Ecology of marine macro algal flora of Visakhapatnam coastal areas, Bay of Bengal, India

Main Article Content

I. Vishnupriya Sowjanya
P. S. Raja Sekhar


An ecological study was conducted on species composition, vertical distribution and monthly variations of marine macro algae along the Visakhapatnam coast, Bay of Bengal, India between May 2013 and April 2014.  A total of 48 species was recorded, 18 species belonging to phylum Chlorophyta, nine species to Phaeophyta and 21 species to Rhodophyta.  The phylum Rhodophyta was the most dominant group with the highest number of species composition (44.0%) followed by Chlorophyta (37.0%) and Phaeophyta (19.0%).  Monthly seaweed distribution data showed the dominance of Rhodophyta members (43.75%) during November to February, when compared to that of Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta members.  In addition, the data also revealed that the months from June to August contributed favourable conditions for the growth of Chlorophyta members (29.16%) when compared to that of other months.  The present study has recorded two new species (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis).  Thirty-five species once recorded are absent from the Visakhapatnam coast.  These changes are attributed to the impact of marine water pollution and climate change.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sowjanya, I.V. and Sekhar, P.S.R. 2017. Ecology of marine macro algal flora of Visakhapatnam coastal areas, Bay of Bengal, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 9, 3 (Mar. 2017), 9911–9919. DOI:
Author Biographies

I. Vishnupriya Sowjanya, Department of Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530003, India

Department of Environmental Sciences and Research Scholar

P. S. Raja Sekhar, Department of Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530003, India

Professor, Deparment of Environmental Sciences


Agadi, V.V. & A.G. Untawale (1978). Marine algal flora of Goa coast. Seaweed Research Utilization 3 (1&2): 56–70.

Agadi, V.V. (1983). Intertidal ecology of marine algae along Anjuna coast, Goa. Seaweed Research Utilization 6(1): 27–30.

Agadi, V.V. (1985). Distribution of Marine Algae in the Littoral zone of the Karnataka coast, pp. 35–42. In: Krishnamurthy, V. (ed.). Marine Plants. CMFRI, India, 208pp.

Nair, N.B., V. Sobha, R. Chandran, M. Rathiammal, S. Maya & H. Suryanarayanan (1990). Algal resources of Kerala coast IX - Occurrence and relative abundance of Chlorophyceae along south west coast of India. Seaweed Research Utilization 12(1&2): 125–135.

Bangmei, X. & I.A. Abbott (1987). Edible seaweeds of China and their place in the Chinese diet. Economic Botany 41(3): 341–353;

Chapman, A.R.O. (1995). Functional ecology of fucoid algae: twenty-three years of progress. Phycologia 34: 1–32;

Deborah, J.D.S., T. Sherman & S. Wyllie-Echeverria (2007). Do dessication tolerances control the vertical distribution of intertidal seagrasses. Aquatic Botany 87: 161–166.

Dennis J.M. (2003). A guide to the seaweed industry. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 441: 105pp.

Druehl, L.D. & J.M. Green (1982). Vertical distribution of intertidal seaweeds as related to patterns of submersion and emersion. Marine Ecology Progress Series 9: 163–170.

Gavino, C.T. & A.T. Buchan-Antalan (1987). Biomass production in Acanthophora associated algal communities in Bacoor Bay, Cavite, Philippines. The Philippine Journal of Science 17: 1–10.

Gopalakrishnan, P. (1970). Some observations on the shore ecology of the Okha coast. Journal of Marine Biology Association of India 12(1&2): 15–34.

Hameed, S. & M. Ahmed (1999). Distribution and seasonal biomass of seaweeds on the Rocky shore of Buleji, Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 31(1): 199–210.

Janet, R.R., B. Partjipan, S.K. Sundar & J.J.P. Paul (2013). Seaweed diversity and distribution in the south-east coast of Tamilnadu, India. International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Allied Sciences 2(3): 675–682.

Jhansi, M. & V. Rarmadas (2009). Effect of salinity and dissolved nutrients on the occurrence of some seaweeds in Manakkudy estuary. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 38(4): 470–473.

Kaliaperumal, N., V.S.K. Chennubhotla, S. Kalimuthu & J.R. Ramalingam (1995). Distribution of seaweeds of Kattapadu - Tiruchendur coast, Tamilnadu. Seaweed Research Utilization 17: 183–193.

