Main Article Content
The food preferences of translocated Rhinos in Manas National Park were studied to find out variations in seasonal and annual preferences.Â A total of 139 plants species belonging to 39 families were observed to be consumed as food.Â On an average, grasses (n=33) contributed 24% of Rhino food, aquatic plants (n=23) 16.5%, shrubs (n=11) 7.5%, herbs (n = 31) 22.3% trees (n=26) 18.7%, creepers (n=3) 2.1% and agricultural crops (n=12) 8.6%.Â Among the grasses, throughout the year Arundo donax, Cynodon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica, Saccharum elephantinus and Saccharum spontaneum were the maximum preferred species.Â Rhinos were observed to browse shrubs and tree twigs during the winter season and browsing was found to be very limited during the monsoon due to the abundance of young grass.Â Various anthropogenic pressures such as unregulated grassland burning, cattle grazing, invasions of Bombax ceiba and shrubs like Chromolaena odorata, Leea asiatica and herbs like Ageratum conyzoides have degraded some of the important grasslands.Â So, a proper grassland management protocol including the burning of grasslands during the dry season, keeping grazing animals away and control of weeds is suggested in the areas extensively used by the Rhinos.Â
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2722.214.171.12453-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Barman, R., B. Choudhury, N.V.K. Ashraf & V. Menon (2014). Rehabilitation of greater One-horned Rhinoceros calves in Manas National Park, a World Heritage Site in India. Pachyderm (55): 78 â€“88.
Bazbarua, P. (2008). One-horned Rhinoceros Conservation in Manas Tiger Reserve: Final Technical Report. Grasshopper, Guwahati, 11â€“37pp.
Bhattacharya, R. (2011). Ecology and conservation of Great Indian One-horned Rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) in Pobitora Wild Life Sanctuary, Assam, India. PhD Thesis. Gauhati University, 25â€“100.
Brahmachary, R.L., B. Mallik & B.C. Rakshit (1971). An attempt to determine the food habits of the Indian Rhinoceros. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 67: 560â€“588.
Borthakur, M. (1986). Weather and Climate of North East India. North East Geographer 18(1â€“2): 20â€“27.
Dinerstein, E. & C.M. Wemmer (1988). Fruits Rhinoceros eat, Dispersal of Trewia nudiflora in Low-land Nepal. Ecology (69): 1768â€“1774.
Dinerstein, E. & L. Price (1991). Demography and Habitat used by Greater One Horned Rhinoceros in Nepal. Journal Wild Manage 55(3): 401â€“411.
Dinerstein, E. (2003). The Return of the Unicorns. Columbia University Press, New York, 2â€“76pp.
Dutta, D.K. & R. Mahanta (2015). A study on behaviour and colonisation of translocated Rhinos during 90 days from release of Manas National Park, Assam, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(2): 6864â€“6877; http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/jott.o4024.6864-77
Emslie, R.H., R. Amin & R.H. Kock (2009). Guidelines for the in situ reintroduction and Translocation of African and Asian Rhinoceros First Edition, Occasional Paper of the IUCN, Species Survival Commission (39): 95â€“ 97.
Freegard, C. (2009). DEC Nature Conservation Service Biodiversity Standard operating procedure ground based radio-tracking, SOP No: 13:4, Species communities branch, Locaked Beg 104, Bently Delivery Centre WA6983.
Ghose, S. & D.K. Dutta (2014). Rhino Conservation Plan for Manas national Park. Field Directorate, Manas Tiger Project, 35pp.
Hazarika, B.C. & P.K. Saikia (2012). Food Habit and Feeding Patterns of Great Indian One Horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) in the Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park, Assam, India. International Scholarly Research Networ 2012: 1â€“11; http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/259695
IUCN (2012). Guidelines for Re-introductions, Gland, Switzerland, IUCN, 7â€“10
Jnawali, S.R. (1986). Diet analysis of Greater One Horn Rhinoceros by Faecal Analysis. MSc Thesis, Tribhuban University, Nepal, 86pp.
Jnawali, S.R. (1995). Population ecology of Greater One Horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) with particular emphasis on habitat preferences on food ecology and ranging behaviour of a reintroduced population in Royal Bardia National Park in lowland Nepal. PhD Thesis. Agriculture University of Norway, Oslo.
Kandel, R.C. & Y.V. Jhala (2008). Demographic Structure, Activity patterns, Habitat Use and Food Habits of Rhinoceros unicornis in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 105(1): 5â€“13.
Konwar, P., K.M. Saikia & P.K. Saikia (2009). Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicornis Linn in Pobitora Wild Life Sanctuary, Assam, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(9): 457â€“460; http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o1640.457-60
Lahkar, P.B. (2008). Ecology and Management of Grassland with special reference to Grass and Birds communities in Manas National Park. PhD Thesis. Gauhati University, 22â€“23pp.
Laurie, W.A. (1978). The Ecology and Behaviour of the Greater One Horned Rhinoceros. PhD Dissertation. Cambridge University, 10â€“486.
Laurie, W.A. (1982). Behavioural Ecology of Great Indian One-Horned Rhinoceros. Journal of Zoology 196: 307â€“341.
Mary, P.O., G.S. Solanki, D. Limbo & K. Upadhya (1998). Observation of feeding and territorial behaviour of Rhinoceros unicornis in Kaziranga N.P. Tiger Paper 25(4): 25â€“28.
Patar, K.C. (2004). Behavioural Patterns of the One Horned Indian Rhinoceros, Observation in Kaziranga National Park. Spectrum Publications, Guwahati, Delhi, 49pp.
Patar, K.C., P. Gogoi, A.C. Das & P.J. Bora (2007). Report on Habitat Assessment Indian Rhino Vision (IRV) 2020. Forest Department Assam, 23p.
Pradhan, M.B. N., P. Wegge, S.R. Moe & K. Shrestha (2008). Feeding ecology of two sympatric mega herbivores: Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) and Greater One Horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) in lowland Nepal. Wild Life Biology 14(1):147â€“154, http://dx.doi.org/10.298/0909â€“6396
Sarma, P.K., B.S. Mipun, B.K. Talukdar, H. Singha, A.K. Basumatary, A.K. Das, A. Sarkar & B.C. Hazarika (2012). Assessment of habitat utilization pattern of Rhinos (Rhinoceros unicornis) in Orang National Park, Assam, India. Pachyderm 50: 38â€“44.
Steinheim, G., P. Wegge, J.I. Fjellstad, S.R. Jnawali & R.B. Weladji (2005). Dry season diet and habitat use of sympatric Asian Elephants (Elephas maximas) and Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) in Nepal. Zoology 265: 377â€“385.
Wallmo, O.C. & D.J. Jeff (1970). Direct observation of Tamed Deer to measure their Consumption of Natural Forages, in range and Wild Life habitat evaluation workshop. Department Agriculture, USA, 1147: 105â€“110.
Vigne L. & E.B. Martin (1994). The Greater One-Horned Rhino of Assam is threatened by poachers. Pachyderm 18: 28â€“43.