Chemical restraint of captive Kinkajous Potos flavus (Schreber, 1774) (Carnivora: Procyonidae) using a ketamine, xylazine and midazolam combination and reversal with yohimbine

Main Article Content

Jesús Lescano
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6478-7437
Miryam Quevedo
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2852-6242
Milagros Ramos
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1287-7139
Víctor Fernández
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2228-3182

Abstract

Detailed information on the anaesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of drug combinations used for the chemical immobilization of Kinkajous (Potos flavus) is scarce.  This study assessed the effects of ketamine (2.5mg/kg), xylazine (1mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5mg/kg) combination in P. flavus.  Five clinically healthy adult Kinkajous of both sexes were included.  Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure and body temperature were recorded at five-minute intervals for 25 minutes.  Then, animals received 0.125mg/kg of yohimbine by intramuscular injection.  Anaesthetic depth was assessed based on stimulus response and muscle tone.  Induction, immobilization, and recovery periods were recorded and qualitatively assessed based on the absence of adverse effects.  The durations of the induction, immobilization, and recovery periods were 9.42±1.73, 33.33±2.16, and 31.37±5.82 minutes.  All periods showed good quality and adequate anaesthetic depth was achieved.  Mean heart and respiratory rates were 99±20 beats/minute and 44±9 breaths/minute.  Both parameters decreased over the duration of the anaesthesia but they did not reach levels suggesting either bradycardia or bradypnea.  Mean body temperature was 37.1±1.5 0C and it also showed a decreasing trend over the duration of the anaesthesia.  Mean oxygen saturation was 92±6% and it showed a mildly increasing trend over the duration of the anesthesia.  Mean blood pressure was 129±23 mmHg and mild to moderate hypertension was observed.  No mortality occurred and no adverse effects were observed in any of the individuals during the three months following immobilization.  The assessed anaesthetic combination effectively immobilized the P. flavus individuals, provided good quality and acceptable duration of both induction and recovery periods.  It should, however, not be used in Kinkajous with either known hypertension record or pre-existing target organ disease (e.g., renal failure, retinopathy).

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
Lescano, J., Quevedo, M., Ramos, M. and Fernández, V. 2016. Chemical restraint of captive Kinkajous Potos flavus (Schreber, 1774) (Carnivora: Procyonidae) using a ketamine, xylazine and midazolam combination and reversal with yohimbine. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 8, 14 (Dec. 2016), 9610–9618. DOI:https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2670.8.14.9610-9618.
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Author Biographies

Jesús Lescano, Laboratory of Animal Anatomy and Wildlife, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Circunvalación Avenue 2800, Lima 30, Peru

Jesús Lescano works as Clinical Professor at the Laboratory of Animal Anatomy and Wildlife, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Lima, Peru).  His main areas of interest are wildlife anesthesia, reptile clinical medicine, and epidemiology of wildlife diseases. 

Miryam Quevedo, Laboratory of Animal Anatomy and Wildlife, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Circunvalación Avenue 2800, Lima 30, Peru

Miryam Quevedo works as Assistant Professor at the Laboratory of Animal Anatomy and Wildlife, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Lima, Peru).  Her main areas of interest are wildlife conservation, clinical medicine of exotic mammals, and animal welfare.  

Milagros Ramos, El Buen Pastor Zoo, 782 Aries Street, Lima 39, Peru

Milagros Ramos works as veterinarian for wildlife rescue centers in Peruvian Amazon.  Her main areas of interest are rehabilitation and reintroduction of wild animals.    

Víctor Fernández, Small Animals´ Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Circunvalación Avenue 2800, Lima 30, Peru

Víctor Fernández works as Chief Veterinarian at the Small Animals´ Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Lima, Peru).  His main areas of interest are clinical pharmacology, and small animal internal medicine. 

 

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