Mosquito diversity in Keeriparai and Mundanthurai hill ranges of the Western Ghats, southern India

Main Article Content

A. Munirathinam
R. Krishnamoorthi
G. Baskaran
R. Govindarajan
A. Veerapathiran
A. Venkatesh
B. K. Tyagi


After a gap of 25 years the Centre for Research in Medical Entomology (CRME) surveyed the mosquito biodiversity in the tail-end hill ranges of the Western Ghats, viz., Kanyakumari (Keeriparai) and Tirunelveli districts (Kalakkad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR) and Courtallam) of Tamil Nadu between July 2010 and June 2013.  The altitude of the hills ranged from 100–950 m covered by evergreen forests.  A major emphasis was given to collect the immature stages of mosquitoes, from various breeding habitats, viz., slow flowing streams, spring pool, rocky pool, leaf axils, latex cup, tree hole, bamboo stumps, etc.  Altogether 4602 immature individuals were collected, reared individually to be identified at the adult stage.  A total of 3583 specimens belonging to 50 species classified under 21 genera and 18 subgenera were recorded.  The major vector species found in these hill ranges were Stegomyia aegypti, S. albopicta (Dengue and Chikungunya), Culex bitaeniorhynchus, C. tritaeniorhynchus (Japanese encephalitis), Downsiomyia nivea (diurnally subperiodic filariasis) and Anopheles mirans (Simian malaria) vectors were recorded.


Article Details

Short Communications


Amerasinghe, F.P., J.S.M. Peiris, S.H.P.P. Karunaratne & P.H. Amerasinghe (1988). Epidemiology of the 1987 Japanese encephaltis outbreak in Anurathapura area. II. Entomological aspects. Proceedings of Sri Lanka Medical Association 101: 22–23.

Barraud, P.J. (1934). Family Culicidae, Tribes Megarhinini and Culincini, The fauna of British IndiaVol. 5. Including Ceylon and

Burma-Diptera.Taylor and Francies, London, 463pp.

Bickley, W.E. & R.A. Ward (1989). Usage of scientific names. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association 5: 305.

Christophers, S.R. (1933). The Fauna ofBritish India including Ceylon and Burma - Vol. 4. Diptera, Family Culicidae, Tribe Anophelini. Taylor and Francis, London, 371pp.

Dutta, P., S.A. Khan, A.M. Sharma, C.K. Hazarika & J. Nahanta (2003). Survey of medically important mosquito fauna in Mizoram. Entomon 28: 237–240.

Gingrich, J.B., A. Nisalak, J.R. Latendresse, J. Sattabongkot, C.H. Hoke, J. Pomsdhit, C. Chantalakana, C. Satayaphanta, K.

Uechiewcharnkit & B.L. Innis (1992). Japanese encephalitis virus in Bankot: factors influencing vector infections in three suburban communities. Journal of Medical Entomology 29: 436–444.

Gould, D.J., H.C. Barnett & W. Suyemoto (1962).Transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus by Culexgelidus Theobald.Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 56: 429–435.

Harbach, R.E. & K.L. Knight (1980).Taxonomists’ glossary of mosquito anatomy.Plexus Publishing, Marlton, New Jersey, 220pp.

Harbach, R.E. & K.L. Knight (1982). Corrections and additions to Taxonomists’ glossary of mosquito anatomy. Mosquito Systematic 13: 201–217.

Hawley, W.A. (1988). The biology of Aedes albopictus. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association [Suppl] 1: 1–39.

Huang, Y.M. (1979). Contribution to mosquito fauna of southeast Asia XI. The subgenus Stegomyiaof Aedesinthe Oriental region with Keys to the species (Diptera: Culicidae). Contribution of American Entomological Instituition 15: 1–79.

Leake, C.J., M.A. Ussery, A. Nisalak, C.H. Hoke, R.G. Andre & D.S. Burke (1986). Virus isolations from mosquitoes collected during the 1982 Japanese encephalitis epidemic in northern Thailand. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80: 831–837.

Nagpal, B.N. & V.P. Sharma (1995). Anophelines. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

Pant, C.P. (1979). Vectors of Japanese encephalitis and their bionomics: WHO/VBC/79.732, World Health Organization, Geneva.