Kalimuthu, S., N. Kaliperumal & J.R. Ramalingam (1985). Distribution and seasonal changes of marine algal flora from seven localities around Mandapam. Seaweed Research Utilization 15(1&2): 119–126.

Kazutosi, N., H. Noda, R. Kikuchi & T. Watanabe (1987). The main seaweeds in Japan. Hydrobiologia 151/152(1): 5–29;

Lakshmi, K.P. & G.M.N. Rao (2009). Some numerical studies on marine algae of Visakhapatnam Coast. Journal of Algal Biomass Utilization 1(1): 60–85.

Lawson, G.W. (1957). Seasonal variations of Intertidal zonation on the coast of Ghana in relation to the tidal factor. Journal of Ecology 45: 831–841.

Luning, K., C. Yarish & H. Kirkman (eds.) (1990). Seaweeds Their Environment, Biogeography and Ecophysiology. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York. xiii+544pp.

McQuaid, C.D & G.M. Branch(1984). Influence of sea temperature, substratum and wave exposure on rocky intertidal communities: An analysis of faunal and floral biomass. Marine Ecology Progress Series 19: 145–151.

Misra, J.N. (1959). The ecology, distribution and seasonal succession of the littoral algae on the west coast of India, pp. 187–203. In: Kachroo, P. (ed.). Proceedings of Symposium on Algology. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, 406pp.

Mukund, C.T., S.R.K. Reddy & B. Jha (2008). Seasonal variation in biomass and species composition of seaweeds stranded along Port Okha, Northwest coast of India. Journal of Earth System Sciences 117(3): 211–218.

Parulekar, H.A. (1972). Studies on Intertidal Ecology of Anjidiv Island. Proceedings Indian National Science Academy 39 (5): 611–631.

Rao, G.M.N. (1989). Ecological studies on some estuarine and marine algae. PhD Thesis, Department of Botany, Andhra University, xiii+138pp.

Rao, K.R. (1968). Role of Critical tide factor in the Vertical Distribution of Hypnea musciformis (Wulf.) Lamour. Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute 38(3&4): 267–272.

Rao, M.U. & T. Sreeramulu (1964). An ecological study of some intertidal algae of the Visakhapatnam coast. Journal of Ecology 52(3): 595–603.

Rao, M.U. & T. Sreeramulu (1970). An annotated list of marine algae of Visakhapatnam (India). Botanical Journal of Linnean Society 66: 23–45.

Rao, K.S., K.P. Murty & G.M.N. Rao (2011). Seasonal studies on marine algae of the Bhimili coast, East coast of India. Journal of Algal Biomass Utilization 2(2): 69–82.

Reddy, C.R.K., P.V.S. Rao, M. Ganesan, K. Eswaran, S.H. Zaidi & V.A. Mantri (2006). The Seaweed Resources of India. In: Critchely, A.T. M. Ohno & D.B. Largo (eds.). World Seaweed Resources. Eti Information Services Ltd., Wokingham, Berkshire, UK, 25pp.

Russell, G. (1991). Vertical distribution in ecosystems of the World. In: Mathieson, A.C. & P.H. Nienhuis (eds.). Intertidal and littoral Ecosystems: Ecosystems of the World. Elsevier, New York, 24: 43–65.

Srinivasan, K.S. (1959). Distribution patterns of marine algae in Indian seas, pp. 219–242. In: Kachroo, P. (ed.). Proceedings of Symposium on Algology. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, 406pp.

Stephenson, T.A. & A. Stephenson (1949). The Universal Features of Zonation between Tide-Marks on Rocky Coasts. Journal of Ecology 37(2): 289–305.

Subbaramaiah, K. (1970). Growth and reproduction of ulva fasciata delile in nature and in culture. Botanica Marina 8: 25–27.

Subbaramaiah, K. (1971). Distribution of marine organisms on the Jalleshwar Shore, Veraval. Seaweed Research Utilization 1: 19–29.

Thom R.M. (1980). Seasonality in low intertidal marine algal communities in central Puget Sound Washington, USA. Botanica Marina 23: 7–11.

Yubin, Z., L. Yuan, S. Fei, S. Xingli & L. Guanghui (2014). Seasonal and spatial variation in species diversity, abundance, and element accumulation capacities of macroalgae in mangrove forests of Zhanjiang, China. Acta Oceanologica Sinica 33(8): 73–82;