Main Article Content
The subspecies of Swamp Deer, the Hard-ground Barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii branderi Pocock), is presently found only in Kanha Tiger Reserve (KTR) in Madhya Pradesh, India. This subspecies is highly vulnerable to extinction, and reintroduction in suitable sites is the need of the hour.Â Environmental niche models (GARP, SVM, ED, CSM) aimed at providing a detailed prediction of species distribution by relating presence of species to 19 bioclimatic indices were developed, using swamp deer occurrence records in KTR. The predictions were appropriately weighted with the prevailing LU/LC classes to identify suitable habitats in Madhya Pradesh, India. The result shows that the southern region of Madhya Pradesh is suitable for the sustenance of Barasingha with varying degrees of habitability. Vicarious validation shows that most of these forest areas were the same as that of historical records dating back to 50 years. However, land use maps can help identify areas where this subspecies can be reintroduced.Â
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27126.96.36.19953-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Asdell, S.A. (1964). Pattern of mammalian reproduction. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, USA.
Brander, D.A.A. (1923). Wild Animals in Central India. Edward Arnold & Co., London,UK, xv+296pp.
Burnett, J. (1959). Increase of Swamp Deer (Cervus duvauceli Cuv.) in the Kaziranga Sanctuary, Assam. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 56(2): 318â€“319.
Burton, R. (1952). A History of Shikar in India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 50(4): 845â€“869.
Champion, F.W. (1927). With a Camera in Tigerland. Chatto and Windus, London,UK, xviii+228pp.
Champion, H.G. & S.K. Seth (1968). A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India. Manager of Publications, Government of India, Delhi, India, xxviii+404pp.
Cicero, C. (2004). Barriers to sympatry between avian sibling species (Paridae: Beolophus) in local secondary contact. Evolution 58(7): 1573â€“1587; http://dx.doi.org/10.1554/03-272
Duckworth, J.W., N.S. Kumar, C.P. Pokheral, H.S. Baral & R.J. Timmins (2013). Rucervus duvaucelli. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.Version 2015.2 .downloaded on 10 August 2015.
Finn, F. (1929). Sterndaleâ€™s Mammalia of Central India. Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta, India, vii+347pp.
Forsyth, J. (1889). The Highlands of Central India: Notes on Their Forests and Wild Tribes, Natural History, and Sports. Chapman and Hall, London, xi+475pp.
Gopal, R. (1995). The Biology and Ecology of Hard Ground Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli branderi Pocock, 1943) in Kanha National Park.Kanha National Park, Mandla, India.
Gopal, R. & R. Shukla (2001). Management Plan for Kanha Tiger Reserve (for the period 2001â€“02 to 2010â€“11). Office of the Conservator and Field Director, Kanha National Park, Mandla, India, 401pp.
Hijmans, R.J., S.E. Cameron, J.L. Parra, P.G. Jones & A. Jarvis (2005). Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25(15): 1965â€“1978; http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.1276
Inglis, J. (1892). Tent Life in Tigerland and Sport and Work on the Nepaul Frontier. Sampson Low, Marston & Co., London, xxiv+690pp.
IUCN (2014). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013. Accessed on 10 May 2014.
Kotwal, P.C. & A.S. Parihar (1992). Management of hard ground Barasingha in Kanha National Park. Journal of Tropical Forestry 8(2): 160â€“172.
Low, C.E. (1907). Central Provinces District Gazetteers-Balaghat District. Pioneer Press, Allahabad, India, xx+334pp.
Mac Nally, R. & E. Fleishman (2004). A successful predictive model of species richness based on indicator species. Conservation Biology 18: 646â€“654; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00328_18_3.x
Martin, C. (1977). Status and ecology of the Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli branderi) in Kanha National Park (India). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 74(1): 60â€“131.
Nayak, K. (2007). Evaluation of habitat for conserving the hard ground barasingha (Cervus duvauceli branderi Pocock, 1943) in Kanha National Park. PhD Thesis. Dr. Harisingh Gour Vishwavidhyalay, Sagar University, (M.P.), India.
Negi, H.S. & R. Shukla (2011). Tiger Conservation Plan for the Kanha Tiger Reserve: Sub-Plan - Core Zone (for the period 2011â€“12 to 2021â€“22). Kanha National Park, Mandla, India, 376pp.
NRDB (2012). 2012 Natural Resource Database (NRDB) available at http://www.nnrms.gov.in. Accessed on 09January 2013.
Panwar, H.S. (1977). Decline and restoration success of the central Indian Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli branderi). Proceedings of a working meeting of the Deer Specialist Group of the Survival Service Commission on the IUCN threatened deer programme and a dossier on the planning of restoration programmes for threatened mammals with special reference to deer held at Longview, Washington,USA, 434pp.
Peterson, A.T. (2003). Predicting the geography of species invasions via ecological niche modeling. The Quarterly Review of Biology 78(4): 419â€“433; http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/378926
Peterson, A.T., E. Martinez-Meyer & C. Gonzalez-Salazar (2004). Reconstructing the pleistocene geography of the Aphelocoma jays (Corvidae). Diversity and Distributions 10(4): 237â€“246; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00097.x
Pocock, R.I. (1939). The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia - Vol. I. Primates and Carnivora (in part), Families Felidae and Viverridae. Taylor & Francis, London, xxxi+463pp.
Prakash, R., K. Nayak, R.K. Pandey, R. Shukla, U. Homkar, S.K. Saini, R. Jain, V. Haldkar, S. Nema, S. Deshmukh, R. Thakre & A.
Koshta (2012). Habitat Viability Analysis for the Proposed Reintroduction Site for the Hard-ground Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli branderi) in the Bori Wildlife Sanctuary, Satpura Tiger Reserve (Madhya Pradesh). Report by State Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur (M.P.), India, vi+146pp.
Qureshi, Q., V.B. Sawarkar, A.R. Rahmani & P.K. Mathur (2004). Swamp Deer or Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli Cuvier, 1823). ENVIS Bulletin 7: 181â€“192.
Schaaf, C.D. (1978). Population size andstructure and habitat relations of the Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli duvauceli) in Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. PhD Thesis. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich, USA, 123pp.
Schaller, G.B. (1967).The Deer and The Tiger. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, London, xvi+370pp.
Scotts, D., G.R. Fulton & M. Drielsma (2002). Developing landscape frameworks for regional conservation planning: an approach integrating fauna spatial distributions and ecological principles. Pacific Conservation Biology 8(4): 235â€“254; http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/PC030235
Singh, V.P. (1982). Bioecological studies on Cervus duvauceli duvauceli, Swamp Deer Barasingha in Dudwaforest near Indo-Nepal border. PhD Thesis. D.A.V. College, Kanpur University, India, 182pp.
Skov, F. & J.C. Svenning (2004). Potential impact of climatic change on the distribution of forest herbs in Europe. Ecography 27(3): 366â€“380; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0906-7590.2004.03823.x
Sterndale, R.A. (1884). Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon. Thacker, Spink& Co., Calcutta, xxxii+540pp.
Stockwell, D. & D. Peters (1999). The GARP modelling system: problems and solutions to automated spatial prediction. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 13(2): 143â€“158; http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/136588199241391