Rajavel, A.R., R. Natarajan & K. Vaidyanathan (2005a). Mosquitoes of the Mangrove Forest of India: Part-1 Bhitarkanika, Orissa. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association 21: 131–135.

Rajavel, A.R., R. Natarajan & K. Vaidyanathan (2005b). Mosquitoes of the mangrove forest of India: Sudarbans, West Bengal. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association 21: 136–138.

Rao, T.R. (1984). The Anophelines of India. (Revised Edition). Malaria Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, 518pp.

Rao, T.R., V. Dhanda, H.R. Bhat & S.M. Kulkarni (1973). A survey of Haematophagous arthropods in western Himalays Sikkim and hill districts of West Bengal: A general account. Indian Journal of Medical Research 61: 1421–1461.

Reuben, R. (1969). A redescription of Culex vishnui Theobald, with notes on Cx. pseudovishnui Colless and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus Giles, from southern India. Entomological Research 58: 643–652.

Reuben, R., H.N. Kaul & R.S. Soman (1988). Mosquitoes of arboviral importance in India. Mosquito Borne Diseases Bulletin 5: 48–54.

Reuben, R., S.C. Tewari & J. Hiriyan (1993). Studies of the mosquito fauna of south India, pp. 47–50. In: Proceeding of Entomologist Extraordinary: A festschrift in honour of Botha De Meillon.

Reuben, R., S.C. Tewari, J. Hiriyan & J. Akiyama (1994). Illustrated keys to species of Culex (Culex) associated with Japanese encephalitis in Southeast Asia (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics 26: 75–96.

Rodrigues, F.M. (1984). Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis in India: A brief overview. Journal of Medical Entomology 2: 203–208.

Samuel, P.P., J. Hiriyan & A. Gajanana (2000).Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes and its epidemiological implications.ICMR Bulletin 30: 37–43.

Tewari, S.C & J. Hiriyan (1995). Description of Aedes (Finlaya) niveus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Andaman and Nicobar, India.

Mosquito Systematic 27: 167–176.

Tewari, S.C., V. Thenmozhi, C.R. Katholi, R. Manavalan, A. Munirathinam & A. Gajanana (2004). Dengue vector prevalence and virus infection in a rural area in south India. Tropical Medicine and International Health 9: 499–507.

Tewari, S.C., J. Hiriyan, K. Ayanar, A. Munirathinam, A. Venkatesh, R. Reuben & B.K. Tyagi (2007). CRME mosquito museum: An annotated checklist of Indian mosquito species. Contributon of the Centre for Research in Medical Entomology, Maduri, 175pp.

Thenmozhi, V., S.C. Tewari, R. Manavalan, A. Balasubramanian & A. Gajanana (2000). Natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses in Aedesaegypti in southern India. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 94: 507.

Tyagi, B.K. (1984a). Observations on the reflex immobilization behaviour of the mosquito Anopheles subpictus Grassi, 1899 in some villages of the south Gujarat, India. Geobios New Reports 3: 161–162.

Tyagi, B.K. (1984b). A note on the new records of some anopheline from south Gujarat, India. GeobiosNew Reports 3: 149–151.

Tyagi, B.K. (1990). Annotated check-list of the anopheline from district Surat (Gujarat). Journal of Applied Zoological Researches 1: 73–76.

Tyagi, B.K. (2002). Malaria in the Thar Desert: Facts, Figures and Future.Agrobios (India), 165pp.

Tyagi, B.K. (2004). Aedesalbopictus-transmitted dengue: An emerging new dimension of the disease in Kerala. CRME Newsletter 1: 2–4.

Tyagi, B.K., J. Hiriyan, P.P. Samuel, S.C. Tewari & R. Paramasivan (2006). Dengue in Kerala: A critical review. ICMR Bulletin 36: 13–22.

Tyagi, B.K., J. Hiriyan, S.C. Tewari, K. Ayanar, P.P. Samuel, N. Arunachallam, R. Paramasivam, R. Kirshnamoorthy, K.J.

Dhanajeyan, S.V.J. Leo & R. Rajendran (2009). Description of a new species of Anopheles pseudosundicus (Diptera:culicidae) from coastal Kerala. Zootaxa 2219: 49–60.

Most read articles by the same author(s)