalogue With Ecological Information. Assess HKH. Boku, Vienna.
Sharma, R.C. & J.S. Rawat (2009). Monitoring of aquatic macroinvertebrates as bioindicator for assessing the health of wetlands: A case study in the Central Himalayas, India. Ecological Indicators 9(1): 118â€“128; http://doi.org/10.1016%2fj.ecolind.2008.02.004
Satpathy, K.K. (1996). Seasonal distribution of nutrients in the coastal water of Kalpakkam, East coast of India. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 25: 221â€“224.Â
Stark, B.P. & I. Sivec (2010). Systematic notes on the genus Classenia wu (Plecoptera: Perlidae), with description of new species. Illiesia 6(24): 303â€“314
Thorp, J.H. & C.D. Rogers (2011). Chapter 1Â â€“Â Using This Book Effectively. Field Guide to Freshwater Invertebrates of North America 2011: 2â€“6; http://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-381426-5.00001-6
Trueman, J.W.H. & R.J. Rowe (2008).Â Odonata: Dragonflies and damselflies.Â Tree of LifeÂ Version 20, March 2008. Downloaded on 28 June 2016.
Truffer, B., C. Bratrich, J. Markard, A. Peter, A. WÃ¼est & B. Wehrli (2003). Green Hydropowerâ€¯: The contribution of aquatic science research to the promotion of sustainable electricity. Aquatic Sciences 65: 99â€“110; http://doi.org/10.1007/s00027-003-0643-z
TÃ¼rkmen, G. & K. NilgÃ¼n (2010). Applications of various biodiversity indices to benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in streams of a national park in Turkey. Review of Hydrobiology 3(2): 111â€“125.
Voshell, J. & R. Reese (2002). A Guide to Common Freshwater Invertebrates of North America. The McDonald and Woodward Publishing Company. Blacksburg.
Wallace, J.B. & J.R. Webster (1996). The role of macroinvertebrates in stream ecosystem function. Annual Review of Entomology 41: 115â€“139.
Wangchuck Centennial Park (2012). Preliminary report on Freshwater biodiversity in Wangchuck Centennial Park. Bumthang, 52pp.
Wangchuk, J. & L.A. Eby (2013). Aquatic Biodiversity Assessment: A Pilot Study in Bumthang, Bhutan. UWICE Press, Lamai Goempa, Bumthang, 54pp.
Wangdi, N., N. Norbu & Sherub (2013). Ecological and Socio-Cultural Significance of High Altitude Wetlands. UWICE Press, Lamai Goempa, Bumthang, 64pp.
Washington H. G (1984). Diversity, Biotic and Similarity Indicies: A review with special relavance to aquatic ecosysytem. Water Research 18(6): 653â€“694.
Yang, W. & L. Yang (2006). Two new species of Phryganeidae (Insecta, Trichoptera) from China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 31: 188â€“192.
Yule, C.M. & H.S. Yong (2004). Freshwater invertebrates of the Malysian region. Academy of Science Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
Zettel, H. (2007). Eine neue Art der Gattung Timasius DISTANT, 1909 (Insecta: Heteroptera: Hebridae) aus Bhutan. Anna leu des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 108(b): 83â€“87.
Zettel, H. (2013). Two new species of the enigmatic genus Aquulavelia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) from Nepal and Bhutan. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae Biologicae 98(2): 327â€“334.
Zettel, H. & T.A. Duc (2007). On Gerridae (Insecta: Heteroptera) from Bhutan, with description of a new species of Onychotrechus Kirkaldy, 1903. Zootaxa 1467: 43â€“49.